Browse

You are looking at 1 - 5 of 5 items for :

  • Journal of Neurosurgery: Case Lessons x
  • Vascular Disorders x
  • Refine by Access: user x
Clear All
Open access

Open surgical ligation of a thoracic spinal epidural arteriovenous fistula causing thoracic myelopathy: illustrative case

Brandon R. W. Laing, Benjamin Best, John D. Nerva, and Aditya Vedantam

BACKGROUND

Spinal epidural arteriovenous fistulas (eAVFs) are rare spinal vascular malformations characterized by an abnormal connection from the paraspinal and paravertebral system to the epidural venous plexus. This contrasts with the more frequently seen spinal dural AVF, where the fistula is entirely intradural. Although endovascular repair is commonly performed for spinal eAVF, few cases require open surgical ligation.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors present a case of a 74-year-old male with progressive thoracic myelopathy secondary to a spinal eAVF. Thoracic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed intramedullary T2 signal hyperintensity from T8 to T12. Spinal angiography revealed a primary arterial supply from the right T11 segmental artery and minor supply from the left T11 branches with drainage into the ventral epidural space. The patient underwent T11–12 laminectomy and complete right T11–12 facetectomy for ligation of the fistula with T11–L1 fusion. A postoperative spinal angiogram showed resolution of the fistula. Postoperatively, the patient’s myelopathy improved, and MRI showed a decrease in T2 cord intensity.

LESSONS

Spinal eAVFs are rare lesions that differ from the more commonly seen intradural dural AVF in that the abnormal connection is in the epidural space, and they are often associated with a dilated epidural venous pouch. Treatment involves endovascular, open surgical, or combined approaches.

Open access

Radiation-induced cavernous malformations in the spine: patient series

Stefan W. Koester, Lea Scherschinski, Visish M. Srinivasan, Katherine Karahalios, Kavelin Rumalla, Dimitri Benner, Joshua S. Catapano, Robert F. Spetzler, and Michael T. Lawton

BACKGROUND

Radiation-induced spinal cord cavernous malformations (RISCCMs) are a rare subset of central nervous system lesions and are more clinically aggressive than congenital cavernous malformations (CMs). The authors assessed the characteristics and outcomes of patients with RISCCM at a single institution and systematically reviewed the pertinent literature using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines.

OBSERVATIONS

Among the 146 spinal CMs at the authors’ institution, 3 RISCCMs were found. Symptom duration ranged from 0.1 to 8.5 months (mean [standard deviation], 3.2 [4.6] months), and latency ranged from 16 to 29 years (22.4 [9.6] years). All 3 RISCCMs were surgically treated with complete resection; 2 patients had stable outcomes, and 1 improved postoperatively. A review of 1240 articles revealed 20 patients with RISCCMs. Six of these patients were treated with resection, 13 were treated conservatively, and in 1 case, the treatment type was not stated. Five of the 6 patients treated surgically reported improvement postoperatively or at follow-up; 1 was stable, and none reported worsened outcomes.

LESSONS

RISCCMs are rare sequelae following radiation that inadvertently affect the spinal cord. Altogether, the frequency of stable and improved outcomes on follow-up suggests that resection could prevent further patient decline caused by symptoms of RISCCM. Therefore, surgical management should be considered primary therapy in patients presenting with RISCCMs.

Open access

Coexisting filum terminale arteriovenous fistula and filum terminale lipoma treated with single-stage surgery: illustrative case

Hiroki Yamazaki, Tomohiko Ozaki, Tomoki Kidani, Yosuke Fujimi, Masahiro Nonaka, Masao Umegaki, Chisato Yokota, and Toshiyuki Fujinaka

BACKGROUND

Both filum terminale arteriovenous fistulas (FTAVFs) and filum terminale lipomas (FTLs) are rare. Because of this rarity, there is a paucity of data regarding concomitant FTAVF and FTL, and the optimal treatment remains to be defined. The authors describe a patient with coexisting FTAVF and FTL treated with single-stage surgery.

OBSERVATIONS

A man in his 70s was referred to the authors’ department because of a suspected spinal vascular malformation seen on magnetic resonance imaging that was performed to investigate lower limb weakness, intermittent claudication, and urinary incontinence. Previous imaging had shown a terminal lipoma with an internal flow void. Computed tomography angiography and digital subtraction angiography revealed an FTAVF, the feeder being a lateral sacral artery. The patient was treated surgically with curative intent. The FTL and tethered cord that had been identified by imaging were treated in the same procedure. Postoperative digital subtraction angiography showed absence of the abnormal vessels. The patient was discharged home on the 19th postoperative day.

LESSONS

When considering treatment, it is important to determine whether symptoms are attributable mainly to FTL, tethered cord, or FTAVF. One-stage treatment is useful because it eliminates both the FTAVF and the factors that led to its development.

Open access

Transvenous embolization of conus spinal arteriovenous malformation: illustrative case

Mohammad Anadani and Jonathan Lena

BACKGROUND

Spinal arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are the most challenging spinal vascular malformations. Endovascular transarterial embolization of spinal AVM has been well described. However, transvenous embolization has not been previously reported. In this case report, the authors describe transvenous embolization of a recurrent intramedullary/conus spinal AVM that was previously deemed unamenable to endovascular therapy

OBSERVATIONS

A 30-year-old female presented with debilitating lumbar back pain and was found to have an intramedullary spinal AVM at the level of the conus medullaris. Initially, the AVM was treated with endovascular arterial embolization and subsequently with microsurgical resection. However, on follow-up angiography, the AVM had recurred. Further arterial embolization was deemed not possible because of anatomical challenges. After careful consideration, endovascular transvenous embolization was performed with successful occlusion of the AVM nidus.

LESSONS

Transvenous embolization is an alternative route for endovascular treatment of spinal AVMs that have an accessible single draining vein.

Open access

Intradural lumbar radicular arteriovenous malformation mimicking perimedullary arteriovenous malformation of the conus medullaris: illustrative case

Izumi Koyanagi, Yasuhiro Chiba, Hiroyuki Imamura, and Toshiya Osanai

BACKGROUND

Intradural radicular arteriovenous malformation (AVM) of the cauda equina is a rare entity of spinal AVMs. Because of the specific arterial supply of the conus medullaris and cauda equina, AVMs in this area sometimes present with confusing radiological features.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors reported a rare case of intradural radicular AVM arising from the lumbar posterior root. The patient presented with urinary symptoms with multiple flow void around the conus medullaris, as shown on magnetic resonance imaging. Digital subtraction angiography demonstrated arteriovenous shunt at the left side of the conus medullaris fed by the anterior spinal artery via anastomotic channel to the posterior spinal artery and rich perimedullary drainers. There was another arteriovenous shunt at the L3 level from the left L4 radicular artery. Preoperative diagnosis was perimedullary AVM with radicular arteriovenous fistula. Direct surgery with indocyanine green angiography revealed that the actual arteriovenous shunt was located at the left L4 posterior root. The AVM was successfully treated by coagulation of feeding branches.

LESSONS

Unilateral arteriovenous shunt fed by either posterior or anterior spinal artery at the conus medullaris may include AVM of the cauda equina despite abundant perimedullary venous drainage. Careful pre- and intraoperative diagnostic imaging is necessary for appropriate treatment.