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Open access

Epidural lipomatosis with foci of hemorrhage and acute compression of the spinal cord in a child with CLOVES syndrome: illustrative case

Dmytro Ishchenko, Iryna Benzar, and Andrii Holoborodko

BACKGROUND

Congenital lipomatous overgrowth, vascular malformations, epidermal nevi, spinal/skeletal anomalies, and/or scoliosis (CLOVES) syndrome is the most recently described combined vascular anomaly characterized by congenital excessive growth of adipose tissue, vascular malformations, epidermal nevi, and skeletal deformities. This condition exhibits a significant variability in clinical manifestations and a tendency for rapid progression and affects extensive anatomical regions. Information regarding the association of epidural lipomatosis with low-flow venous lymphatic malformations is rare, with few reports in the literature.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors present a case of a 6-year-old girl who was admitted to the emergency department complaining of rapidly progressing weakness in her lower extremities and partial loss of sensation in the inguinal area. Radiologically, an extradural mass was identified at the T2–6 level, causing acute spinal cord compression. Urgent decompression and partial resection of the mass were performed. Despite satisfactory intraoperative hemo- and lymphostasis, postoperative lymphorrhea/seroma leakage was encountered as a delayed complication and was managed conservatively.

LESSONS

CLOVES syndrome is characterized by the combination of various clinical symptoms, not all of which are included in the abbreviation, as well as a progressively deteriorating course, the emergence of new symptoms, and complications throughout the patient’s life. This necessitates ongoing monitoring of such patients.

Open access

Thoracic spinal cord injury after surgical removal of a ruptured cerebellar arteriovenous malformation in a patient in the Concorde position: illustrative case

Kohei Ishikawa, Hideki Endo, Yasufumi Ohtake, Toshiichi Watanabe, and Hirohiko Nakamura

BACKGROUND

Thoracic spinal cord injury after posterior cranial fossa surgery in younger patients is a rare complication. There have been reports of this complication in tumor and spine fields but not in vascular surgery.

OBSERVATIONS

A 22-year-old-man experienced cerebellar arteriovenous malformation rupture, and the malformation was surgically removed with the man in the Concorde position. After surgery, the man had severe paraplegia, and a thoracic spinal cord injury was diagnosed.

LESSONS

In younger patients, cervical hyperflexion in the Concorde position can cause thoracic spinal cord injury even in surgery for cerebrovascular disease.

Open access

Successful coil embolization of a ruptured pseudoaneurysm of the superior gluteal artery after a percutaneous awake robot-assisted sacroiliac joint fusion: illustrative case

Samah Morsi, Alyssa M Bartlett, Andrew A Hardigan, Mounica Paturu, Shawn W Adams, Malcolm R DeBaun, Waleska Pabon-Ramos, and Muhammad M Abd-El-Barr

BACKGROUND

Robot-assisted sacroiliac joint (SIJ) fusion has gained popularity, but it carries the risk of complications such as injury to the superior gluteal artery (SGA). The authors present the case of an awake percutaneous robot-assisted SIJ fusion leading to an SGA pseudoaneurysm.

OBSERVATIONS

An 80-year-old male, who had undergone an awake percutaneous robot-assisted SIJ fusion, experienced postoperative left hip pain and bruising. Subsequent arteriography demonstrated an SGA branch pseudoaneurysm requiring coil embolization.

LESSONS

An SGA injury, although uncommon (1.2% incidence), can arise from percutaneous screw placement, aberrant anatomy, or hardware contact. Thorough preoperative imaging, precise robot-assisted screw insertion, and soft tissue protection are crucial to mitigate risks. Immediate angiography aids in prompt diagnosis and effective intervention. Comprehensive knowledge of anatomical variants is essential for managing complications and optimizing preventative measures in robot-assisted SIJ fusion.

Open access

Thoracic root–related intradural extramedullary cavernoma presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage: illustrative case

Vicente de Paulo Martins Coelho Junior, Nathaniel Toop, Peter Kobalka, and Vikram B Chakravarthy

BACKGROUND

Just 5% of all cavernomas are located in the spine. Thoracic root–related subtypes are the rarest, with a total of 14 cases reported in the literature to date. Among them, only 4 presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH).

OBSERVATIONS

A 65-year-old female presented after an ictus of headache with no neurological deficits. Computed tomography (CT) demonstrated sulcal SAH, with the remainder of the workup nondiagnostic for etiology. Three weeks later, she re-presented with acute thoracic back pain and thoracic myelopathy. CT and magnetic resonance imaging suggested dubiously a T9–10 disc herniation with spinal cord compression. Surgical decompression and resection were then planned. Intraoperative ultrasound (IUS) demonstrated an intradural extramedullary lesion, confirmed to be cavernoma. Complete resection was achieved, and the patient was discharged a few days postoperatively to inpatient rehabilitation.

LESSONS

Although spine imaging is deemed to be low yield in the evaluation of cryptogenic SAH, algorithms can be revisited even in the absence of spine-related symptoms. Surgeons can be prepared to change the initial surgical plan, especially when preoperative imaging is unclear. IUS is a powerful tool to assess the thecal sac after its exposure and to help guide this decision, as in this rare entity.

Open access

Adhesive arachnoiditis, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and intradural extramedullary thoracic cavernoma: illustrative case

Agne Andriuskeviciute, Michel Gustavo Mondragón-Soto, Nicolas Penet, and Juan Barges-Coll

BACKGROUND

Spinal arachnoiditis can result from various factors, including spinal subarachnoid hemorrhage (sSAH). In this paper, the authors describe a case of intradural extramedullary cavernoma with an initial presentation of subarachnoid hemorrhage leading to multilevel spinal arachnoiditis to discuss the pathophysiology and optimal treatment strategy.

OBSERVATIONS

Spinal intradural extramedullary cavernoma manifesting with sSAH is a rare clinical presentation; therefore, there is no clear strategy for the management of sSAH. Spinal arachnoiditis is a result of chronic inflammation of the pia arachnoid layer due to hematomyelia. No effective treatment that interrupts this inflammatory cascade and would also prevent the development of spinal arachnoiditis has been described to date.

LESSONS

Lumbar drainage could aid in sSAH management, relieve spinal cord compression, and restore the normal spinal cerebrospinal fluid circulation gradient. It could help to clear the blood degradation products rapidly and prevent early inflammatory arachnoiditis development. Mini-invasive intrathecal endoscopic adhesiolysis appears to be a reasonable approach for reducing the risk of aggravating spinal arachnoiditis with a mechanical-surgical stimulus. Whether a conservative approach should be applied in these patients with mild myelopathy symptoms is still debatable.

Open access

Microvascular decompression of a vertebral artery loop causing cervical radiculopathy: illustrative case

Alexa Semonche, Lorenzo Rinaldo, Young Lee, Todd Dubnicoff, Harlan Matles, Dean Chou, Adib Abla, and Edward F Chang

BACKGROUND

Vertebral artery loops are a rare cause of cervical radiculopathy. Surgical options for nerve root decompression include an anterior or posterior approach, with or without additional microvascular decompression.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors describe a case of a 49-year-old man with a long-standing history of left-sided neck pain and migraines, who was found to have a vertebral artery loop in the left C3–4 neural foramen compressing the left C4 nerve root. The patient underwent a posterior cervical decompression with instrumented fusion and macrovascular decompression of the left C4 nerve root via Teflon felt insertion. In a literature review, we identified 20 similar cases that had also been managed surgically.

LESSONS

Although the anterior approach is more frequently described in the literature, a posterior approach for nerve compression by a vertebral artery loop is also a safe and effective treatment. The authors report the third case of this surgical approach with a good outcome.

Open access

Retrograde thrombectomy of acute common carotid artery occlusion with mobile thrombus: illustrative cases

Yukiya Okune, Hitoshi Fukuda, Toshiki Matsuoka, Yo Nishimoto, Keita Matsuoka, Naoki Fukui, 1 PhD, Satoru Hayashi, Tetsuya Ueba, and 1 PhD

BACKGROUND

Acute embolic occlusion of the common carotid artery (CCA) alone is rare. However, once it occurs, recanalization is challenging due to the large volume of the clot, larger diameter of the CCA, and risk of procedure-related distal embolism into the intracranial arteries.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors report two cases of acute embolic occlusion of CCA alone, caused by a cardiac embolus trapped at the proximal end of a preexisting atherosclerotic plaque at the cervical carotid bifurcation. In both cases, the CCA was successfully recanalized using retrograde thrombectomy in a hybrid operating room. In case 1, a 78-year-old male with acute right CCA occlusion underwent retrograde thrombectomy, where the cervical carotid bifurcation was exposed and incised, and the entire embolus was retrieved with forceps. Despite successful revascularization, massive bleeding from the CCA just after the retrieval remained a concern. In case 2, a 79-year-old female with acute right CCA occlusion underwent retrograde thrombectomy in the same manner. Because manual retrieval failed, a Fogarty balloon catheter inserted from the arteriotomy successfully retrieved the entire thrombus with minimal blood loss.

LESSONS

Retrograde thrombectomy through the arteriotomy of the cervical carotid bifurcation safely and effectively recanalizes acute embolic occlusion of the CCA alone.

Open access

Sternocleidomastoid muscle-splitting method for high cervical carotid endarterectomy: illustrative cases

Atsushi Sato, Tetsuo Sasaki, Toshihiro Ogiwara, Kazuhiro Hongo, and Tetsuyoshi Horiuchi

BACKGROUND

The number of cervical carotid endarterectomies (CEAs) has decreased as carotid artery stenting (CAS) has increased. However, CEA and CAS both have advantages and disadvantages; therefore, appropriate procedures must be selected for individual patients. High-positioned carotid artery stenosis presents technical challenges for CEA and is occasionally managed by performing CAS. However, CAS is associated with a high risk of thrombosis in patients with soft plaques, suggesting a clinical need for a better procedure. Consequently, appropriate surgical treatment for patients requiring high-level CEAs is essential.

OBSERVATIONS

In this study, a novel and straightforward method was devised. The primary concept underlying this technique is separation of the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) from other anatomical structures to ensure a wider surgical field. By anatomically separating the SCM into the sternal and clavicular head groups, the objective of the wider surgical field can be met. Herein, we report technical innovations in high-positioned carotid artery stenosis and evaluate their efficacy in two patients.

LESSONS

In conclusion, high CEA surgery using this new method is valuable and may eliminate barriers to more advanced approaches.

Open access

Intraoperative intraarterial indocyanine green video-angiography for disconnection of a perimedullary arteriovenous fistula: illustrative case

Youngkyung Jung, Antti Lindgren, Syed Uzair Ahmed, Ivan Radovanovic, Timo Krings, and Hugo Andrade-Barazarte

BACKGROUND

Intraarterial (IA) indocyanine green (ICG) angiography is an intraoperative imaging technique offering special and temporal characterization of vascular lesions with very fast dye clearance. The authors’ aim is to demonstrate the use of IA ICG angiography to aid in the surgical treatment of a perimedullary thoracic arteriovenous fistula (AVF) in a hybrid operating room (OR).

OBSERVATIONS

A 31-year-old woman with a known history of spinal AVF presented with 6 weeks of lower-extremity weakness, gait imbalance, and bowel/bladder dysfunction. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an extensive series of flow voids across the thoracic spine, most notably at T11–12. After partial embolization, she was taken for surgical disconnection in a hybrid OR. Intraoperative spinal digital subtraction angiography was performed to identify feeding vessels. When the target arteries were catheterized, 0.05 mg of ICG in 2 mL of saline was injected, and the ICG flow in each artery was recorded using the microscope. With an improved surgical understanding of the contributing feeding arteries, the authors achieved complete in situ disconnection of the AVF.

LESSONS

IA ICG angiography can be used in hybrid OR settings to illustrate the vascular anatomy of multifeeder perimedullary AVFs and confirm its postoperative disconnection with a fast dye clearance.

Open access

Microsurgical intraluminal obliteration of type IV perimedullary arteriovenous fistula with an in situ hemostatic agent: illustrative case

Jacques Lara-Reyna, Jonathan R Garst, Nolan Winslow, and Jeffrey D Klopfenstein

BACKGROUND

Spinal arteriovenous fistulas (SAVFs) are underdiagnosed entities that can lead to severe morbidity from spinal cord dysfunction or hemorrhage. Treatment options include endovascular embolization or direct surgical obliteration at the level of the arteriovenous shunt. The authors present a case of intraluminal microsurgical access for occlusion with a hemostatic agent of a type IV SAVF near the conus medullaris as an alternative to clip occlusion to avoid nerve root compromise.

OBSERVATIONS

Temporary microsurgical clipping of the SAVF led to nerve root compromise detected via intraoperative monitoring. Instead, the authors advanced elongated pieces of a hemostatic agent directly into the arterial lumen via arteriotomy to create direct obliteration of the fistula without intraoperative monitoring changes.

LESSONS

In patients unable to tolerate clipping of the SAVF because of nerve root involvement and neurophysiological signal decline, open access of the vessels and direct intraluminal obliteration using a hemostatic agent should be considered as an alternative method of fistula occlusion.