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Open access

Angiographic evidence of an inadvertent cannulation of the marginal sinus following central line migration: illustrative case

Abdelaziz Amllay, Edwin Owolo, Kamil W Nowicki, Nanthiya Sujijantarat, Andrew Koo, Joseph P Antonios, Daniela Renedo, Charles C Matouk, and Ryan M Hebert

BACKGROUND

Central venous catheters (CVCs) play an indispensable role in clinical practice. Catheter malposition and tip migration can lead to severe complications. The authors present a case illustrating the endovascular management of inadvertent marginal sinus cannulation after an internal jugular vein (IJV) catheter tip migration.

OBSERVATIONS

A triple-lumen CVC was inserted without complications into the right IJV of a patient undergoing a repeat sternotomy for aortic valve replacement. Two weeks postinsertion, it was discovered that the tip had migrated superiorly, terminating below the torcula in the posterior fossa. In the interventional suite, a three-dimensional venogram confirmed the inadvertent marginal sinus cannulation. The catheter was carefully retracted to the sigmoid sinus to preserve the option of catheter exchange if embolization became necessary. After a subsequent venogram, which displayed an absence of contrast extravasation, the entire catheter was safely removed. The patient tolerated the procedure well.

LESSONS

Clinicians must be vigilant of catheter tip migration and malposition risks. Relying solely on postinsertion radiographs is insufficient. Once identified, prompt management of the malpositioned catheter is paramount in reducing morbidity and mortality and improving patient outcomes. Removing a malpositioned catheter constitutes a critical step, best performed by a specialized team under angiographic visualization.

Open access

A cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula treated by direct puncture of the superior ophthalmic vein with craniotomy: illustrative case

Katsuma Iwaki, Koichi Arimura, Shunichi Fukuda, Soh Takagishi, Keisuke Ido, Ryota Kurogi, Kenichi Matsumoto, Akira Nakamizo, and Koji Yoshimoto

BACKGROUND

The authors report a case of symptomatic cavernous sinus (CS) dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF) that was successfully treated using direct puncture of the superior ophthalmic vein (SOV) with craniotomy. CS dAVF is commonly treated using transvenous embolization (TVE), with the most common access route via the inferior petrosal sinus (IPS). However, this route is sometimes unavailable because of an occluded, hypoplastic, aplastic, or tortuous IPS. The SOV is an alternative, albeit tortuous and long, route to the CS; therefore, direct SOV puncture is occasionally performed. Direct SOV puncture is mostly percutaneous; however, in this case, it was difficult because of subcutaneous SOV narrowing.

OBSERVATIONS

As the patient experienced increased intraocular pressure, decreased vision, and eye movement disorders, CS embolization was performed via direct puncture with a craniotomy because of other access difficulties.

LESSONS

Several reports have described CS dAVF in patients receiving endovascular treatment via direct SOV puncture using a transorbital approach. However, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first reported case of a CS dAVF treated using TVE with craniotomy. This approach is useful when the SOV cannot be reached intravenously and its distance from the epidermis is long.

Open access

Middle meningeal artery pseudoaneurysm and pterygoid plexus fistula following percutaneous radiofrequency rhizotomy: illustrative case

Rahim Ismail, Derrek Schartz, Timothy Hoang, and Alexander Kessler

BACKGROUND

Percutaneous treatment for trigeminal neuralgia is a safe and effective therapeutic methodology and can be accomplished in the form of balloon compression, glycerol rhizotomy, and radiofrequency thermocoagulation. These procedures are generally well tolerated and demonstrate minimal associated morbidity. Moreover, vascular complications of these procedures are exceedingly rare.

OBSERVATIONS

We present the case of a 64-year-old female with prior microvascular decompression and balloon rhizotomy who presented after symptom recurrence and underwent a second balloon rhizotomy at our institution. Soon thereafter, she presented with pulsatile tinnitus and a right preauricular bruit on physical examination. Subsequent imaging revealed a middle meningeal artery (MMA) to pterygoid plexus fistula and an MMA pseudoaneurysm. Coil and Onxy embolization were used to manage the pseudoaneurysm and fistula.

LESSONS

This case illustrates the potential for MMA pseudoaneurysm formation as a complication of percutaneous trigeminal balloon rhizotomy, which has not been seen in the literature. Concurrent MMA-pterygoid plexus fistula is also a rarity demonstrated in this case.

Open access

Transvenous embolization for an intraosseous clival arteriovenous fistula via a proper access route guiding a three-dimensional fusion image: illustrative case

Yu Iida, Jun Suenaga, Nobuyuki Shimizu, Kaoru Shizawa, Ryosuke Suzuki, Shigeta Miyake, Taisuke Akimoto, Satoshi Hori, Kensuke Tateishi, Yasunobu Nakai, and Tetsuya Yamamoto

BACKGROUND

Intraosseous clival arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs), in which the shunt drains extracranially from the posterior and anterior condylar veins rather than from the cavernous sinus (CS), are rare. Targeting embolization of an intraosseous clival AVF is challenging because of its complex venous and skull base anatomy; therefore, a therapeutic strategy based on detailed preoperative radiological findings is required to achieve a favorable outcome. Here, the authors report the successful targeted embolization of an intraosseous clival AVF using an ingenious access route.

OBSERVATIONS

A 74-year-old woman presented with left-sided visual impairment, oculomotor nerve palsy, and right facial pain. A fusion image of three-dimensional rotational angiography and cone-beam computed tomography revealed a left CS dural AVF and a right intraosseous clival AVF. The shunt flow of the clival AVF drained extracranially from the posterior and anterior condylar veins via the intraosseous venous route. Transvenous embolization was performed by devising suboccipital, posterior condylar, and intraosseous access routes. The symptoms resolved after the bilateral AVFs were treated.

LESSONS

Accurate diagnosis and proper transvenous access based on detailed intraosseous and craniocervical venous information obtained from advanced imaging modalities are key to resolving intraosseous clival AVF.

Open access

Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for persistent primitive hypoglossal artery stenosis: illustrative case

Katsuma Iwaki, Koichi Arimura, Shunichi Fukuda, Soh Takagishi, Ryota Kurogi, Kuniyuki Nakamura, Akira Nakamizo, and Koji Yoshimoto

BACKGROUND

We report a case of symptomatic, progressive stenosis of a persistent primitive hypoglossal artery (PPHA), which was successfully treated with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) of the origin of the PPHA. The PPHA is a type of carotid-basilar anastomosis with an incidence of 0.02% to 0.10%. It originates from the internal carotid artery (ICA), passes through the hypoglossal canal, and merges with the basilar artery. In many cases, the ipsilateral vertebral artery is hypoplastic; therefore, PPHA stenosis causes cerebral infarction in the posterior circulation territory, as in this case.

OBSERVATIONS

The patient’s right PPHA had severe and progressive stenosis; therefore, he experienced cerebral infarction despite medical treatment. Therefore, PTA for the stenosis was performed, which ceased the recurrence of cerebral infarction and dizziness by improving blood flow in the posterior circulation.

LESSONS

Several reports have described ICA stenosis accompanied by PPHA or PPHA stenosis in patients receiving endovascular treatments. Almost all cases were nonprogressive, and the treatment procedure was stenting. However, in our case, the PPHA stenosis was progressive, and we performed PTA because the patient experienced resistance to antiplatelet drugs and had poor collateral flow.

Open access

Rescue stenting after artery occlusion as a complication of an intrasaccular device–assisted coiling embolization: illustrative case

Félix Gallo-Pineda, Miriam Fernández-Gómez, and Carlos Hidalgo-Barranco

BACKGROUND

Endovascular embolization of wide-necked aneurysms can be challenging. The development of intrasaccular devices like the Contour has enabled us to approach these aneurysms effectively by reducing recanalization rates and eliminating the need for dual antiplatelet therapy, which is particularly beneficial in the case of ruptured aneurysms. Although complications from using these devices are rare, it is crucial to address them properly. In this case, the authors highlight how to manage artery thrombosis caused by device protrusion during aneurysm embolization.

OBSERVATIONS

This report describes a complication in a male patient with a ruptured anterior communicating artery wide-necked aneurysm. Following Contour-assisted coiling of the aneurysm, a realignment of the detachable apex of the device occluded the A2 segment of the right anterior cerebral artery. After the failure of intra-arterial and intravenous tirofiban infusion as well as mechanical thrombectomy, a self-expanding open-cell stent was deployed in the involved vessel, achieving successful reperfusion.

LESSONS

The Contour device has a detachable zone that can cause occlusion of the parent vessel after deployment. The use of a stent as a rescue maneuver may be useful if reperfusion of the vessel cannot be achieved through other methods such as aspiration or full-dose antiplatelet therapy.

Open access

Vein of Galen malformations in the newborn: case series

Erik F. Hauck, Jeremy A. Yarden, Lily I. Hauck, Joseph M. Bibawy, Shervin Mirshahi, and Gerald A. Grant

BACKGROUND

Vein of Galen malformations (VoGMs) in newborns often represent life-threatening emergencies. Outcome is difficult to predict. The authors review 50 VoGM cases to correlate anatomical types with treatment and outcome.

OBSERVATIONS

Four distinct types of VoGMs are identified: mural simple (type I), mural complex (type II), choroidal (type III), and choroidal with deep venous drainage (type IV). Seven patients presented with mural simple VoGMs with a “single hole” fistula supplied by only one large feeder. These patients were treated electively at >6 months; development was normal. Fifteen patients presented with complex mural VoGMs. Multiple large feeders joined a single fistulous point within the wall of the varix. Patients typically presented with congestive heart failure (CHF) and required emergent transarterial intervention. Mortality was 7.7% with less than two-thirds developing normally. Twenty-five patients presented with choroidal VoGMs. Multiple large arterial feeders joined at multiple fistulous sites. Severe CHF in most patients required emergent transarterial and sometimes transvenous intervention. Mortality was 9.5%; two-thirds of the patients had a normal development. Three babies presented with choroidal VoGMs with deep intraventricular venous drainage. This phenomenon caused fatal “melting brain syndrome” in all three patients.

LESSONS

Recognition of the specific VoGM type determines treatment options and sets outcome expectations.

Open access

Spinal dural arteriovenous fistula masquerading as a herniated disc: illustrative case

Moustafa A. Mansour, Dyana F. Khalil, Soliman El-Sokkary, Mostafa A. Mostafa, and Ahmad A. Ayad

BACKGROUND

Spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF) is a rare disorder with an unknown etiology. Often, the clinical presentation and imaging findings are misleading, causing this condition to be mistaken for other entities, such as demyelinating or degenerative spinal lesions.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors report a challenging case of SDAVF in which the patient’s symptoms were initially thought to be attributable to a herniated disc based on his imaging studies at another institution. He sought the authors for a second opinion, which yielded a confirmed diagnosis of SDAVF. Due to his rapidly progressive neurological manifestations, he underwent a surgical division of the fistula using intraoperative video angiography via indocyanine green injections. His symptoms progressively improved over a 3-month period. He regained full sphincter control by 4 months, which gave him a better recovery than seen in other patients with SDAVFs, who do not generally fully regain sphincter control.

LESSONS

SDAVF is a critical spinal vascular pathology that should not be overlooked in the differential diagnosis of any patient presenting with signs of progressive myelopathy. Despite its associated vague initial clinical symptoms, SDAVF typically, but not always, demonstrates a characteristic imaging appearance on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies; therefore, MR angiography is still required for definitive diagnosis. Surgical treatment for SDAVF is almost always definitive and curative.

Open access

A deceptive mass on neonatal ultrasound and a fetal brain MRI-confirmed complex dural arteriovenous fistula postnatally: illustrative case

Elliot T. Varney, Charlotte S. Taylor, Allen G. Crosthwait, Kristin Weaver, and Todd Nichols

BACKGROUND

Dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs) are direct, aberrant connections between dural arteries and cerebral veins. In neonates, delayed diagnosis results in grim outcomes. Treatment involves endovascular management because of its success and tolerability. Here, the authors present a case of a complex dAVF initially recognized with an in utero neurosonogram and fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

OBSERVATIONS

A 21-week fetal ultrasound of a nonspecific brain mass was confirmed with fetal MRI as a 2.7-cm T1-hyperintense posterior fossa mass. Although a large flow void in the left middle cranial fossa was present, postnatal computed tomography angiography ultimately revealed a high-flow dAVF communicating with the left transverse sinus. In the early postnatal period, the patient developed hydrocephalus. After successful partial embolization, 6-week postangiogram brain MRI indicated disease progression with the development of a venous varix causing brainstem compression. Repeat embolization resulted in complete cessation of early venous drainage.

LESSONS

Neonatal dAVFs are exceedingly rare and result in futile outcomes; however, detection in utero is possible. Although definitive therapy must be performed postnatally, constant monitoring and early delivery can prevent complications. Attention to fetal ultrasound is essential, and knowledge of fetal MRI in the detection of these complex lesions can significantly improve outcomes.

Open access

Ruptured aneurysm of the artery of Davidoff and Schechter: illustrative case

Lane Fry, Frank A. De Stefano, Kevin S. Chatley, Catherine Lei, Jeremy Peterson, and Koji Ebersole

BACKGROUND

The artery of Davidoff and Schechter (ADS) is an uncommonly encountered meningeal branch originating from the posterior cerebral artery typically identified in the setting of pathology, often dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs). Here, the authors describe the first reported case of an ADS aneurysm, discovered in the setting of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and complicating a high-grade DAVF.

OBSERVATIONS

A 57-year-old female presented after experiencing the worst headache of her life. Noncontrast computed tomography scanning of the head demonstrated SAH. Angiography revealed a high-grade DAVF centered around the anterior straight sinus, consistent with the Galenic subtype of tentorial DAVF. Predominant arterial supply was from the bilateral middle meningeal and occipital arteries. Vertebral artery imaging revealed a 12-mm irregular aneurysm. The prospect that the target artery represented the noneloquent ADS was confirmed by Wada testing. Given the fusiform nature of the aneurysm, treatment required concomitant coil embolization of the aneurysm and parent artery sacrifice. A week later, the DAVF was treated with liquid embolic. The patient tolerated treatment without neurological compromise.

LESSONS

The authors describe the first reported case of an ADS aneurysm discovered in the setting of SAH complicating a high-grade DAVF and the lessons learned during our experience managing this unique pathology.