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Maximilien Riche, Pauline Marijon, Aymeric Amelot, Franck Bielle, Karima Mokhtari, Marc Pineton de Chambrun, Alexandre Le Joncour, Ahmed Idbaih, Mehdi Touat, Chung-Hi Do, Mamadou Deme, Romain Pasqualotto, Alice Jacquens, Vincent Degos, Eimad Shotar, Lydia Chougar, Alexandre Carpentier, and Bertrand Mathon

OBJECTIVE

The literature shows discrepancies in stereotactic brain biopsy complication rates, severities, and outcomes. Little is known about the timeline of postbiopsy complications. This study aimed to analyze 1) complications following brain biopsies, using a graded severity scale, and 2) a timeline of complication occurrence. The secondary objectives were to determine factors associated with an increased risk of complications and to assess complication-related management and extra costs.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively examined 1500 consecutive stereotactic brain biopsies performed in adult patients at their tertiary medical center between April 2009 and April 2019.

RESULTS

Three hundred eighty-one biopsies (25.4%) were followed by a complication, including 88.2% of asymptomatic hemorrhages. Symptomatic complications involved 3.0% of the biopsies, and 0.8% of the biopsies were fatal. The severity grading scale had a 97.6% interobserver reproducibility. Twenty-three (51.1%) of the 45 symptomatic complications occurred within the 1st hour following the biopsy, while 75.6% occurred within the first 6 hours. Age ≥ 65 years, second biopsy procedures, gadolinium-enhanced lesions, glioblastomas, and lymphomas were predictors of biopsy-related complications. Brainstem biopsy-targeted lesions and cerebral toxoplasmosis were predictive of mortality. Asymptomatic hemorrhage was associated with delayed (> 6 hours) symptomatic complications. Symptomatic complications led to extended hospitalization in 86.7% of patients. The average extra cost for management of a patient with postbiopsy symptomatic complication was $35,702.

CONCLUSIONS

Symptomatic complications from brain biopsies are infrequent but associated with substantial adverse effects and cost implications for the healthcare system. The use of a severity grading scale, as the authors propose in this article, helps to classify complications according to the therapeutic consequences and the patient’s outcome. Because this study indicates that most complications occur within the first few hours following the biopsy, postbiopsy monitoring can be tailored accordingly. The authors therefore recommend systematic monitoring for 2 hours in the recovery unit and a CT scan 2 hours after the end of the biopsy procedure. In addition, they propose a modern algorithm for optimal postoperative management of patients undergoing stereotactic biopsy.

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Eimad Shotar, Matthieu Debarre, Nader-Antoine Sourour, Federico Di Maria, Joseph Gabrieli, Aurélien Nouet, Jacques Chiras, Vincent Degos, and Frédéric Clarençon

OBJECTIVE

The authors aimed to design a score for stratifying patients with brain arteriovenous malformation (BAVM) rupture, based on the likelihood of a poor long-term neurological outcome.

METHODS

The records of consecutive patients with BAVM hemorrhagic events who had been admitted over a period of 11 years were retrospectively reviewed. Independent predictors of a poor long-term outcome (modified Rankin Scale score ≥ 3) beyond 1 year after admission were identified. A risk stratification scale was developed and compared with the intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) score to predict poor outcome and inpatient mortality.

RESULTS

One hundred thirty-five patients with 139 independent hemorrhagic events related to BAVM rupture were included in this analysis. Multivariate logistic regression followed by stepwise analysis showed that consciousness level according to the Glasgow Coma Scale (OR 6.5, 95% CI 3.1–13.7, p < 10−3), hematoma volume (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.2–2.8, p = 0.005), and intraventricular hemorrhage (OR 7.5, 95% CI 2.66–21, p < 10−3) were independently associated with a poor outcome. A 12-point scale for ruptured BAVM prognostication was constructed combining these 3 factors. The score obtained using this new scale, the ruptured AVM prognostic (RAP) score, was a stronger predictor of a poor long-term outcome (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC] 0.87, 95% CI 0.8–0.92, p = 0.009) and inpatient mortality (AUC 0.91, 95% CI 0.85–0.95, p = 0.006) than the ICH score. For a RAP score ≥ 6, sensitivity and specificity for predicting poor outcome were 76.8% (95% CI 63.6–87) and 90.8% (95% CI 81.9–96.2), respectively.

CONCLUSIONS

The authors propose a new admission score, the RAP score, dedicated to stratifying the risk of poor long-term outcome after BAVM rupture. This easy-to-use scoring system may help to improve communication between health care providers and consistency in clinical research. Only external prospective cohorts and population-based studies will ensure full validation of the RAP scores' capacity to predict outcome after BAVM rupture.