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Laser interstitial thermal therapy compared with open resection for treating subependymal giant cell astrocytoma

Diane J. Aum, Rebecca A. Reynolds, Sean D. McEvoy, Michael Wong, Jarod L. Roland, and Matthew D. Smyth

OBJECTIVE

Subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs) are WHO grade 1 tumors associated with tuberous sclerosis that classically arise from the ventricular wall near the caudate groove and foramen of Monro. Laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) is a minimally invasive surgical technique, which works by heating a stereotactically placed laser fiber to ablative temperatures under MRI thermometry monitoring. In this paper, the authors present LITT as a surgical alternative to open resection of SEGAs.

METHODS

Twelve patients with SEGAs who underwent 16 procedures between 2007 and 2022 at a single institution were retrospectively reviewed. These patients underwent either open resection or LITT. Clinical data, imaging, recurrence rate, further treatments, and related complications were analyzed.

RESULTS

Among the 16 procedures, 9 were open resection and 7 were LITT. An external ventricular drain was placed in 66% (6/9) of open procedures and 57.1% (4/7) of LITT cases. A septostomy was performed in 56% (5/9) of open procedures and 29% (2/7) of LITT cases. Complication rates were higher in open cases than in LITT procedures (44% vs 0%, p < 0.05). Complications included hydrocephalus, transient venous ischemia, wound infection, and bone flap migration. The median length of hospital stay was 4 days (IQR 3.3–5.5 days) for open cases and 4 days (IQR 3.0–7.0 days) for LITT procedures. Recurrence or progression occurred after 3 open cases and 2 LITT cases (33% vs 33%, p = 0.803). For the recurrences, 2 open cases underwent stereotactic radiosurgery, 1 open case underwent LITT, and 1 LITT case underwent repeat LITT. Among the LITT cases, only the patients with no decrease in tumor size by 6 months experienced tumor progression afterward. The 2 LITT cases with progression were the only ones with calcification present on preoperative imaging. The median follow-up times for cases assessed for progression were 8.4 years (IQR 3.8–14.4 years) for open resection and 3.9 years (IQR 3.4–5.1 years) for LITT.

CONCLUSIONS

The small size of this case series limits generalizability or adequate comparison of safety. However, this series adds to the literature supporting LITT as a less invasive surgical alternative to open resection of SEGAs and demonstrates that LITT has similar recurrence and/or progression rates to open resection. Additional studies with more data are necessary for comprehensive comparisons between open resection and LITT for treating SEGA.

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Magnetic resonance imaging–guided stereotactic laser ablation therapy for the treatment of pediatric epilepsy: a retrospective multiinstitutional study

Elsa V. Arocho-Quinones, Sean M. Lew, Michael H. Handler, Zulma Tovar-Spinoza, Matthew D. Smyth, Robert J. Bollo, David Donahue, M. Scott Perry, Michael Levy, David Gonda, Francesco T. Mangano, Benjamin C. Kennedy, Phillip B. Storm, Angela V. Price, Daniel E. Couture, Chima Oluigbo, Ann-Christine Duhaime, Gene H. Barnett, Carrie R. Muh, Michael D. Sather, Aria Fallah, Anthony C. Wang, Sanjiv Bhatia, Daniel Eastwood, Sergey Tarima, Sarah Graber, Sean Huckins, Daniel Hafez, Kavelin Rumalla, Laurie Bailey, Sabrina Shandley, Ashton Roach, Erin Alexander, Wendy Jenkins, Deki Tsering, George Price, Antonio Meola, Wendi Evanoff, Eric M. Thompson, Nicholas Brandmeir, and for the Pediatric Stereotactic Laser Ablation Workgroup

OBJECTIVE

The authors of this study evaluated the safety and efficacy of stereotactic laser ablation (SLA) for the treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) in children.

METHODS

Seventeen North American centers were enrolled in the study. Data for pediatric patients with DRE who had been treated with SLA between 2008 and 2018 were retrospectively reviewed.

RESULTS

A total of 225 patients, mean age 12.8 ± 5.8 years, were identified. Target-of-interest (TOI) locations included extratemporal (44.4%), temporal neocortical (8.4%), mesiotemporal (23.1%), hypothalamic (14.2%), and callosal (9.8%). Visualase and NeuroBlate SLA systems were used in 199 and 26 cases, respectively. Procedure goals included ablation (149 cases), disconnection (63), or both (13). The mean follow-up was 27 ± 20.4 months. Improvement in targeted seizure type (TST) was seen in 179 (84.0%) patients. Engel classification was reported for 167 (74.2%) patients; excluding the palliative cases, 74 (49.7%), 35 (23.5%), 10 (6.7%), and 30 (20.1%) patients had Engel class I, II, III, and IV outcomes, respectively. For patients with a follow-up ≥ 12 months, 25 (51.0%), 18 (36.7%), 3 (6.1%), and 3 (6.1%) had Engel class I, II, III, and IV outcomes, respectively. Patients with a history of pre-SLA surgery related to the TOI, a pathology of malformation of cortical development, and 2+ trajectories per TOI were more likely to experience no improvement in seizure frequency and/or to have an unfavorable outcome. A greater number of smaller thermal lesions was associated with greater improvement in TST.

Thirty (13.3%) patients experienced 51 short-term complications including malpositioned catheter (3 cases), intracranial hemorrhage (2), transient neurological deficit (19), permanent neurological deficit (3), symptomatic perilesional edema (6), hydrocephalus (1), CSF leakage (1), wound infection (2), unplanned ICU stay (5), and unplanned 30-day readmission (9). The relative incidence of complications was higher in the hypothalamic target location. Target volume, number of laser trajectories, number or size of thermal lesions, or use of perioperative steroids did not have a significant effect on short-term complications.

CONCLUSIONS

SLA appears to be an effective and well-tolerated treatment option for children with DRE. Large-volume prospective studies are needed to better understand the indications for treatment and demonstrate the long-term efficacy of SLA in this population.

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Cost-effectiveness of invasive monitoring strategies in epilepsy surgery

Taylor J. Abel, Nallammai Muthiah, Jasmine L. Hect, Jorge Gonzalez-Martinez, Afshin Salehi, Matthew D. Smyth, and Kenneth J. Smith

OBJECTIVE

Drug-resistant epilepsy occurs in up to 40% of patients with epilepsy who may be considered for epilepsy surgery. For drug-resistant focal epilepsy, up to 50% of patients require invasive monitoring prior to surgery. Of the most common invasive monitoring strategies (subdural electrodes [SDEs] and stereo-electroencephalography [sEEG]), the most cost-effective strategy is unknown despite substantial differences in morbidity profiles.

METHODS

Using data collected from an internationally representative sample published in available systematic reviews and meta-analyses, this economic evaluation study employs a decision analysis model to simulate the risks and benefits of SDE and sEEG invasive monitoring strategies. In this model, patients faced differing risks of morbidity, mortality, resection, and seizure freedom depending on which invasive monitoring strategy they underwent. A range of cost values was obtained from a recently published single-center cost-utility analysis. The model considers a base case simulation of a characteristic patient with drug-resistant epilepsy using clinical parameters obtained from systematic reviews of invasive monitoring available in the literature. The main outcome measure was the probability of a positive outcome after invasive monitoring, which was defined as improvement in seizures without a complication. Cost-effectiveness was measured using an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER).

RESULTS

Invasive monitoring with sEEG had an increased cost of $274 and increased probability of effectiveness of 0.02 compared with SDEs, yielding an ICER of $12,630 per positive outcome obtained. Sensitivity analyses varied parameters widely and revealed consistent model results across the range of clinical parameters reported in the literature. One-way sensitivity analyses revealed that invasive monitoring strategy costs were the most influential parameter for model outcome.

CONCLUSIONS

In this analysis, based on available observational data and estimates of complication costs, invasive monitoring with either SDEs or sEEG was nearly equivalent in terms of cost-effectiveness.

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Impact of age at endoscopic metopic synostosis repair on anthropometric outcomes

Sarah N. Chiang, Erin C. Peterson, David C. Lauzier, Sean D. McEvoy, Gary B. Skolnick, Sybill D. Naidoo, Matthew D. Smyth, and Kamlesh B. Patel

OBJECTIVE

Endoscopic strip craniectomy for metopic craniosynostosis relies on rapid growth and postoperative helmeting for correction. Endoscopic repair is generally performed before patients reach 4 months of age, and outcomes in older patients have yet to be quantified. Here, the authors examined a cohort of patients treated with endoscopic repair before or after 4 months of age to determine aesthetic outcomes of delayed repairs.

METHODS

Data from eligible patients were retrospectively assessed and aggregated in a dedicated metopic synostosis database. Inclusion criteria were radiographically confirmed metopic synostosis and endoscopic treatment. Patients were dichotomized into two groups: those younger than 4 months and those 4 months or older at the time of repair. The frontal width and interfrontal divergence angle (IFDA) were measured on reconstructed CT images. These measurements, alongside operative time, estimated blood loss, and transfusion rates, were compared between groups using the Student t-test or chi-square test.

RESULTS

The study population comprised 28 patients treated before 4 months of age and 8 patients treated at 4–6 months of age. Patient sex and perioperative complications did not differ by age group. Older age at repair was not significantly associated with 1-year postoperative IFDA (140° ± 4.2° vs 142° ± 5.0°, p = 0.28) or frontal width (84 ± 5.2 vs 83 ± 4.4 mm, p = 0.47).

CONCLUSIONS

One-year postoperative IFDA and frontal width do not differ significantly between patients treated before and after 4 months of age. Further study with longer follow-up is necessary to confirm the longevity of these results at skeletal maturity.

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A multi-institutional survey on calvarial vault remodeling techniques for sagittal synostosis and outcomes analysis for patients treated at 12 months and older

David Chi, Ella Gibson, Sarah N. Chiang, Koeun Lee, Sybill D. Naidoo, Amy Lee, Craig Birgfeld, Ian F. Pollack, Jesse Goldstein, Michael Golinko, Christopher M. Bonfield, Faizi A. Siddiqi, John R. W. Kestle, Matthew D. Smyth, Kamlesh B. Patel, and the Synostosis Research Group (SynRG)

OBJECTIVE

Surgical treatment of sagittal craniosynostosis is challenging in older patients. This study aimed to assess the effect of increasing age on open surgical technique selection and patient outcomes using the multi-institutional Synostosis Research Group (SynRG) collaboration.

METHODS

Surgeons in SynRG were surveyed for key influences on their preferred open calvarial vault remodeling techniques at various patient ages: < 6, 6–12, and > 12 months. The SynRG database was then queried for open repairs of nonsyndromic sagittal craniosynostosis performed for patients older than 12 months of age. Perioperative measures, complications, and preoperative and postoperative cephalic indices were reviewed.

RESULTS

All surgeons preferred to treat patients at an earlier age, and most (89%) believed that less-optimal outcomes were achieved at ages older than 12 months. The modified pi procedure was the dominant technique in those younger than 12 months, while more involved open surgical techniques were performed for older patients, with a wide variety of open calvarial vault remodeling techniques used. Forty-four patients met inclusion criteria, with a mean (± SD) age at surgery of 29 ± 16 months. Eleven patients underwent parietal reshaping, 10 parietal-occipital switch, 9 clamshell craniotomy, 7 geometric parietal expansion, 6 modified pi procedure, and 1 parietal distraction. There were no readmissions, complications, or mortality within 30 days postoperatively. Patients’ cephalic indices improved a mean of 6.4% ± 4.0%, with a mean postoperative cephalic index of 74.2% ± 4.9%. Differences in postoperative cephalic index (p < 0.04) and hospital length of stay (p = 0.01) were significant between technique cohorts. Post hoc Tukey-Kramer analysis identified the parietal reshaping technique as being significantly associated with a reduced hospital length of stay.

CONCLUSIONS

Patient age is an important driver in technique selection, with surgeons selecting a more involved calvarial vault remodeling technique in older children. A variety of surgical techniques were analyzed, with the parietal reshaping technique being significantly associated with reduced length of stay; however, multiple perioperative factors may be contributory and require further analysis. When performed at high-volume centers by experienced pediatric neurosurgeons and craniofacial surgeons, open calvarial vault techniques can be a safe method for treating sagittal craniosynostosis in older children.

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Cranial vault imaging for pediatric head trauma using a radial VIBE MRI sequence

Kamlesh B. Patel, Cihat Eldeniz, Gary B. Skolnick, Paul K. Commean, Parna Eshraghi Boroojeni, Udayabhanu Jammalamadaka, Corinne Merrill, Matthew D. Smyth, Manu S. Goyal, and Hongyu An

OBJECTIVE

Head trauma is the most common indication for a CT scan. In this pilot study, the authors assess the feasibility of a 5-minute high-resolution 3D golden-angle (GA) stack-of-stars radial volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) MRI sequence (GA-VIBE) to obtain clinically acceptable cranial bone images and identify cranial vault fractures compared to CT.

METHODS

Patients younger than 18 years of age presenting after head trauma were eligible for the study. Three clinicians reviewed and assessed 1) slice-by-slice volumetric CT and inverted MR images, and 2) 3D reconstructions obtained from inverted MR images and the gold standard (CT). For each image set, reviewers noted on 5-point Likert scales whether they recommended that a repeat scan be performed and the presence or absence of cranial vault fractures.

RESULTS

Thirty-one patients completed MRI after a clinical head CT scan was performed. Based on CT imaging, 8 of 31 patients had cranial fractures. Two of 31 patients were sedated as part of their clinical MRI scan. In 30 (97%) of 31 MRI reviews, clinicians agreed (or strongly agreed) that the image quality was acceptable for clinical diagnosis. Overall, comparing MRI to acceptable gold-standard CT, sensitivity and specificity of fracture detection were 100%. Furthermore, there were no discrepancies between CT and MRI in classification of fracture type or location.

CONCLUSIONS

When compared with the gold standard (CT), the volumetric and 3D reconstructed images using the GA-VIBE sequence were able to produce clinically acceptable cranial images with excellent ability to detect cranial vault fractures.

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Complications and outcomes of posterior fossa decompression with duraplasty versus without duraplasty for pediatric patients with Chiari malformation type I and syringomyelia: a study from the Park-Reeves Syringomyelia Research Consortium

S. Hassan A. Akbari, Alexander T. Yahanda, Laurie L. Ackerman, P. David Adelson, Raheel Ahmed, Gregory W. Albert, Philipp R. Aldana, Tord D. Alden, Richard C. E. Anderson, David F. Bauer, Tammy Bethel-Anderson, Karin Bierbrauer, Douglas L. Brockmeyer, Joshua J. Chern, Daniel E. Couture, David J. Daniels, Brian J. Dlouhy, Susan R. Durham, Richard G. Ellenbogen, Ramin Eskandari, Herbert E. Fuchs, Gerald A. Grant, Patrick C. Graupman, Stephanie Greene, Jeffrey P. Greenfield, Naina L. Gross, Daniel J. Guillaume, Todd C. Hankinson, Gregory G. Heuer, Mark Iantosca, Bermans J. Iskandar, Eric M. Jackson, George I. Jallo, James M. Johnston, Bruce A. Kaufman, Robert F. Keating, Nicklaus R. Khan, Mark D. Krieger, Jeffrey R. Leonard, Cormac O. Maher, Francesco T. Mangano, J. Gordon McComb, Sean D. McEvoy, Thanda Meehan, Arnold H. Menezes, Michael S. Muhlbauer, Brent R. O’Neill, Greg Olavarria, John Ragheb, Nathan R. Selden, Manish N. Shah, Chevis N. Shannon, Joshua S. Shimony, Matthew D. Smyth, Scellig S. D. Stone, Jennifer M. Strahle, Mandeep S. Tamber, James C. Torner, Gerald F. Tuite, Elizabeth C. Tyler-Kabara, Scott D. Wait, John C. Wellons III, William E. Whitehead, Tae Sung Park, and David D. Limbrick Jr.

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this study was to determine differences in complications and outcomes between posterior fossa decompression with duraplasty (PFDD) and without duraplasty (PFD) for the treatment of pediatric Chiari malformation type I (CM1) and syringomyelia (SM).

METHODS

The authors used retrospective and prospective components of the Park-Reeves Syringomyelia Research Consortium database to identify pediatric patients with CM1-SM who received PFD or PFDD and had at least 1 year of follow-up data. Preoperative, treatment, and postoperative characteristics were recorded and compared between groups.

RESULTS

A total of 692 patients met the inclusion criteria for this database study. PFD was performed in 117 (16.9%) and PFDD in 575 (83.1%) patients. The mean age at surgery was 9.86 years, and the mean follow-up time was 2.73 years. There were no significant differences in presenting signs or symptoms between groups, although the preoperative syrinx size was smaller in the PFD group. The PFD group had a shorter mean operating room time (p < 0.0001), fewer patients with > 50 mL of blood loss (p = 0.04), and shorter hospital stays (p = 0.0001). There were 4 intraoperative complications, all within the PFDD group (0.7%, p > 0.99). Patients undergoing PFDD had a 6-month complication rate of 24.3%, compared with 13.7% in the PFD group (p = 0.01). There were no differences between groups for postoperative complications beyond 6 months (p = 0.33). PFD patients were more likely to require revision surgery (17.9% vs 8.3%, p = 0.002). PFDD was associated with greater improvements in headaches (89.6% vs 80.8%, p = 0.04) and back pain (86.5% vs 59.1%, p = 0.01). There were no differences between groups for improvement in neurological examination findings. PFDD was associated with greater reduction in anteroposterior syrinx size (43.7% vs 26.9%, p = 0.0001) and syrinx length (18.9% vs 5.6%, p = 0.04) compared with PFD.

CONCLUSIONS

PFD was associated with reduced operative time and blood loss, shorter hospital stays, and fewer postoperative complications within 6 months. However, PFDD was associated with better symptom improvement and reduction in syrinx size and lower rates of revision decompression. The two surgeries have low intraoperative complication rates and comparable complication rates beyond 6 months.

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School-age outcomes in patients with unilateral coronal synostosis: comparison of fronto-orbital advancement and endoscopic strip craniectomy

Kaamya Varagur, Gary B. Skolnick, Sybill D. Naidoo, Matthew D. Smyth, and Kamlesh B. Patel

OBJECTIVE

Outcomes research on unilateral coronal synostosis is mostly limited to the early postoperative period. This study examines facial asymmetry, desire for revision, and patient-reported outcomes at school age in children who received either endoscopic strip craniectomy with helmet therapy or fronto-orbital advancement (open repair).

METHODS

Patients with repaired unilateral coronal synostosis born between 2000 and 2017, with 3D photographs taken when they were between 3.5 and 8 years of age, were eligible for study inclusion. Three pairs of bilateral linear measurements and two angular measurements were taken. Parent- and physician-reported desire for revision and patient-reported outcomes (Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System cognitive function and Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders stigma scores) were collected from patient charts.

RESULTS

Thirty-five patients qualified, including 25 with open repair and 10 with endoscopic repair. The median patient ages at repair were 3 months and 8 months in the endoscopic and open groups, respectively. The average ages at final 3D photography were 5.8 years and 5.5 years in the endoscopic and open groups, respectively. Digital anthropometry revealed no significant differences in measures of facial asymmetry between the repair groups (p ≥ 0.211). Midface depth (tragion to subnasale) was significantly less symmetric at school age than other linear measures (F(2,102) = 9.14, p < 0.001). Forehead asymmetry was significantly associated with parent- and physician-reported desire for revision (p ≤ 0.006). No significant associations were found between physical asymmetry and patient-reported stigma or cognitive function (p > 0.046, Holm-Bonferroni correction).

CONCLUSIONS

Children who underwent open or endoscopic repair for unilateral coronal synostosis have comparable facial symmetry at school age, but midface depth remains highly asymmetrical in both groups. Forehead asymmetry at school age correlates with parent- and physician-reported desire for revision.

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Single-center cost comparison analysis of stereoelectroencephalography with subdural grid and strip implantation

Afshin Salehi, Peter H. Yang, and Matthew D. Smyth

OBJECTIVE

Use of invasive stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) has gained traction recently. However, scant research has investigated the costs and resource utilization of SEEG compared with subdural grid (SDG)–based techniques in pediatric patients. Here, the authors have presented a retrospective analysis of charges associated with SEEG and SDG monitoring at a single institution.

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective case series analysis of pediatric patients with similar characteristics in terms of age, sex, seizure etiology, and epilepsy treatment strategy who underwent SEEG or SDG monitoring and subsequent craniotomy for resection of epileptogenic focus at St. Louis Children Hospital, St. Louis, Missouri, between 2013 and 2020. Financial data, including hospital charges, supplies, and professional fees (i.e., those related to anesthesia, neurology, neurosurgery, and critical care), were adjusted for inflation to 2020 US dollars.

RESULTS

The authors identified 18 patients (9 underwent SEEG and 9 underwent SDG) with similar characteristics in terms of age (mean [range] 13.6 [1.9–21.8] years for SDG patients vs 11.9 [2.4–19.6] years for SEEG patients, p = 0.607), sex (4 females underwent SDG vs 6 females underwent SEEG, p = 0.637), and presence of lesion (5 patients with a lesion underwent SDG vs 8 underwent SEEG, p = 0.294). All patients underwent subsequent craniotomy for resection of epileptogenic focus. SEEG patients were more likely to have a history of status epilepticus (p = 0.029). Across 1 hospitalization for each SDG patient and 2 hospitalizations for each SEEG patient, SEEG patients had a significantly shorter mean operating room time (288 vs 356 minutes, p = 0.015), mean length of stay in the ICU (1.0 vs 2.1 days, p < 0.001), and tended to have a shorter overall length of stay in the hospital (8.4 vs 10.6 days, p = 0.086). Both groups underwent invasive monitoring for similar lengths of time (5.2 days for SEEG patients vs 6.4 days for SDG patients, p = 0.257). Time to treatment from the initial invasive monitoring evaluation was significantly longer in SEEG patients (64.6 vs 6.4 days, p < 0.001). Neither group underwent readmission within the first 30 days after hospital discharge. Seizure outcomes and complication rates were similar. After adjustment for inflation, the average total perioperative charges were $104,442 for SDG and $106,291 for SEEG (p = 0.800).

CONCLUSIONS

Even though 2 hospitalizations were required for SEEG and 1 hospitalization was required for SDG monitoring, patients who underwent SEEG had a significantly shorter average length of stay in the ICU and operating room time. Surgical morbidity and outcomes were similar. Total perioperative charges for invasive monitoring and resection were approximately 2% higher for SEEG patients when corrected for inflation, but this difference was not statistically significant.

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Genetic and histopathological associations with outcome in pediatric pilocytic astrocytoma

Samuel J. Cler, Alexander Skidmore, Alexander T. Yahanda, Kimberly Mackey, Joshua B. Rubin, Andrew Cluster, Stephanie Perkins, Karen Gauvain, Allison A. King, David D. Limbrick Jr., Sean McEvoy, Tae Sung Park, Matthew D. Smyth, Ali Y. Mian, Michael R. Chicoine, Sonika Dahiya, and Jennifer M. Strahle

OBJECTIVE

Pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) have a generally favorable prognosis; however, progression or recurrence after resection is possible. The prognostic value of histopathological qualifiers (defined below) or BRAF alterations is not well understood. The aim of this study was to identify the prognostic value of genetic and histopathological features of pediatric PAs.

METHODS

Patients treated for a WHO grade I PA at a single institution were analyzed for histopathological and genetic features and outcomes. “Histopathological qualifier” refers to designations such as "WHO grade I PA with increased proliferative index." BRAF alterations include gene fusions and point mutations. Patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 were excluded.

RESULTS

A total of 222 patients were analyzed (51% female, mean age 9.6 years). Tumors were located in the cerebellum/fourth ventricle (51%), optic pathway/hypothalamus (15%), brainstem (12%), and cerebral cortex (11%). BRAF alterations were screened for in 77 patients and identified in 56 (73%). Histopathological qualifiers were present in 27 patients (14%). Resection was performed in 197 patients (89%), 41 (21%) of whom displayed tumor progression or recurrence after resection. Tumor progression or recurrence was not associated with histopathologic qualifiers (p = 0.36) or BRAF alterations (p = 0.77). Ki-67 proliferative indices were not predictive of progression or recurrence (p = 0.94). BRAF alterations, specifically KIAA1549 fusions, were associated with cerebellar/fourth ventricular tumor location (p < 0.0001) and younger patient age (p = 0.03). Patients in whom gross-total resection was achieved had lower rates of progression and recurrence (p < 0.0001).

CONCLUSIONS

Histopathological features/qualifiers and BRAF alterations were not associated with tumor recurrence/progression in pediatric PAs. The extent of resection was the only factor analyzed that predicted outcome.