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Ethan A. Winkler, John K. Yue, Hansen Deng, Kunal P. Raygor, Ryan R. L. Phelps, Caleb Rutledge, Alex Y. Lu, Roberto Rodriguez Rubio, Jan-Karl Burkhardt and Adib A. Abla

OBJECTIVE

Cerebral bypass procedures are microsurgical techniques to augment or restore cerebral blood flow when treating a number of brain vascular diseases including moyamoya disease, occlusive vascular disease, and cerebral aneurysms. With advances in endovascular therapy and evolving evidence-based guidelines, it has been suggested that cerebral bypass procedures are in a state of decline. Here, the authors characterize the national trends in cerebral bypass surgery in the United States from 2002 to 2014.

METHODS

Using the National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample, the authors extracted for analysis the data on all adult patients who had undergone cerebral bypass as indicated by ICD-9-CM procedure code 34.28. Indications for bypass procedures, patient demographics, healthcare costs, and regional variations are described. Results were stratified by indication for cerebral bypass including moyamoya disease, occlusive vascular disease, and cerebral aneurysms. Predictors of inpatient complications and death were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression analysis.

RESULTS

From 2002 to 2014, there was an increase in the annual number of cerebral bypass surgeries performed in the United States. This increase reflected a growth in the number of cerebral bypass procedures performed for adult moyamoya disease, whereas cases performed for occlusive vascular disease or cerebral aneurysms declined. Inpatient complication rates for cerebral bypass performed for moyamoya disease, vascular occlusive disease, and cerebral aneurysm were 13.2%, 25.1%, and 56.3%, respectively. Rates of iatrogenic stroke ranged from 3.8% to 20.4%, and mortality rates were 0.3%, 1.4%, and 7.8% for moyamoya disease, occlusive vascular disease, and cerebral aneurysms, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression confirmed that cerebral bypass for vascular occlusive disease or cerebral aneurysm is a statistically significant predictor of inpatient complications and death. Mean healthcare costs of cerebral bypass remained unchanged from 2002 to 20014 and varied with treatment indication: moyamoya disease $38,406 ± $483, vascular occlusive disease $46,618 ± $774, and aneurysm $111,753 ± $2381.

CONCLUSIONS

The number of cerebral bypass surgeries performed for adult revascularization has increased in the United States from 2002 to 2014. Rising rates of surgical bypass reflect a greater proportion of surgeries performed for moyamoya disease, whereas bypasses performed for vascular occlusive disease and aneurysms are decreasing. Despite evolving indications, cerebral bypass remains an important surgical tool in the modern endovascular era and may be increasing in use. Stagnant complication rates highlight the need for continued interest in advancing available bypass techniques or technologies to improve patient outcomes.

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Avital Perry, Christopher S. Graffeo, Lucas P. Carlstrom, William J. Anding, Michael J. Link and Leonardo Rangel-Castilla

OBJECTIVE

Sylvian fissure dissection following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a challenging but fundamental skill in microneurosurgery, and one that has become increasingly difficult to develop during residency, given the overarching management trends. The authors describe a novel rodent model for simulation of sylvian fissure dissection and cerebrovascular bypass under SAH conditions.

METHODS

A standardized microvascular anastomosis model comprising rat femoral arteries and veins was used for the experimental framework. In the experimental protocol, following exposure and skeletonization of the vessels, extensive, superficial (1- to 2-mm) soft-tissue debridement was conducted and followed by wound closure and delayed reexploration at intervals of 7, 14, and 28 days. Two residents dissected 1 rat each per time point (n = 6 rats), completing vessel skeletonization followed by end-to-end artery/vein anastomoses. Videos were reviewed postprocedure to assess scar score and relative difficulty of dissection by blinded raters using 4-point Likert scales.

RESULTS

At all time points, vessels were markedly invested in friable scar, and exposure was subjectively assessed as a reasonable surrogate for sylvian fissure dissection under SAH conditions. Scar score and relative difficulty of dissection both indicated 14 days as the most challenging time point.

CONCLUSIONS

The authors’ experimental model of femoral vessel skeletonization, circumferential superficial soft-tissue injury, and delayed reexploration provides a novel approximation of sylvian fissure dissection and cerebrovascular bypass under SAH conditions. The optimal reexploration interval appears to be 7–14 days. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first model of SAH simulation for microsurgical training, particularly in a live animal system.

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Prospective multicenter studies in pediatric hydrocephalus

JNSPG 75th Anniversary Invited Review Article

John R. W. Kestle and Jay Riva-Cambrin

Prospective multicenter clinical research studies in pediatric hydrocephalus are relatively rare. They cover a broad spectrum of hydrocephalus topics, including management of intraventricular hemorrhage in premature infants, shunt techniques and equipment, shunt outcomes, endoscopic treatment of hydrocephalus, and prevention and treatment of infection. The research methodologies include randomized trials, cohort studies, and registry-based studies. This review describes prospective multicenter studies in pediatric hydrocephalus since 1990. Many studies have included all forms of hydrocephalus and used device or procedure failure as the primary outcome. Although such studies have yielded useful findings, they might miss important treatment effects in specific subgroups. As multicenter study networks grow, larger patient numbers will allow studies with more focused entry criteria based on known and evolving prognostic factors. In addition, increased use of patient-centered outcomes such as neurodevelopmental assessment and quality of life should be measured and emphasized in study results. Well-planned multicenter clinical studies can significantly affect the care of children with hydrocephalus and will continue to have an important role in improving care for these children and their families.

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Kristine Ravina, Ben A. Strickland, Robert C. Rennert, Joseph N. Carey and Jonathan J. Russin

Graft stenosis and occlusion remain formidable complications in cerebral revascularization procedures, which can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Graft vasospasm can result in early postoperative graft stenosis and occlusion and is believed to be at least partially mediated through adrenergic pathways. Despite various published treatment protocols, there is no single effective spasmolytic agent. Multiple factors, including anatomical and physiological variability in revascularization conduits, patient age, and comorbidities, have been associated with graft vasospasm pathogenesis and response to spasmolytics. The ideal spasmolytic agent thus likely needs to target multiple pathways to exert a generalizable therapeutic effect. Botulinum toxin (BTX)–A is a powerful neurotoxin widely used in clinical practice for the treatment of a variety of spastic conditions. Although its commonly described paradigm of cholinergic neural transmission blockade has been widely accepted, evidence for other mechanisms of action including inhibition of adrenergic transmission have been described in animal studies. Recently, the first pilot study demonstrating clinical use of BTX-A for cerebral revascularization graft spasm prevention has been reported. In this review, the mechanistic basis and potential future clinical role of BTX-A in graft vasospasm prevention is discussed.

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Danielle Golub, Lizbeth Hu, Siddhant Dogra, Jose Torres and Maksim Shapiro

Spontaneous cervical artery dissection (sCAD) is a major cause of stroke in young adults. Multiple sCAD is a rarer, more poorly understood presentation of sCAD that has been increasingly attributed to cervical trauma such as spinal manipulation or genetic polymorphisms in extracellular matrix components. The authors present the case of a 49-year-old, otherwise healthy woman, who over the course of 2 weeks developed progressive, hemodynamically significant, bilateral internal carotid artery and vertebral artery dissections. Collateral response involved extensive external carotid artery–internal carotid artery anastomoses via the ophthalmic artery, which were instrumental in maintaining perfusion because circle of Willis and leptomeningeal anastomotic responses were hampered by the dissection burden in the corresponding collateral vessels. Endovascular intervention by placement of Pipeline embolization devices and Atlas stents in bilateral internal carotid arteries was successfully performed. No syndromic or systemic etiology was discovered during a thorough workup.

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Soichi Oya, Masahiro Indo, Masabumi Nagashima and Toru Matsui

Aneurysms at the distal portion of the superior cerebellar artery (SCA) are very rare. Because of the deep location and a propensity for nonsaccular morphology, aneurysm trapping or endovascular occlusion of the parent artery are the usual treatment options, which are associated with varying risks of ischemic complications. The authors report on a 60-year-old woman who had a 3.5-mm unruptured aneurysm in the lateral pontomesencephalic segment of the SCA with a significant interval growth to 8 mm. Direct surgical intervention comprising trapping of the aneurysm through a subtemporal approach and intradural anterior petrosectomy combined with revascularization of the distal SCA using the superficial temporal artery (STA) was performed. This approach provided sufficient space for the bypass instruments to be introduced into the deep surgical field at a more favorable angle to enhance microscopic visualization of the anastomosis with minimal retraction of the temporal lobe. The patient was discharged with no neurological deficit. Preservation of the blood flow in the distal SCA should be attempted to minimize the risk of ischemic injury, particularly when the aneurysms arise in the anterior or lateral segment of the SCA. The authors demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of the intradural anterior petrosectomy for STA-SCA bypass along with a relevant anatomical study.

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Güliz Acker, Nicolas Schlinkmann, Lucius Fekonja, Lukas Grünwald, Juliane Hardt, Marcus Czabanka and Peter Vajkoczy

OBJECTIVE

Moyamoya vasculopathy (MMV) is a steno-occlusive cerebrovascular disease that can be treated by a surgical revascularization. All the revascularization techniques influence the blood supply of the scalp, with a risk for wound healing disorders. The authors’ aim was to analyze the wound healing process in the patients who underwent a direct or combined bypass surgery with a focus on different skin incisions.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively identified all the patients with MMV who were treated surgically in their institution. Subsequently, they analyzed demographic data, clinical symptoms, surgical treatment, and detailed history of complications. Based on the evolution of their surgical techniques and the revascularization strategy to be used, the authors applied the following skin incisions: linear incision, curved incision, incomplete Y incision, and complete Y incision. Group comparisons regarding wound healing disorders were performed with significance testing using Fisher’s exact test.

RESULTS

The authors identified 172 patients with MMV (61.6% moyamoya disease, 7% unilateral moyamoya disease, 29.7% moyamoya syndrome, and 1.7% unilateral moyamoya syndrome), of whom 124 underwent bilateral operations. One-quarter of the patients were juveniles. A total of 236 hemispheres were included in the analysis, of which 27.9% were treated by a combined procedure with encephalomyosynangiosis. Overall, 5.1% major and 1.7% minor wound complications occurred. The overall wound complication rate was lower in direct revascularization compared to combined revascularization (3% vs 15.2%). The lowest incidence of wound healing disorders was found in the linear incision group for the parietal superficial temporal artery branch (1.6%), followed by the incomplete Y incision group for the frontal branch of the superficial temporal artery (3.8%) in the direct bypass group. In the combined revascularization cohort, major or minor wound disorders appeared in 14.3% and 4.8%, respectively, in the complete Y incision group and in 4.2% (for both major and minor) in the curved incision group. The complete Y incision caused significantly more wound healing disorders compared to the remaining incision types (17.1% vs 3.1%, p = 0.007).

CONCLUSIONS

Wound healing disorders are one of the major complications of revascularization surgery. Their incidence depends on the revascularization strategy and skin incision applied, with a complete Y incision giving the worst results.

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Kelly Russell, Erin Selci, Brian Black and Michael J. Ellis

OBJECTIVE

The longitudinal effects of sports-related concussion (SRC) in adolescents on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) remain poorly understood. Hence, the authors established two objectives of this study: 1) compare HRQOL outcomes among adolescents with an acute SRC or a sports-related extremity fracture (SREF) who were followed up until physician-documented clinical recovery; and 2) identify the clinical variables associated with worse HRQOL among adolescent SRC patients.

METHODS

The authors conducted a prospective cohort study of adolescents with acute SRC and those with acute SREF who underwent clinical assessment and follow-up at tertiary subspecialty clinics. Longitudinal patient-reported HRQOL was measured at the time of initial assessment and at each follow-up appointment by using the adolescent version (age 13–18 years) of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) Generic Core Scale and Cognitive Functioning Scale.

RESULTS

A total of 135 patients with SRC (60.0% male; mean age 14.7 years; time from injury to initial assessment 6 days) and 96 patients with SREF (59.4% male; mean age 14.1 years; time from injury to initial assessment 8 days) participated in the study. At the initial assessment, the SRC patients demonstrated significantly worse cognitive HRQOL and clinically meaningful impairments in school and overall HRQOL compared to the SREF patients. Clinical variables associated with a worse HRQOL among SRC patients differed by domain but were significantly affected by the patients’ initial symptom burden and the development of delayed physician-documented clinical recovery (> 28 days postinjury). No persistent impairments in HRQOL were observed among SRC patients who were followed up until physician-documented clinical recovery.

CONCLUSIONS

Adolescent SRC is associated with temporary impairments in HRQOL that have been shown to resolve in patients who are followed up until physician-documented clinical recovery. Future studies are needed to identify the clinicopathological features that are associated with impaired HRQOL and to assess whether the initiation of multidisciplinary, targeted rehabilitation strategies would lead to an improvement in HRQOL.

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Anna MacDowall, Nuno Canto Moreira, Catarina Marques, Martin Skeppholm, Lars Lindhagen, Yohan Robinson, Håkan Löfgren, Karl Michaëlsson and Claes Olerud

OBJECTIVE

The method of artificial disc replacement (ADR) has been developed as an alternative treatment to fusion surgery after decompression for cervical degenerative disc disease (DDD) with radiculopathy. Preserving the motion of ADR devices aims to prevent immobilization side effects such as adjacent-segment pathology (ASP). However, long-term follow-up evaluations using MRI are needed to investigate if this intent is achieved.

METHODS

The authors performed a randomized controlled trial with 153 patients (mean age 47 years) undergoing surgery for cervical radiculopathy. Eighty-three patients received an ADR and 70 patients underwent fusion surgery. Outcomes after 5 years were assessed using patient-reported outcome measures using the Neck Disability Index (NDI) score as the primary outcome; motion preservation and heterotopic ossification by radiography; ASP by MRI; and secondary surgical procedures.

RESULTS

Scores on the NDI were approximately halved in both groups: the mean score after 5 years was 36 (95% confidence interval [CI] 31–41) in the ADR group and 32 (95% CI 27–38) in the fusion group (p = 0.48). There were no other significant differences between the groups in six other patient-related outcome measures. Fifty-four percent of the patients in the ADR group preserved motion at the operated cervical level and 25% of the ADRs were spontaneously fused. Seventeen ADR patients (21%) and 7 fusion patients (10%) underwent secondary surgery (p = 0.11), with 5 patients in each group due to clinical ASP.

CONCLUSIONS

In patients with cervical DDD and radiculopathy decompression as well as ADR, surgery did not result in better clinical or radiological outcomes after 5 years compared with decompression and fusion surgery.

Clinical trial registration no.: 44347115 (ISRCTN).