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Philipp Hendrix, Paul M. Foreman, Mark R. Harrigan, Winfield S. Fisher III, Nilesh A. Vyas, Robert H. Lipsky, Mingkuan Lin, Beverly C. Walters, R. Shane Tubbs, Mohammadali M. Shoja, Jean-Francois Pittet, Mali Mathru, and Christoph J. Griessenauer

OBJECTIVE

Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) is involved in homocysteine and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) metabolism. Both products have been implicated in the pathophysiology of cerebrovascular diseases. The impact of CBS polymorphisms on aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) and its clinical sequelae is poorly understood.

METHODS

Blood samples from all patients enrolled in the CARAS (Cerebral Aneurysm Renin Angiotensin System) study were used for genetic evaluation. The CARAS study prospectively enrolled aSAH patients at 2 academic institutions in the United States from 2012 to 2015. Common CBS polymorphisms were detected using 5′exonuclease genotyping assays. Analysis of associations between CBS polymorphisms and aSAH was performed.

RESULTS

Samples from 149 aSAH patients and 50 controls were available for analysis. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, the insertion allele of the 844ins68 CBS insertion polymorphism showed a dominant effect on aSAH. The GG genotype of the CBS G/A single nucleotide polymorphism (rs234706) was independently associated with unfavorable functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale Score 3–6) at discharge and last follow-up, but not clinical vasospasm or delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI).

CONCLUSIONS

The insertion allele of the 844ins68 CBS insertion polymorphism was independently associated with aSAH while the GG genotype of rs234706 was associated with an unfavorable outcome both at discharge and last follow-up. Increased CBS activity may exert its neuroprotective effects through alteration of H2S levels, and independent of clinical vasospasm and DCI.

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Christoph J. Griessenauer, R. Shane Tubbs, Paul M. Foreman, Michelle H. Chua, Nilesh A. Vyas, Robert H. Lipsky, Mingkuan Lin, Ramaswamy Iyer, Rishikesh Haridas, Beverly C. Walters, Salman Chaudry, Aisana Malieva, Samantha Wilkins, Mark R. Harrigan, Winfield S. Fisher III, and Mohammadali M. Shoja

OBJECTIVE

Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) genetic polymorphisms are thought to play a role in cerebral aneurysm formation and rupture. The Cerebral Aneurysm Renin Angiotensin System (CARAS) study prospectively evaluated associations of common RAS polymorphisms and clinical course after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH).

METHODS

The CARAS study prospectively enrolled aSAH patients at 2 academic centers in the United States. A blood sample was obtained from all patients for genetic evaluation and measurement of plasma angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) concentration. Common RAS polymorphisms were detected using 5′exonuclease genotyping assays and pyrosequencing. Analysis of associations of RAS polymorphisms and clinical course after aSAH were performed.

RESULTS

A total of 166 patients were screened, and 149 aSAH patients were included for analysis. A recessive effect of allele I (insertion) of the ACE I/D (insertion/deletion) polymorphism was identified for Hunt and Hess grade in all patients (OR 2.76, 95% CI 1.17–6.50; p = 0.0206) with subsequent poor functional outcome. There was a similar effect on delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) in patients 55 years or younger (OR 3.63, 95% CI 1.04–12.7; p = 0.0439). In patients older than 55 years, there was a recessive effect of allele A of the angiotensin II receptor Type 2 (AT2) A/C single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on DCI (OR 4.70, 95% CI 1.43–15.4; p = 0.0111).

CONCLUSIONS

Both the ACE I/D polymorphism and the AT2 A/C single nucleotide polymorphism were associated with an age-dependent risk of delayed cerebral ischemia, whereas only the ACE I/D polymorphism was associated with poor clinical grade at presentation. Further studies are required to elucidate the relevant pathophysiology and its potential implication in the treatment of patients with aSAH.

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Paul M. Foreman, Michelle H. Chua, Mark R. Harrigan, Winfield S. Fisher III, R. Shane Tubbs, Mohammadali M. Shoja, and Christoph J. Griessenauer

OBJECTIVE

Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) occurs in approximately 30% of patients. The Practical Risk Chart was developed to predict DCI based on admission characteristics; the authors seek to externally validate and critically appraise this prediction tool.

METHODS

A prospective cohort of aSAH patients was used to externally validate the previously published Practical Risk Chart. The model consists of 4 variables: clinical condition on admission, amount of cisternal and intraventricular blood on CT, and age. External validity was assessed using logistic regression. Model discrimination was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC).

RESULTS

In a cohort of 125 patients with aSAH, the Practical Risk Chart adequately predicted DCI, with an AUC of 0.66 (95% CI 0.55–0.77). Clinical grade on admission and amount of intracranial blood on CT were the strongest predictors of DCI and clinical vasospasm. The best-fit model used a combination of the Hunt and Hess grade and the modified Fisher scale to yield an AUC of 0.76 (95% CI 0.675–0.85) and 0.70 (95% CI 0.602–0.8) for the prediction of DCI and clinical vasospasm, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS

The Practical Risk Chart adequately predicts the risk of DCI following aSAH. However, the best-fit model represents a simpler stratification scheme, using only the Hunt and Hess grade and the modified Fisher scale, and produces a comparable AUC.

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Christoph J. Griessenauer, R. Shane Tubbs, Paul M. Foreman, Michelle H. Chua, Nilesh A. Vyas, Robert H. Lipsky, Mingkuan Lin, Ramaswamy Iyer, Rishikesh Haridas, Beverly C. Walters, Salman Chaudry, Aisana Malieva, Samantha Wilkins, Mark R. Harrigan, Winfield S. Fisher III, and Mohammadali M. Shoja

OBJECTIVE

Renin-angiotensin system (RAS) genetic polymorphisms are thought to play a role in cerebral aneurysm formation and rupture. The Cerebral Aneurysm Renin-Angiotensin System (CARAS) study prospectively evaluated common RAS polymorphisms and their relation to aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH).

METHODS

The CARAS study prospectively enrolled aSAH patients and controls at 2 academic centers in the United States. A blood sample was obtained from all patients for genetic evaluation and measurement of plasma angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) concentration. Common RAS polymorphisms were detected using 5′ exonuclease (TaqMan) genotyping assays and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.

RESULTS

Two hundred forty-eight patients were screened, and 149 aSAH patients and 50 controls were available for analysis. There was a recessive effect of the C allele of the angiotensinogen (AGT) C/T single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (OR 1.94, 95% CI 0.912–4.12, p = 0.0853) and a dominant effect of the G allele of the angiotensin II receptor Type 2 (AT2) G/A SNP (OR 2.11, 95% CI 0.972–4.57, p = 0.0590) on aSAH that did not reach statistical significance after adjustment for potential confounders. The ACE level was significantly lower in aSAH patients with the II genotype (17.6 ± 8.0 U/L) as compared with the ID (22.5 ± 12.1 U/L) and DD genotypes (26.6 ± 14.2 U/L) (p = 0.0195).

CONCLUSIONS

The AGT C/T and AT2 G/A polymorphisms were not significantly associated with aSAH after controlling for potential confounders. However, a strong trend was identified for a dominant effect of the G allele of the AT2 G/A SNP. Downregulation of the local RAS may contribute to the formation of cerebral aneurysms and subsequent presentation with aSAH. Further studies are required to elucidate the relevant pathophysiology and its potential implication in treatment of patients with aSAH.