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Open access

Cerebral vasospasm as a consequence of pituitary apoplexy: illustrative case

Somayah Alsayadi, Rafael Ochoa-Sanchez, Ioana D. Moldovan, and Fahad Alkherayf

BACKGROUND

Cerebral vasospasm is a rare but devastating complication following pituitary apoplexy. Cerebral vasospasm is often associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and early detection is crucial for proper management.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors present a case of cerebral vasospasm after endoscopic endonasal transsphenoid surgery (EETS) in a patient with pituitary apoplexy secondary to pituitary adenoma. They also present a literature review of all similar cases published to date. The patient is a 62-year-old male who presented with headache, nausea, vomiting, weakness, and fatigue. He was diagnosed with pituitary adenoma with hemorrhage, for which he underwent EETS. Pre- and postoperative scans showed SAH. On postoperative day 11, he presented with confusion, aphasia, arm weakness, and unsteady gait. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography scans were consistent with cerebral vasospasm. The patient underwent endovascular treatment of acute intracranial vasospasm and was responsive to intra-arterial milrinone and verapamil infusion of the bilateral internal carotid arteries. There were no further complications.

LESSONS

Cerebral vasospasm is a severe complication that can occur after pituitary apoplexy. It is essential to assess the risk factors linked to the cerebral vasospasm. In addition, a high index of suspicion will allow neurosurgeons to diagnose cerebral vasospasm after EETS early and take the necessary measures to manage it accordingly.

Open access

Repair of internal carotid artery injury with aneurysm clip during endoscopic endonasal surgery: illustrative case

David Fustero de Miguel, Laura Beatriz López López, Amanda Avedillo Ruidíaz, Javier Orduna Martínez, Juan Casado Pellejero, and Jesús Adrián Moles Herbera

BACKGROUND

One of the most feared and dangerous scenarios that can appear during an endoscopic endonasal surgery (EES) is the iatrogenic injury of the internal carotid artery (ICA). Several methods, along with a variety of outcomes, have been described to deal with this complication. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report on the use of a Yasargil-type aneurysm clip to solve an ICA injury, preserving the artery’s patency and having a long-term follow-up. The authors discuss the advantages and disadvantages of other vessel preservation techniques compared with clipping.

OBSERVATIONS

A visually impaired 56-year-old woman was diagnosed with a giant nonfunctional pituitary tumor that invaded the sphenoidal sinus, anterior and posterior ethmoidal cells, and both cavernous sinuses, with suprasellar extension and optochiasmatic compression. The patient underwent EES, and during the final resection phase her left ICA was injured, with massive hemorrhage.

LESSONS

ICA injury during endoscopic skull base surgery carries high mortality and morbidity; it is essential to maintain carotid flow when possible to avoid short-term and long-term consequences. There are several techniques depicted in the literature to deal with this situation. The authors report the use of a Yasargil mini-clip to deal with the injury for a positive outcome: primary hemostasis, vessel preservation, and no postoperative complications.