Browse

You are looking at 41 - 50 of 7,867 items for

  • User-accessible content x
Clear All
Free access

Anthony M. DiGiorgio, Rachel Stein, Kevin D. Morrow, Jared M. Robichaux, Clifford L. Crutcher II and Gabriel C. Tender

OBJECTIVE

Few studies have been published specifically examining intravenous drug abuse (IVDA)–associated spinal epidural abscesses (SEAs), an unfortunate sequela of the opioid crisis in the United States. Here, the authors examined a series of patients with IVDA-associated SEAs in order to shed light on this challenging disease entity.

METHODS

This study is a retrospective chart review of patients presenting with IVDA-associated SEAs at the authors’ institution from 2013 to 2018, spanning the statewide implementation of opioid-prescribing restrictions.

RESULTS

A total of 45 patients presented with IVDA-associated SEAs; 46.5% presented with a neurological deficit. Thirty-one patients underwent surgery for neurological deficit, failure of medical therapy, or both. Nineteen surgical patients underwent a fusion procedure along with decompression. The complication rate was 41.9%, and the mortality rate was 6.7%. The average length of stay was 27.6 days. Patients who underwent surgery within 24 hours of onset of neurological symptoms trended toward more improvement in their American Spinal Cord Association Impairment Scale grade than those who did not (0.5 vs −0.2, p = 0.068). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was isolated as the causative pathogen in 57.8% of patients. Twenty-three patients (51.5%) kept their scheduled clinic follow-up appointments. Of the fusion patients with adequate follow-up, 5 showed bony arthrodesis and 3 had pseudarthrosis. The rate of IVDA-associated SEAs increased after opioid-prescribing restrictions were put in place, from 0.54 cases per month to 1.15 cases per month (p = 0.017).

CONCLUSIONS

Patients with IVDA-associated SEAs are challenging to treat, with high complication rates and poor follow-up. This disease is increasing in frequency, and opioid-prescribing restrictions did not slow that rise. Community outreach to promote prevention, early medical attention, and medication compliance would benefit this largely publicly funded patient population.

Free access

Bedjan Behmanesh, Florian Gessler, Katrin Schnoes, Daniel Dubinski, Sae-Yeon Won, Jürgen Konczalla, Volker Seifert, Lutz Weise and Matthias Setzer

OBJECTIVE

The incidence of patients with pyogenic spinal infection is increasing. In addition to treatment of the spinal infection, early diagnosis of and therapy for coexisting infections, especially infective endocarditis (IE), is an important issue. The aim of this study was to evaluate the proportion of coexisting IE and the value of routine transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in the management of these patients.

METHODS

The medical history, laboratory data, radiographic findings, treatment modalities, and results of TEE of patients admitted between 2007 and 2017 were analyzed.

RESULTS

During the abovementioned period, 110 of 255 total patients underwent TEE for detection of IE. The detection rate of IE between those patients undergoing and not undergoing TEE was 33% and 3%, respectively (p < 0.0001). Thirty-six percent of patients with IE needed cardiac surgical intervention because of severe valve destruction. Chronic renal failure, heart failure, septic condition at admission, and preexisting heart condition were significantly associated with coexisting IE. The mortality rate in patients with IE was significantly higher than in patients without IE (22% vs 3%, p = 0.002).

CONCLUSIONS

TEE should be performed routinely in all patients with spondylodiscitis.

Free access

Mayur Sharma, Nicholas Dietz, Ahmad Alhourani, Beatrice Ugiliweneza, Dengzhi Wang, Doniel Drazin and Maxwell Boakye

OBJECTIVE

Use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein–2 (rhBMP-2) in patients with spine infections is controversial. The purpose of this study was to identify long-term complications, reoperations, and healthcare utilization associated with rhBMP-2 use in patients with spine infections.

METHODS

This retrospective study extracted data using ICD-9/10 and CPT codes from MarketScan (2000–2016). Patients were dichotomized into 2 groups (rhBMP-2, no rhBMP-2) based on whether rhBMP-2 was used during fusion surgery for spinal infections. Outcomes of interest were reoperation rates (index level, other levels), readmission rates, discharge disposition, length of stay, complications, and healthcare resource utilization at the index hospitalization and 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months following discharge. Outcomes were compared using nonparametric 2-group tests and generalized linear regression models.

RESULTS

The database search identified 2762 patients with > 24 months’ follow-up; rhBMP-2 was used in 8.4% of their cases. The patients’ median age was 53 years, 52.43% were female, and 15.11% had an Elixhauser Comorbidity Index ≥ 3. Patients in the rhBMP-2 group had higher comorbidity indices, incurred higher costs at index hospitalization, were discharged home in most cases, and had lower complication rates than those in the no–rhBMP-2 group. There was no statistically significant between-groups difference in complication rates 1 month following discharge or in reoperation rates at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months following the procedure. Patients in the no–rhBMP-2 group incurred higher utilization of outpatient services and medication refill costs at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months following surgery.

CONCLUSIONS

In patients undergoing surgery for spine infection, rhBMP-2 use was associated with lower complication rates and higher median payments during index hospitalization compared to cases in which rhBMP-2 was not used. There was no significant between-groups difference in reoperation rates (index and other levels) at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after the index operation. Patients treated with rhBMP-2 incurred lower utilization of outpatient services and overall payments. These results indicate that rhBMP-2 can be used safely in patients with spine infections with cost-effective utilization of healthcare resources and without an increase in complications or reoperation rates.

Free access

Insular glioma surgery: an evolution of thought and practice

JNSPG 75th Anniversary Invited Review Article

Shawn L. Hervey-Jumper and Mitchel S. Berger

OBJECTIVE

The goal of this article is to review the history of surgery for low- and high-grade gliomas located within the insula with particular focus on microsurgical technique, anatomical considerations, survival, and postoperative morbidity.

METHODS

The authors reviewed the literature for published reports focused on insular region anatomy, neurophysiology, surgical approaches, and outcomes for adults with World Health Organization grade II–IV gliomas.

RESULTS

While originally considered to pose too great a risk, insular glioma surgery can be performed safely due to the collective efforts of many individuals. Similar to resection of gliomas located within other cortical regions, maximal resection of gliomas within the insula offers patients greater survival time and superior seizure control for both newly diagnosed and recurrent tumors in this region. The identification and the preservation of M2 perforating and lateral lenticulostriate arteries are critical steps to preventing internal capsule stroke and hemiparesis. The transcortical approach and intraoperative mapping are useful tools to maximize safety.

CONCLUSIONS

The insula’s proximity to middle cerebral and lenticulostriate arteries, primary motor areas, and perisylvian language areas makes accessing and resecting gliomas in this region challenging. Maximal safe resection of insular gliomas not only is possible but also is associated with excellent outcomes and should be considered for all patients with low- and high-grade gliomas in this area.

Free access

Elad I. Levy, Stephan A. Munich, Robert H. Rosenwasser, Peter Kan and B. Gregory Thompson

Remarkable developments in the field of endovascular neurosurgery have been witnessed in the last decade. The success of endovascular therapy for ischemic stroke treatment is now irrefutable, making it an accepted standard of care. Endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysms is no longer limited to primary coiling but now includes options such as stent or balloon assistance and flow diversion and applications utilizing neck reconstruction, intrasaccular, and bifurcation-specific devices. Balloons, liquid embolic agents, and flow-directed catheters have revolutionized the treatment of arteriovenous malformations and fistulae. The ongoing development of endovascular tools has led to novel and expanding approaches (for example, transvenous arteriovenous malformation embolization and transradial access). With improved technology, transposterior communicating artery access and other endovascular strategies are being applied successfully across the anterior and posterior circulations and to lesions once deemed only surgically approachable. Yet, we would be remiss to attribute the successes of endovascular strategies only to the development of their tools. Improvements in both noninvasive and angiographic imaging (such as three-dimensional road map guidance) have provided a greater understanding of pathologic entities and allowed the pursuit of endovascular cures.

In this issue of Neurosurgical Focus, we present a wide range of endovascular strategies for a variety of neurovascular pathologies. We hope this video supplement will not only demonstrate the applicability of tried-and-true endovascular strategies to difficult clinical situations but also highlight new and developing endovascular technologies. We thank the authors for their outstanding contributions.

Free access

Doniel Drazin, Jens R. Chapman, Andrew Dailey and John Street

Free access

Giovanni Vercelli, Thomas J. Sorenson, Enrico Giordan, Giuseppe Lanzino and Leonardo Rangel-Castilla

Cerebral protection device utilization during carotid artery stenting (CAS) has been demonstrated to decrease the risk of perioperative stroke. The ProximAl Protection with the MO.MA Device During CaRotid Stenting (ARMOUR) Trial had the lowest event rates of any independently adjudicated study. In this video of two cases of severe carotid artery stenosis, the authors present the nuances of the CAS procedure utilizing a dual-balloon guide catheter device (MO.MA). This device has the benefit of being in place before the lesion is crossed with any device, being able to arrest flow while the atherosclerotic lesion is crossed, and aiding in protection from distal emboli and stroke.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/0o8DlC1n6_M.

Free access

Leonardo Rangel-Castilla and Giuseppe Lanzino

In elderly patients with acute ischemic stroke, tortuosity of the proximal vertebral artery makes access from the transfemoral route challenging and time consuming. In such cases, a transradial approach (TA) offers a more direct vertebral artery (VA) access that overcomes proximal VA tortuosity. In this video the authors illustrate nuances of the TA for acute basilar artery occlusion in two patients with challenging proximal VA anatomy. Techniques, devices, and pitfalls are discussed. In both patients, mechanical clot retrieval was successful and resulted in significant recovery of function. The authors believe that the TA should be the initial approach for basilar artery (BA) occlusion management in elderly patients and should be considered for selected patients with other conditions requiring endovascular treatment.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/_Ym9tMKUy_4.

Free access

Nicholas Dietz, Mayur Sharma, Ahmad Alhourani, Beatrice Ugiliweneza, Dengzhi Wang, Miriam Nuño, Doniel Drazin and Maxwell Boakye

OBJECTIVE

Spine infection including vertebral osteomyelitis, discitis, paraspinal musculoskeletal infection, and spinal abscess refractory to medical management poses significant challenges to the treating physician. Surgical management is often required in patients suffering neurological deficits or spinal deformity with significant pain. To date, best practices have not been elucidated for the optimization of health outcomes and resource utilization in the setting of surgical intervention for spinal infection. The authors conducted the present study to assess the magnitude of reoperation rates in both fusion and nonfusion groups as well as overall health resource utilization following surgical decompression for spine infection.

METHODS

The authors performed an analysis using MarketScan (2001–2015) to identify health outcomes and healthcare utilization metrics of spine infection following surgical intervention with decompression alone or combined with fusion. Adult patients underwent surgical management for primary or secondary spinal infection and were followed up for at least 12 months postoperatively. Assessed outcomes included reoperation, healthcare utilization and payment at the index hospitalization and within 12 months after discharge, postoperative complications, and infection recurrence.

RESULTS

A total of 2662 patients in the database were eligible for inclusion in this study. Rehospitalization for infection was observed in 3.99% of patients who had undergone fusion and in 11.25% of those treated with decompression alone. Reoperation was needed in 12.7% of the patients without fusion and 8.16% of those with fusion. Complications within 30 days were more common in the nonfusion group (24.64%) than in the fusion group (16.49%). Overall postoperative payments after 12 months totaled $33,137 for the nonfusion group and $23,426 for the fusion group.

CONCLUSIONS

In this large cohort study with a 12-month follow-up, the recurrence of infection, reoperation rates, and complications were higher in patients treated with decompression alone than in those treated with decompression plus fusion. These findings along with imaging characteristics, disease severity, extent of bony resection, and the presence of instability may help surgeons decide whether to include fusion at the time of initial surgery. Further studies that control for selection bias in appropriately matched cohorts are necessary to determine the additive benefits of fusion in spinal infection management.

Free access

Neil Majmundar, Purvee D. Patel, Vincent Dodson, Ashley Tran, Ira Goldstein and Rachid Assina

OBJECTIVE

Although parasitic infections are endemic to parts of the developing world and are more common in areas with developing economies and poor sanitary conditions, rare cases may occur in developed regions of the world.

METHODS

Articles eligible for the authors’ literature review were initially searched using PubMed with the phrases “parasitic infections” and “spine.” After the authors developed a list of parasites associated with spinal cord infections from the initial search, they expanded it to include individual diagnoses, using search terms including “neurocysticercosis,” “schistosomiasis,” “echinococcosis,” and “toxoplasmosis.”

RESULTS

Two recent cases of parasitic spinal infections from the authors’ institution are included.

CONCLUSIONS

Key findings on imaging modalities, laboratory studies suggestive of parasitic infection, and most importantly a thorough patient history are required to correctly diagnose parasitic spinal infections.