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Open access

Visual dysfunction and neurodegeneration caused by severe inflammatory optic neuropathy after coil embolization of a paraclinoid aneurysm: illustrative case

Tomohiro Okuyama, Kota Kurisu, PhD, Toshiya Osanai, Masaki Ito, Taku Sugiyama, Haruto Uchino, and Miki Fujimura

BACKGROUND

Visual impairment due to delayed optic neuropathy is a rare complication of the endovascular treatment of paraclinoid aneurysms. An inflammatory response induced in the treated aneurysm wall is a known mechanism underlying this pathophysiology. The authors describe a case with severe and progressive optic neuropathy leading to neuronal degeneration and severe visual dysfunction.

OBSERVATIONS

A 42-year-old female with a history of surgical clipping for a paraclinoid aneurysm presented with a recurrence. Although the patient was unaware of any visual dysfunction, a preoperative ophthalmological examination revealed mild inferior quadrantanopia in the left eye. The coil embolization procedure was uneventful; however, the following day, the patient experienced progressive visual impairment, which worsened despite the initiation of steroid therapy. Ophthalmological examination revealed a severe decrease in visual acuity and further deterioration of the visual field. Magnetic resonance imaging showed remarkable swelling and edema of the left optic nerve adjacent to the treated aneurysm. Despite continued steroid therapy, the patient’s visual function did not recover well due to subsequent optic nerve degeneration.

LESSONS

Optic neuropathy after endovascular procedures can lead to severe visual dysfunction. Careful management is essential, particularly when treating a symptomatic paraclinoid aneurysm, even if symptoms are only apparent on detailed examination.

Open access

Angiographic evidence of an inadvertent cannulation of the marginal sinus following central line migration: illustrative case

Abdelaziz Amllay, Edwin Owolo, Kamil W Nowicki, Nanthiya Sujijantarat, Andrew Koo, Joseph P Antonios, Daniela Renedo, Charles C Matouk, and Ryan M Hebert

BACKGROUND

Central venous catheters (CVCs) play an indispensable role in clinical practice. Catheter malposition and tip migration can lead to severe complications. The authors present a case illustrating the endovascular management of inadvertent marginal sinus cannulation after an internal jugular vein (IJV) catheter tip migration.

OBSERVATIONS

A triple-lumen CVC was inserted without complications into the right IJV of a patient undergoing a repeat sternotomy for aortic valve replacement. Two weeks postinsertion, it was discovered that the tip had migrated superiorly, terminating below the torcula in the posterior fossa. In the interventional suite, a three-dimensional venogram confirmed the inadvertent marginal sinus cannulation. The catheter was carefully retracted to the sigmoid sinus to preserve the option of catheter exchange if embolization became necessary. After a subsequent venogram, which displayed an absence of contrast extravasation, the entire catheter was safely removed. The patient tolerated the procedure well.

LESSONS

Clinicians must be vigilant of catheter tip migration and malposition risks. Relying solely on postinsertion radiographs is insufficient. Once identified, prompt management of the malpositioned catheter is paramount in reducing morbidity and mortality and improving patient outcomes. Removing a malpositioned catheter constitutes a critical step, best performed by a specialized team under angiographic visualization.

Open access

Early cerebral venous drainage associated with focal seizures: a correlation of digital subtraction angiography and electroencephalography. Illustrative case

Olivia Holman, Joseph M Bibawy, Lara Wadi, Joel C Morgenlander, and Erik F Hauck

BACKGROUND

Early venous drainage is a critical diagnostic feature of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs). However, other conditions associated with early venous drainage can mimic AVMs and AVFs and mislead the treating physician team.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors present a unique case of a 56-year-old man with new left hemianopsia. Workup with magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography had revealed cortical enhancement and early venous drainage, possibly caused by an AVF or AVM. Catheter angiography confirmed the presence of early venous drainage of specifically the right occipital lobe. The early venous drainage occurred as the result of local hyperperfusion limited to the right occipital lobe. Subsequent electroencephalography confirmed focal seizure activity in the right occipital lobe. After seizure control with multiple antiepileptic medications, the patient regained his vision. Repeat digital subtraction angiography revealed restoration of normal cerebral blood flow.

LESSONS

Early venous drainage observed during catheter angiography can be associated with seizure activity. Differentiation from other conditions, such as AVM, AVF, or ischemic stroke, is critical to facilitate prompt and appropriate treatment.

Open access

Epidural lipomatosis with foci of hemorrhage and acute compression of the spinal cord in a child with CLOVES syndrome: illustrative case

Dmytro Ishchenko, Iryna Benzar, and Andrii Holoborodko

BACKGROUND

Congenital lipomatous overgrowth, vascular malformations, epidermal nevi, spinal/skeletal anomalies, and/or scoliosis (CLOVES) syndrome is the most recently described combined vascular anomaly characterized by congenital excessive growth of adipose tissue, vascular malformations, epidermal nevi, and skeletal deformities. This condition exhibits a significant variability in clinical manifestations and a tendency for rapid progression and affects extensive anatomical regions. Information regarding the association of epidural lipomatosis with low-flow venous lymphatic malformations is rare, with few reports in the literature.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors present a case of a 6-year-old girl who was admitted to the emergency department complaining of rapidly progressing weakness in her lower extremities and partial loss of sensation in the inguinal area. Radiologically, an extradural mass was identified at the T2–6 level, causing acute spinal cord compression. Urgent decompression and partial resection of the mass were performed. Despite satisfactory intraoperative hemo- and lymphostasis, postoperative lymphorrhea/seroma leakage was encountered as a delayed complication and was managed conservatively.

LESSONS

CLOVES syndrome is characterized by the combination of various clinical symptoms, not all of which are included in the abbreviation, as well as a progressively deteriorating course, the emergence of new symptoms, and complications throughout the patient’s life. This necessitates ongoing monitoring of such patients.

Open access

Evaluation of the shrinkage process of a neck remnant after stent-coil treatment of a cerebral aneurysm using silent magnetic resonance angiography and computational fluid dynamics analysis: illustrative case

Toru Satoh, Kenji Sugiu, Masafumi Hiramatsu, Jun Haruma, and Isao Date

BACKGROUND

Silent magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) mitigates metal artifacts, facilitating clear visualization of neck remnants after stent and coil embolization of cerebral aneurysms. This study aims to scrutinize hemodynamics at the neck remnant by employing silent MRA and computational fluid dynamics.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors longitudinally tracked images of a partially thrombosed anterior communicating artery aneurysm’s neck remnant, which had been treated with stent-assisted coil embolization, using silent MRA over a decade. Computational fluid dynamics delineated the neck remnant’s reduction process, evaluating hemodynamic parameters such as flow rate, wall shear stress magnitude and vector, and streamlines. The neck remnant exhibited diminishing surface area, volume, neck size, dome depth, and aspect ratio. Its reduction correlated with a decline in the flow rate ratio of the remnant dome to the inflow parent artery. Analysis delineated regions within the contracting neck remnant characterized by consistently low average wall shear stress magnitude and variation, accompanied by notable variations in wall shear stress vector directionality.

LESSONS

Evaluation of neck remnants after stent-coil embolization is possible through silent MRA and computational fluid dynamics. Predicting the neck remnant reduction may be achievable through hemodynamic parameter analysis.

Open access

Novel use of a closed-tip stent retriever to prevent distal embolism in the posterior circulation: illustrative case

Rikuo Nishii, Masanori Goto, Yuki Takano, Kota Nakajima, Takateru Takamatsu, Masanori Tokuda, Hikari Tomita, Mai Yoshimoto, Satohiro Kawade, Yasuhiro Yamamoto, Yuji Naramoto, Kunimasa Teranishi, Nobuyuki Fukui, Tadashi Sunohara, Ryu Fukumitsu, Junichi Takeda, Masaomi Koyanagi, Chiaki Sakai, Nobuyuki Sakai, and Tsuyoshi Ohta

BACKGROUND

In mechanical thrombectomy for tandem occlusions in vertebrobasilar stroke, distal emboli from the vertebral artery lesion should be prevented. However, no suitable embolic protection devices are currently available in the posterior circulation. Here, the authors describe the case of a vertebral artery lesion effectively treated with a closed-tip stent retriever as an embolic protection device in the posterior circulation.

OBSERVATIONS

A 65-year-old male underwent mechanical thrombectomy for basilar artery occlusion, with tandem occlusion of the proximal vertebral artery. After basilar artery recanalization via the nonoccluded vertebral artery, a subsequent mechanical thrombectomy was performed for the occluded proximal vertebral artery. To prevent distal embolization of the basilar artery, an EmboTrap III stent retriever was deployed as an embolic protection device within the basilar artery to successfully capture the thrombus.

LESSONS

A stent retriever with a closed-tip structure can effectively capture thrombi, making it a suitable distal embolic protection device in the posterior circulation.

Open access

Thoracic spinal cord injury after surgical removal of a ruptured cerebellar arteriovenous malformation in a patient in the Concorde position: illustrative case

Kohei Ishikawa, Hideki Endo, Yasufumi Ohtake, Toshiichi Watanabe, and Hirohiko Nakamura

BACKGROUND

Thoracic spinal cord injury after posterior cranial fossa surgery in younger patients is a rare complication. There have been reports of this complication in tumor and spine fields but not in vascular surgery.

OBSERVATIONS

A 22-year-old-man experienced cerebellar arteriovenous malformation rupture, and the malformation was surgically removed with the man in the Concorde position. After surgery, the man had severe paraplegia, and a thoracic spinal cord injury was diagnosed.

LESSONS

In younger patients, cervical hyperflexion in the Concorde position can cause thoracic spinal cord injury even in surgery for cerebrovascular disease.

Open access

Successful coil embolization of a ruptured pseudoaneurysm of the superior gluteal artery after a percutaneous awake robot-assisted sacroiliac joint fusion: illustrative case

Samah Morsi, Alyssa M Bartlett, Andrew A Hardigan, Mounica Paturu, Shawn W Adams, Malcolm R DeBaun, Waleska Pabon-Ramos, and Muhammad M Abd-El-Barr

BACKGROUND

Robot-assisted sacroiliac joint (SIJ) fusion has gained popularity, but it carries the risk of complications such as injury to the superior gluteal artery (SGA). The authors present the case of an awake percutaneous robot-assisted SIJ fusion leading to an SGA pseudoaneurysm.

OBSERVATIONS

An 80-year-old male, who had undergone an awake percutaneous robot-assisted SIJ fusion, experienced postoperative left hip pain and bruising. Subsequent arteriography demonstrated an SGA branch pseudoaneurysm requiring coil embolization.

LESSONS

An SGA injury, although uncommon (1.2% incidence), can arise from percutaneous screw placement, aberrant anatomy, or hardware contact. Thorough preoperative imaging, precise robot-assisted screw insertion, and soft tissue protection are crucial to mitigate risks. Immediate angiography aids in prompt diagnosis and effective intervention. Comprehensive knowledge of anatomical variants is essential for managing complications and optimizing preventative measures in robot-assisted SIJ fusion.

Open access

Adaptive treatment strategy for a vestibular schwannoma in a patient with vascular Eagle syndrome: illustrative case

Nilay Karaman, Ali Haluk Düzkalir, Mehmet Orbay Askeroglu, Yunus Emre Senturk, Yavuz Samanci, and Selcuk Peker

BACKGROUND

Eagle syndrome, an uncommon condition, causes symptoms due to neural and/or vascular compression from an elongated styloid process or calcified stylohyoid ligament and can also complicate other planned surgical procedures.

OBSERVATIONS

A 42-year-old female with loss of balance, dizziness, and ataxic gait underwent cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), revealing a right-sided Koos grade IV vestibular schwannoma. Initially, a retrosigmoid craniotomy for tumor resection was planned. However, preoperative MRI and computed tomography (CT) showed a dilated right-sided mastoid emissary vein, tortuous scalp and paraspinal veins, and bilateral elongated styloid processes. CT angiography and digital subtraction angiography indicated Eagle syndrome–related compression of both internal jugular veins and concurrent occlusion of the left internal jugular vein at the jugular foramen. Consequently, given the risk of damaging venous structures, Gamma Knife radiosurgery was chosen over resection.

LESSONS

This case highlights the importance of adapting treatment plans based on patient-specific anatomical and pathological factors. In situations in which traditional surgery poses risks to sensitive structures such as the venous system, alternative approaches like radiosurgery offer safer yet effective options. Comprehensive risk-benefit evaluations are crucial for such decisions.

Open access

Aortogenic calcified cerebral embolism diagnosed with an embolus retrieved by thrombectomy: illustrative case

Yasunori Yokochi, Hiroyuki Ikeda, Mai Tanimura, Takuya Osuki, Minami Uezato, Masanori Kinosada, Yoshitaka Kurosaki, and Masaki Chin

BACKGROUND

Calcified cerebral embolism has been reported as a cause of acute cerebral infarction, but an aortogenic origin has rarely been identified as the embolic source. The authors describe a case of aortogenic calcified cerebral embolism in a patient with other embolic sources.

OBSERVATIONS

In a patient with cerebral infarction and atrial fibrillation, a white hard embolus was retrieved by mechanical thrombectomy. Pathological analysis of the embolus revealed that it was mostly calcified, with some foam cells and giant cells. The macroscopic and pathological findings allowed the authors to finally diagnose an aortogenic calcified cerebral embolism.

LESSONS

Even in patients with cardiogenic embolic sources, it is possible to identify a complex aortic atheroma with calcification as the embolic source, based on the macroscopic and pathological findings of the embolus retrieved by mechanical thrombectomy.