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Cerebral vasospasm as a consequence of pituitary apoplexy: illustrative case

Somayah Alsayadi, Rafael Ochoa-Sanchez, Ioana D. Moldovan, and Fahad Alkherayf

BACKGROUND

Cerebral vasospasm is a rare but devastating complication following pituitary apoplexy. Cerebral vasospasm is often associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and early detection is crucial for proper management.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors present a case of cerebral vasospasm after endoscopic endonasal transsphenoid surgery (EETS) in a patient with pituitary apoplexy secondary to pituitary adenoma. They also present a literature review of all similar cases published to date. The patient is a 62-year-old male who presented with headache, nausea, vomiting, weakness, and fatigue. He was diagnosed with pituitary adenoma with hemorrhage, for which he underwent EETS. Pre- and postoperative scans showed SAH. On postoperative day 11, he presented with confusion, aphasia, arm weakness, and unsteady gait. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography scans were consistent with cerebral vasospasm. The patient underwent endovascular treatment of acute intracranial vasospasm and was responsive to intra-arterial milrinone and verapamil infusion of the bilateral internal carotid arteries. There were no further complications.

LESSONS

Cerebral vasospasm is a severe complication that can occur after pituitary apoplexy. It is essential to assess the risk factors linked to the cerebral vasospasm. In addition, a high index of suspicion will allow neurosurgeons to diagnose cerebral vasospasm after EETS early and take the necessary measures to manage it accordingly.

Open access

Pituitary macroadenoma causing vision loss in Wyburn-Mason syndrome: illustrative case

Nicholas F. Hug, David A. Purger, Heather E. Moss, and Robert L. Dodd

BACKGROUND

Wyburn-Mason syndrome (WMS) is a neurocutaneous disorder consisting of vascular malformations of the brain, eye, and skin. These include characteristically high-flow intracranial and intraorbital arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) that present commonly with visual deterioration, headache, and hemiplegia. Complete removal of these lesions is challenging. Most patients are followed closely, and intervention occurs only in the setting of worsening symptoms secondary to AVM growth or hemorrhage. Here the authors present the first known case of a patient with WMS and a pituitary macroadenoma.

OBSERVATIONS

A 62-year-old man with a 30-year history of WMS with right basal ganglia and orbital AVMs and right eye blindness presented for new-onset left-sided vision loss. A pituitary adenoma was identified compressing the optic chiasm and left optic nerve. Magnetic resonance imaging and digital subtraction angiography studies were obtained for surgical planning, and the patient underwent an endoscopic transnasal transsphenoidal resection, with significant postoperative vision improvement.

LESSONS

Given the variable presentation and poor characterization of this rare syndrome, patients with WMS presenting with new symptoms must undergo evaluation for growth and hemorrhage of known AVMs, as well as new lesions. Further, in patients undergoing intracranial surgery, extensive preoperative imaging and planning are crucial for safe and successful procedures.