Over the past decade substantial advances in diagnostic imaging, classification, and understanding the natural history of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF) have been made. Paralleling these improvements in patient evaluation and risk assessment have been considerable innovations and refinements in the microsurgical and endovascular techniques by which appropriately selected patients with dAVF are treated. On the microsurgical front, minimally invasive surgical approaches with less soft tissue and bony disruption, along with enhanced tools for the intraoperative assessment of vascular anatomy and completeness of dAVF obliteration, are now commonly utilized. On the endovascular front, liquid embolic agents, balloons, and flow-directed catheters have transformed our capacity to safely and effectively treat dAVFs with a variety of anatomic configurations and locations. Innovative combinations of microsurgical and endovascular approaches are even being applied to select cases. In this issue of Neurosurgical Focus, we present a series of narrated videos that demonstrate the decision-making, vascular anatomy, and technical nuances of many of these advanced techniques, while also providing narrated videos demonstrating tried-and-true microsurgical and endovascular approaches that have proven highly effective over the years. We hope this video supplement provides a meaningful update and demonstration of modern microsurgical and endovascular approaches to patients with dAVF and aids all of us in our unending quest to provide even better care for our patients in the future. We thank the authors for their outstanding contributions.
Gregory J. Zipfel, David M. Hasan, Felipe C. Albuquerque and Adam S. Arthur
Kyle P. O’Connor and Bradley N. Bohnstedt
A 67-year-old male presented to the hospital with a left anterior cranial fossa arteriovenous fistula connecting the anterior ethmoidal artery to the cavernous sinus and superior sagittal sinus. After failed embolization, the patient was taken for a supra-orbital (eyebrow) craniotomy for surgical dissection and clipping of the fistula. An intraoperative angiogram confirmed successful fistula ligation. The patient was discharged without complications.
The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/79Pk11SEkJg.
Daniel M. S. Raper, Nasser Mohammed, M. Yashar S. Kalani and Min S. Park
The preferred method for treating complex dural arteriovenous fistulae of the transverse and sigmoid sinuses is via endovascular, transarterial embolization using liquid embolysate. However, this treatment approach mandates access to distal dural feeding arteries that can be technically challenging by standard endovascular approaches. This video describes a left temporal craniotomy for direct stick microcatheterization of an endovascularly inaccessible distal posterior division of the middle meningeal artery for embolization of a complex left temporal dural arteriovenous fistula. The case was performed in the hybrid operative suite with biplane intraoperative angiography. Technical considerations, operative nuances, and outcomes are reviewed.
The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/Dnd4yHgaKcQ.
Gregory Glauser, Tracy M. Flanders and Omar Choudhri
This video is a presentation of technical tenets for the microsurgical clipping of a tentorial dural arteriovenous fistula presenting with thalamic venous hypertension. These cases are easily misdiagnosed and often supplied by the tentorial artery of Davidoff and Schecter. The cases shown in the video uniquely illustrate a supracerebellar infratentorial approach to identify and clip an arterialized tentorial vein utilizing intraoperative Doppler and fluorescein, with navigation and an intraoperative cerebral angiogram in a hybrid neuroangiography operative suite. Both patients were found to have thalamic edema on preoperative imaging, which significantly improved postoperatively.
The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/HmUO6Ye53QI.
Robert T. Wicks, Xiaochun Zhao, Douglas A. Hardesty, Brandon D. Liebelt and Peter Nakaji
Ethmoidal dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) have a near-universal association with cortical venous drainage and a malignant clinical course. Endovascular treatment options are often limited due to the high frequency of ophthalmic artery ethmoidal supply. A 64-year-old gentleman presented with syncope and was found to have a right ethmoidal DAVF. Rather than the traditional bicoronal craniotomy, an endoscope-assisted mini-pterional approach for clip ligation is demonstrated. The mini-pterional craniotomy allows a minimally invasive approach to ethmoidal DAVF via a lateral trajectory. The endoscope can help achieve full visualization in the narrow corridor.
The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/ZroXp-T35DI.
Andrew Kai-Hong Chan, Winward Choy, Catherine A. Miller, Leslie C. Robinson and Praveen V. Mummaneni
Minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (MI-TLIF) is associated with improved patient-reported outcomes in well-selected patients. Recently, some neurosurgeons have aimed to further improve outcomes by utilizing multimodal methods to avoid the use of general anesthesia. Here, the authors report on the use of a novel awake technique for MI-TLIF in two patients. They describe the successful use of liposomal bupivacaine in combination with a spinal anesthetic to allow for operative analgesia.
Lorenzo Rinaldo, Waleed Brinjikji and Leonardo Rangel-Castilla
An 80-year-old female presented with a long history of severe pulsatile tinnitus, vertigo, and decreased hearing. She was found to have a large right-sided tentorial arteriovenous fistula (AVF) with enlarged deep draining veins, including the vein of Rosenthal. The patient underwent Onyx embolization of the fistula via a combined transarterial and transvenous approach resulting in complete obliteration of the fistula. Her symptoms improved immediately after the procedure and at 6-months’ follow-up she was clinically asymptomatic with no evidence of residual fistula on neuroimaging. Transvenous embolization of AVF is at times necessary when transarterial access is not possible.
The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/uOMHY7eaOoQ.
Ellen M. Soffin, Douglas S. Wetmore, James D. Beckman, Evan D. Sheha, Avani S. Vaishnav, Todd J. Albert, Catherine H. Gang and Sheeraz A. Qureshi
Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) and multimodal analgesia are established care models that minimize perioperative opioid consumption and promote positive outcomes after spine surgery. Opioid-free anesthesia (OFA) is an emerging technique that may achieve similar goals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate an OFA regimen within an ERAS pathway for lumbar decompressive surgery and to compare perioperative opioid requirements in a matched cohort of patients managed with traditional opioid-containing anesthesia (OCA).
The authors performed a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data. They included 36 patients who underwent lumbar decompression under their ERAS pathway for spinal decompression between February and August 2018. Eighteen patients who received OFA were matched in a 1:1 ratio to a cohort managed with a traditional OCA regimen. The primary outcome was total perioperative opioid consumption. Postoperative pain scores (measured using the numerical rating scale [NRS]), opioid consumption (total morphine equivalents), and length of stay (time to readiness for discharge) were compared in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU). The authors also assessed compliance with ERAS process measures and compared compliance during 3 phases of care: pre-, intra-, and postoperative.
There was a significant reduction in total perioperative opioid consumption in patients who received OFA (2.43 ± 0.86 oral morphine equivalents [OMEs]; mean ± SEM), compared to patients who received OCA (38.125 ± 6.11 OMEs). There were no significant differences in worst postoperative pain scores (NRS scores 2.55 ± 0.70 vs 2.58 ± 0.73) or opioid consumption (5.28 ± 1.7 vs 4.86 ± 1.5 OMEs) in the PACU between OFA and OCA groups, respectively. There was a clinically significant decrease in time to readiness for discharge from the PACU associated with OFA (37 minutes), although this was not statistically significantly different. The authors found high overall compliance with ERAS process measures (91.4%) but variation in compliance according to phase of care. The highest compliance occurred during the preoperative phase (94.71% ± 2.88%), and the lowest compliance occurred during the postoperative phase of care (85.4% ± 5.7%).
OFA within an ERAS pathway for lumbar spinal decompression represents an opportunity to minimize perioperative opioid exposure without adversely affecting pain control or recovery. This study reveals opportunities for patient and provider education to reinforce ERAS and highlights the postoperative phase of care as a time when resources should be focused to increase ERAS adherence.
JNSPG 75th Anniversary Invited Review Article
Jarod L. Roland and Matthew D. Smyth
The field of epilepsy surgery has seen tremendous growth in recent years. Innovative new devices have driven much of this growth, but some has been driven by revisions of existing products. Devices have also helped to rejuvenate existing procedures, as in the case of robotic assistance for electrode placement for stereo-electroencephalography, and these devices have brought significant attention along with their introduction. Other devices, such as responsive neurostimulators or laser interstitial thermal therapy systems, have introduced novel treatment modalities and broadened the surgical indications. Collectively, these advances are rapidly changing much of the landscape in the world of pediatric neurosurgery for medically refractory epilepsy. The foundations for indications for neurosurgical intervention are well supported in strong research data, which has also been expanded in recent years. In this article, the authors review advances in the neurosurgical treatment of pediatric epilepsy, beginning with trials that have repeatedly demonstrated the value of neurosurgical procedures for medically refractory epilepsy and following with several recent advances that are largely focused on less-invasive intervention.
G. Damian Brusko, John Paul G. Kolcun, Julie A. Heger, Allan D. Levi, Glen R. Manzano, Karthik Madhavan, Timur Urakov, Richard H. Epstein and Michael Y. Wang
Lumbar fusion is typically associated with high degrees of pain and immobility. The implementation of an enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) approach has been successful in speeding the recovery after other surgical procedures. In this paper, the authors examined the results of early implementation of ERAS for lumbar fusion.
Beginning in March 2018 at the authors’ institution, all patients undergoing posterior, 1- to 3-level lumbar fusion surgery by any of 3 spine surgeons received an intraoperative injection of liposomal bupivacaine, immediate single postoperative infusion of 1-g intravenous acetaminophen, and daily postoperative visits from the authors’ multidisciplinary ERAS care team. Non–English- or non–Spanish-speaking patients and those undergoing nonelective or staged procedures were excluded. Reviews of medical records were conducted for the ERAS cohort of 57 patients and a comparison group of 40 patients who underwent the same procedures during the 6 months before implementation.
Groups did not differ significantly with regard to sex, age, or BMI (all p > 0.05). Length of stay was significantly shorter in the ERAS cohort than in the control cohort (2.9 days vs 3.8 days; p = 0.01). Patients in the ERAS group consumed significantly less oxycodone-acetaminophen than the controls on postoperative day (POD) 0 (408.0 mg vs 1094.7 mg; p = 0.0004), POD 1 (1320.0 mg vs 1708.4 mg; p = 0.04), and POD 3 (1500.1 mg vs 2105.4 mg; p = 0.03). Postoperative pain scores recorded by the physical therapy and occupational therapy teams and nursing staff each day were lower in the ERAS cohort than in controls, with POD 1 achieving significance (4.2 vs 6.0; p = 0.006). The total amount of meperidine (8.8 mg vs 44.7 mg; p = 0.003) consumed was also significantly decreased in the ERAS group, as was ondansetron (2.8 mg vs 6.0 mg; p = 0.02). Distance ambulated on each POD was farther in the ERAS cohort, with ambulation on POD 1 (109.4 ft vs 41.4 ft; p = 0.002) achieving significance.
In this very initial implementation of the first phase of an ERAS program for short-segment lumbar fusion, the authors were able to demonstrate substantial positive effects on the early recovery process. Importantly, these effects were not surgeon-specific and could be generalized across surgeons with disparate technical predilections. The authors plan additional iterations to their ERAS protocols for continued quality improvements.