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Open access

Electric burn of the skull: treatment by applying trepanations and wound dressing. Illustrative case

Sergio M Georgeto, Marcio F Lehmann, Adriano T Antonucci, Marcel Schiavini, Shiro M. A Shimoakoishi, Anibal R Neto, Lutero C. M Santos, Dalmo G Correia, Murilo Scapin, and Eloah S Marcilio

BACKGROUND

Although electric injuries to human tissue are uncommon in contemporary times, their occurrence implies a high degree of morbidity and mortality. These are primarily attributed to the impact of electric current on cellular membranes, resulting in the disruption of ionic changes.

OBSERVATIONS

In this paper, the authors present the case of an electric burn on the skull in a 50-year-old male, treated by utilizing trepanation and daily sterile wound dressing. This approach differs from the conventional treatment involving tissue grafts.

LESSONS

Although the techniques utilized in this case are not commonly chosen as the initial treatment option, they have demonstrated effectiveness. Despite the absence of tissue flaps or grafts, satisfactory coverage of the skull cap was achieved.

Open access

Fusion mass to pelvis internal distraction technique using multiple-hook fixation for scoliosis correction: illustrative case

J. Manuel Sarmiento, Christina C Rymond, Abdulbaki Kozan, and Lawrence G Lenke

BACKGROUND

Internal distraction rods have been described as an alternative to halo gravity traction for the treatment of severe scoliosis. Distraction rods can be challenging to use in patients with existing fusion masses. The authors report an internal distraction, construct-to-construct rod technique using multiple-hook fixation in a patient with a sharply angulated cervicothoracic scoliosis fusion mass.

OBSERVATIONS

A 12-year-old female with previously diagnosed congenital scoliosis who had undergone cervical fusion in situ at age 2 presented to the clinic with shortness of breath exacerbated by increased levels of activity. Standing anteroposterior and lateral scoliosis radiographs revealed a left >150° cervicothoracic curve, right 140° thoracolumbar curve, and left 28° lumbosacral fractional curve with pelvic obliquity. The authors indicated this patient for a 3-stage all-posterior approach for spinal fusion and deformity correction. In the final fusion surgery, the authors set up a construct-to-construct internal distraction configuration connecting the left hemipelvis to the cervicothoracic fusion mass to aid in deformity correction.

LESSONS

A construct-to-construct internal distraction rod technique connecting a fusion mass to the pelvis can assist with curve correction in severe scoliosis.

Open access

Multiple three-column osteotomies successfully correcting cervicothoracic kyphosis in the setting of ankylosing spondylitis: illustrative case

Luke Mugge, Paul Gorka, Cristie Brewer, and Brian McHugh

BACKGROUND

Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is an autoimmune spondylarthritis often associated with rigid kyphoscoliosis. The authors describe a surgical approach that employs multilevel three-column osteotomies for the restoration of normal global alignment.

OBSERVATIONS

A 48-year-old male with a past medical history of AS presented to the clinic with a stooped-over posture: his chin-brow vertical angle (CBVA) was 58.0°; T1 slope (T1S), 97.8°; thoracic kyphosis (TK; T1–12), 94.2°; proximal TK (T1–5), 50.8°; distal TK (T5–12), 43.5°; and sagittal vertical axis (SVA), 22.6 cm. A two-stage procedure was planned. During stage 1, instrumentation was placed from C5 to T10, followed by a T3 vertebral column resection. During stage 2, bilateral pedicle screws were placed from T11 to the pelvis. An L3 pedicle subtraction osteotomy (PSO) was completed and was followed by a T7 PSO. Postoperatively, the patient had significant postural improvement: CBVA was 29.3°; T1S, 57.8°; TK, 77.3°; proximal TK, 33.5°; distal TK, 43.8°; and SVA, 15 cm. At 6 years postoperatively, the patient continued to do well and was without evidence of construct breakdown.

LESSONS

The authors propose that multilevel three-column osteotomies, if optimally located, successfully correct spinal malalignment associated with AS.

Open access

Oblique anterior column realignment with a mini-open posterior column osteotomy for minimally invasive adult spinal deformity correction: illustrative case

Zach Pennington, Nolan J Brown, Seyedamirhossein Pishva, Hernán F. J González, and Martin H Pham

BACKGROUND

Adult spinal deformity (ASD) occurs from progressive anterior column collapse due to disc space desiccation, compression fractures, and autofusion across disc spaces. Anterior column realignment (ACR) is increasingly recognized as a powerful tool to address ASD by progressively lengthening the anterior column through the release of the anterior longitudinal ligament during lateral interbody approaches. Here, we describe the application of minimally invasive ACR through an oblique antepsoas corridor for deformity correction in a patient with adult degenerative scoliosis and significant sagittal imbalance.

OBSERVATIONS

A 65-year-old female with a prior history of L4–5 transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion and morbid obesity presented with refractory, severe low-back and lower-extremity pain. Preoperative radiographs showed significant sagittal imbalance. Computed tomography showed a healed L4–5 fusion and a vacuum disc at L3–4 and L5–S1, whereas magnetic resonance imaging was notable for central canal stenosis at L3–4. The patient was treated with a first-stage L5–S1 lateral anterior lumbar interbody fusion with oblique L2–4 ACR. The second-stage posterior approach consisted of a robot-guided minimally invasive T10–ilium posterior instrumented fusion with a mini-open L2–4 posterior column osteotomy (PCO). Postoperative radiographs showed the restoration of her sagittal balance. There were no complications.

LESSONS

Oblique ACR is a powerful minimally invasive tool for sagittal plane correction. When combined with a mini-open PCO, substantial segmental lordosis can be achieved while eliminating the need for multilevel PCO or invasive three-column osteotomies.

Open access

Surviving against the odds: exploring the clinical and radiological features of iniencephaly compatible with life. Illustrative case

Hassan Kadri, Mazen Dughly, Mohamad Shehadeh Agha, Raed Abouharb, Rostom Mackieh, Sameer Bakleh, and Thea Kadri

BACKGROUND

Iniencephaly is a rare neural tube defect (NTD) characterized by deformities in the occiput and inion, along with rachischisis in the cervical and thoracic spine, resulting in the head appearing in retroflexion.

OBSERVATIONS

This report details the case of a female newborn who underwent surgery for an encephalocele. She survived up to 6 months, exhibiting good overall health, although she displayed physical abnormalities, including facial deformity, a short neck, and minor spasms in all limbs. Both cardiovascular and abdominal assessments remained stable, and imaging revealed defects in the occipital bone, a large cephalocele, and spinal dysraphism.

LESSONS

Although iniencephaly is generally incompatible with life, a few cases have been reported otherwise. Our patient, one of these notable exceptions, remains alive at 6 months old, possibly due to the lack of major vascular deformities. However, she does exhibit significant psychomotor retardation.

Open access

Treatment of an anterior cervicothoracic myelomeningocele together with spine deformity correction in a child: illustrative case

Hudin N Jackson, Nealen Laxpati, and David F Bauer

BACKGROUND

Anterior cervicothoracic myelomeningoceles are a rare pathology. In reported cases, treatment has included shunting, isolated resection and repair without deformity correction, or isolated deformity correction without meningocele repair. The authors describe a pediatric patient with an anterior cervicothoracic myelomeningocele presenting with progressive neurological decline, who underwent simultaneous treatment of the myelomeningocele to detether the spinal cord and achieve major correction of the scoliotic deformity.

OBSERVATIONS

A 15-year-old girl was born with C7-T1-T2 hemivertebrae and anterior cervical myelomeningocele at C7–T1. She developed progressive cervical thoracic scoliosis, left hemiparesis initially, and additional right hemiparesis eventually. She underwent surgical repair via C7, T1, and T2 corpectomies with intradural detethering of the spinal cord. The scoliosis was treated with C7–T2 Ponte osteotomies and C2–T5 posterior fixation, followed by anterior reconstruction with a titanium cage and anterior plate from C6 to T3. The myelomeningocele was adequately treated with good correction of the patient’s deformity. The patient had postoperative improvement in her strength and solid arthrodesis on postoperative imaging.

LESSONS

The authors describe the successful treatment of an anterior cervicothoracic myelomeningocele and associated scoliosis in a child. This is a unique report of a combined strategy to achieve both deformity correction and detethering of the spinal cord.

Open access

Adult neuromuscular choristoma, a rare peripheral nerve pathology: illustrative case

Ashley Ricciardelli, Alex Flores, Hsiang-Chih Lu, Ekin Guney, Arie Perry, and Joey Grochmal

BACKGROUND

Neuromuscular choristomas (NMCs) are rare tumors involving aberrant intercalation of muscle fibers into peripheral nerves, most commonly the sciatic nerve. Although benign, these lesions risk developing into NMCs with desmoid-type fibrosis (NMC-DTFs), aggressive lesions potentially requiring amputation. Currently, information on NMCs and the link between NMCs and NMC-DTFs is limited in adults, with the majority of cases reported in children. We present the case of a 66-year-old male with a sciatic NMC alongside a Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses–based systematic review of similar cases to better characterize this lesion in the adult population.

OBSERVATIONS

A male presented with 10 years of progressive left lower-extremity weakness and paresthesia, and a mildly enlarged proximal sciatic nerve was discovered on magnetic resonance imaging. He underwent left sciatic fascicular nerve biopsy, with histopathological examination identifying the lesion as an NMC. The literature review revealed that our case, alongside other cases of adults with NMCs, shared characteristics similar to NMCs in the pediatric population.

LESSONS

More comprehensive studies of adults with NMCs are needed, as the current literature contains limited information concerning disease course, diagnostic characteristics, and treatment. Furthermore, NMCs in adults should be handled with care because of the increased likelihood of transformation to NMC-DTF after surgical intervention.

Open access

The complex treatment paradigms for concomitant tethered cord and scoliosis: illustrative case

Rose Fluss, Riana Lo Bu, Andrew J Kobets, and Jaime A Gomez

BACKGROUND

Scoliosis associated with tethered cord syndrome is one of the most challenging spinal deformities to manage. Multiple surgical approaches have been developed, including traditional staged and concomitant procedures, spine-shortening osteotomies, and individual vertebral column resections.

OBSERVATIONS

A 10-year-old female presented with congenital kyphoscoliosis with worsening curve progression, tethered spinal cord, and a history of enuresis. The scoliosis had progressed to a 26° coronal curve and 55° thoracolumbar kyphosis. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging of the spine revealed a tethered cord between the levels of L3–4 and a large kyphotic deformity at L1. The patient underwent laminectomy, during which intraoperative motor signals were lost. A planned hemivertebrectomy at L1 was performed prior to an L4 laminectomy, untethering of the filum terminale, and posterior spinal fusion from T11 to L2. After surgery, the patient experienced transient lower-extremity weakness, with her neurological function improving from baseline over the next 2 months. Ultimately, the goal of this surgery was to halt the progressive decline in motor function, which was successfully achieved.

LESSONS

Much remains to be learned about the treatment of this complicated disease, especially in the setting of concomitant scoliosis. This case serves to exemplify the complex treatment paradigms that exist when attempting to manage this clinical syndrome and that more remains to be learned.

Open access

Vacuum-assisted scalp repositioning: a novel temporizing approach to acute sinking skin flap syndrome. Illustrative cases

Evan Courville, Joshua Marquez, Michael Homma, Michael Conley, Georgios P Skandalakis, Peter Shin, James Botros, and Christian Ricks

BACKGROUND

This report describes the use of a novel approach to address acute sinking skin flap syndrome (SSFS), a postcraniectomy complication arising from brain dysfunction beneath the skull defect. The authors present a case series of two patients, emphasizing the prospective application of an external plaster cast in tandem with a vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) device (wound VAC) to promptly reposition the scalp and relieve brain compression.

OBSERVATIONS

Following intervention, one patient showed immediate neurological improvement, with complete resolution of symptoms within hours. Conversely, the second patient developed nonconvulsive status epilepticus. Computed tomography scans postintervention validated the successful scalp repositioning and mass effect resolution in both instances. This temporary approach proved successful in one patient with moderate symptoms, serving as a bridge to cranioplasty.

LESSONS

The integration of an external plaster cast and wound VAC offers a cost-effective and prompt solution for patients with acute SSFS pending cranioplasty. Appropriate patient selection and heightened caution for those with severe symptoms should be exercised.

Open access

Approaches to ventriculoperitoneal shunt scalp erosion: countersinking into the calvarium. Illustrative case

Denise Brunozzi, Melissa A LoPresti, Jennifer L McGrath, and Tord D Alden

BACKGROUND

Ventriculoperitoneal shunting (VPS) is a standard procedure for the treatment of hydrocephalus, and the management of its complications is common in the practice of pediatric neurosurgery. Shunt exposure, though a rare complication, can occur because of thin, fragile skin, a young patient age, protuberant hardware, poor scalp perfusion, and a multitude of other patient factors.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors report a complex case of VPS erosion through the scalp in a young female with Pfeiffer syndrome treated with external ventricular drainage, empirical antibiotics, and reinternalization with countersinking of replaced shunt hardware into the calvarium to prevent internal skin pressure points, reduce wound tension, and allow wound healing.

LESSONS

Recessing the shunt hardware, or countersinking the implant, into the calvarium is a simple technique often used in functional neurosurgical implantation surgeries, providing a safe surgical strategy to optimize wound healing in select cases in which the skin flap is unfavorable.