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Sunil Manjila, Timothy Bazil, Matthew Kay, Unni K. Udayasankar and Maroun Semaan

OBJECTIVE

There is no definitive or consensus classification system for the jugular bulb position that can be uniformly communicated between a radiologist, neurootologist, and neurosurgeon. A high-riding jugular bulb (HRJB) has been variably defined as a jugular bulb that rises to or above the level of the basal turn of the cochlea, within 2 mm of the internal auditory canal (IAC), or to the level of the superior tympanic annulus. Overall, there is a seeming lack of consensus, especially when MRI and/or CT are used for jugular bulb evaluation without a dedicated imaging study of the venous anatomy such as digital subtraction angiography or CT or MR venography.

METHODS

A PubMed analysis of “jugular bulb” comprised of 1264 relevant articles were selected and analyzed specifically for an HRJB. A novel classification system based on preliminary skull base imaging using CT is proposed by the authors for conveying the anatomical location of the jugular bulb. This new classification includes the following types: type 1, no bulb; type 2, below the inferior margin of the posterior semicircular canal (SCC), subclassified as type 2a (without dehiscence into the middle ear) or type 2b (with dehiscence into the middle ear); type 3, between the inferior margin of the posterior SCC and the inferior margin of the IAC, subclassified as type 3a (without dehiscence into the middle ear) and type 3b (with dehiscence into the middle ear); type 4, above the inferior margin of the IAC, subclassified as type 4a (without dehiscence into the IAC) and type 4b (with dehiscence into the IAC); and type 5, combination of dehiscences. Appropriate CT and MR images of the skull base were selected to validate the criteria and further demonstrated using 3D reconstruction of DICOM files. The microsurgical significance of the proposed classification is evaluated with reference to specific skull base/posterior fossa pathologies.

RESULTS

The authors validated the role of a novel classification of jugular bulb location that can help effective communication between providers treating skull base lesions. Effective utilization of the above grading system can help plan surgical procedures and anticipate complications.

CONCLUSIONS

The authors have proposed a novel anatomical/radiological classification system for jugular bulb location with respect to surgical implications. This classification can help surgeons in complication avoidance and management when addressing HRJBs.

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Sunil Manjila, Timothy Bazil, Matthew Thomas, Sunithi Mani, Matthew Kay and Unni Udayasankar

This paper is a narrative review of extraaxial developmental venous anomalies (eDVAs) of the brain involving dural venous flow or sinuses: persistent embryonic sinuses, sinus pericranii, enlarged emissary veins, and venous varices or aneurysmal malformations. The article highlights the natural history, anatomy, embryology, imaging, clinical implications, and neurosurgical significance of these lesions, which the authors believe represent a continuum, with different entities characterized by distinct embryopathologic features. The indications and surgical management options are discussed for these individual intracranial pathologies with relevant illustrations, and a novel classification is proposed for persistent falcine sinus (PFS). The role of neurointervention and/or microsurgery in specific cases such as sinus pericranii and enlarged emissary veins of the skull is highlighted.

A better understanding of the pathophysiology and developmental anatomy of these lesions can reduce treatment morbidity and mortality. Some patients, including those with vein of Galen malformations (VOGMs), can present with the added systemic morbidity of a high-output cardiac failure. Although VOGM is the most studied and classified of the above-mentioned eDVAs, the authors believe that grouping the former with the other venous anomalies/abnormalities listed above would enable the clinician to convey the exact morphophysiological configuration of these lesions, predict their natural history with respect to evolving venous hypertension or stroke, and extrapolate invaluable insights from VOGM treatment to the treatment of other eDVAs. In recent years, many of these symptomatic venous malformations have been treated with endovascular interventions, although these techniques are still being refined. The authors highlight the broad concept of eDVAs and hope that this work will serve as a basis for future studies investigating the role of evolving focal venous hypertension/global intracranial hypertension and possibilities of fetal surgical intervention in these cases.

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Sunil Manjila, Gagandeep Singh, Obinna Ndubuizu, Zoe Jones, Daniel P. Hsu and Alan R. Cohen

The authors demonstrate the use of an endovascular plug in securing a carotid artery pseudoaneurysm in an emergent setting requiring craniotomy for a concurrent subdural empyema.

They describe the case of a 14-year-old boy with sinusitis and bifrontal subdural empyema who underwent transsphenoidal exploration at an outside hospital. An injury to the right cavernous segment of the ICA caused torrential epistaxis. Bleeding was successfully controlled by inflating a Foley balloon catheter within the sphenoid sinus, and the patient was transferred to the authors’ institution. Emergent angiography showed a dissection of the right cavernous carotid artery, with a large pseudoaneurysm projecting into the sphenoid sinus at the site of arterial injury. The right internal carotid artery was obliterated using pushable coils distally and an endovascular plug proximally. The endovascular plug enabled the authors to successfully exclude the pseudoaneurysm from the circulation. The patient subsequently underwent an emergent bifrontal craniotomy for evacuation of a left frontotemporal subdural empyema and exenteration of both frontal sinuses. He made a complete neurological recovery.

Endovascular large-vessel sacrifice, obviating the need for numerous coils and antiplatelet therapy, has a role in the setting of selected acute neurosurgical emergencies necessitating craniotomy. The endovascular plug is a useful adjunct in such circumstances as the device can be deployed rapidly, safely, and effectively.

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Jason K. Hsieh, Christopher S. Hong, Sunil Manjila, Mark L. Cohen, Simon Lo, Lisa Rogers and Andrew E. Sloan

The authors present the case of a primary gliosarcoma with an isocitrate dehydrogenase-1 (IDH1) mutation. A 75-year-old man presented with a 3-day history of multiple focal seizures and was found on MRI to have a 2.2-cm left parietal enhancing mass lesion. Brain MRI for tremor performed 8 years prior to this presentation was normal. En bloc resection revealed a high-grade glioma with sarcomatous components that was immunoreactive for the R132H variant of IDH1 by antibody. Gliosarcoma is a rare variant of glioblastoma that arises most frequently as a primary tumor, and has equal or worse survival and an increased propensity for extracranial metastases compared with other Grade 4 gliomas. In contrast, isocitrate dehydrogenase-1 and -2 mutations are associated with low-grade gliomas with increased survival and less commonly with glioblastoma. To the authors' knowledge, there has been only 1 other published report of a primary gliosarcoma carrying an isocitrate dehydrogenase mutation. This rare genetic-histological combination highlights potential differences between glioblastoma and gliosarcoma and may warrant additional study.

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Berje Shammassian, Sunil Manjila, Efrem Cox, Kaine Onwuzulike, Dehua Wang, Mark Rodgers, Duncan Stearns and Warren R. Selman

Intracranial ectopic salivary gland rests within dural-based lesions are reported very infrequently in the literature. The authors report the unique case of a 12-year-old boy with a cerebellar medulloblastoma positive for sonic hedgehog (Shh) that contained intraaxial mature ectopic salivary gland rests. The patient underwent clinical and radiological monitoring postoperatively, until he died of disseminated disease. An autopsy showed no evidence of salivary glands within disseminated lesions. The intraaxial presence of salivary gland rests and concomitant Shh positivity of the described tumor point to a disorder in differentiation as opposed to ectopic developmental foci, which are uniformly dural based in the described literature. The authors demonstrate the characteristic “papilionaceous” appearance of the salivary glands with mucicarmine stain and highlight the role of Shh signaling in explaining the intraaxial presence of seromucous gland analogs. This article reports the first intraaxial posterior fossa tumor with heterotopic salivary gland rests, and it provides molecular and embryopathological insights into the development of these lesions.

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Anand Kaul, Ahmed Abbas, Gabriel Smith, Sunil Manjila, Jonathan Pace and Michael Steinmetz

Fatal craniovertebral junction (CVJ) injuries were the most common cause of death in high-speed motor sports prior to 2001. Following the death of a mutual friend and race car driver, Patrick Jacquemart (1946–1981), biomechanical engineer Dr. Robert Hubbard, along with race car driver and brother-in-law Jim Downing, developed the concept for the Head and Neck Support (HANS) device to prevent flexion-distraction injuries during high-velocity impact. Biomechanical testing showed that neck shear and loading forces experienced during collisions were 3 times the required amount for a catastrophic injury. Crash sled testing with and without the HANS device elucidated reductions in neck tension, neck compression, head acceleration, and chest acceleration experienced by dummies during high-energy crashes. Simultaneously, motor sports accidents such as Dale Earnhardt Sr.'s fatal crash in 2001 galvanized public opinion in favor of serious safety reform. Analysis of Earnhardt's accident demonstrated that his car's velocity parallel to the barrier was more than 150 miles per hour (mph), with deceleration upon impact of roughly 43 mph in a total of 0.08 seconds. After careful review, several major racing series such as the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR) and Championship Auto Racing Team (CART) made major changes to ensure the safety of drivers at the turn of the 21st century. Since the rule requiring the HANS device in professional auto racing series was put in place, there has not been a single reported case of a fatal CVJ injury.

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Sunil Manjila, Margherita Mencattelli, Benoit Rosa, Karl Price, Georgios Fagogenis and Pierre E. Dupont

OBJECTIVE

Rigid endoscopes enable minimally invasive access to the ventricular system; however, the operative field is limited to the instrument tip, necessitating rotation of the entire instrument and causing consequent tissue compression while reaching around corners. Although flexible endoscopes offer tip steerability to address this limitation, they are more difficult to control and provide fewer and smaller working channels. A middle ground between these instruments—a rigid endoscope that possesses multiple instrument ports (for example, one at the tip and one on the side)—is proposed in this article, and a prototype device is evaluated in the context of a third ventricular colloid cyst resection combined with septostomy.

METHODS

A prototype neuroendoscope was designed and fabricated to include 2 optical ports, one located at the instrument tip and one located laterally. Each optical port includes its own complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) chip camera, light-emitting diode (LED) illumination, and working channels. The tip port incorporates a clear silicone optical window that provides 2 additional features. First, for enhanced safety during tool insertion, instruments can be initially seen inside the window before they extend from the scope tip. Second, the compliant tip can be pressed against tissue to enable visualization even in a blood-filled field. These capabilities were tested in fresh porcine brains. The image quality of the multiport endoscope was evaluated using test targets positioned at clinically relevant distances from each imaging port, comparing it with those of clinical rigid and flexible neuroendoscopes. Human cadaver testing was used to demonstrate third ventricular colloid cyst phantom resection through the tip port and a septostomy performed through the lateral port. To extend its utility in the treatment of periventricular tumors using MR-guided laser therapy, the device was designed to be MR compatible. Its functionality and compatibility inside a 3-T clinical scanner were also tested in a brain from a freshly euthanized female pig.

RESULTS

Testing in porcine brains confirmed the multiport endoscope's ability to visualize tissue in a blood-filled field and to operate inside a 3-T MRI scanner. Cadaver testing confirmed the device's utility in operating through both of its ports and performing combined third ventricular colloid cyst resection and septostomy with an endoscope rotation of less than 5°.

CONCLUSIONS

The proposed design provides freedom in selecting both the number and orientation of imaging and instrument ports, which can be customized for each ventricular pathological entity. The lightweight, easily manipulated device can provide added steerability while reducing the potential for the serious brain distortion that happens with rigid endoscope navigation. This capability would be particularly valuable in treating hydrocephalus, both primary and secondary (due to tumors, cysts, and so forth). Magnetic resonance compatibility can aid in endoscope-assisted ventricular aqueductal plasty and stenting, the management of multiloculated complex hydrocephalus, and postinflammatory hydrocephalus in which scarring obscures the ventricular anatomy.

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David J. Bonda, Sunil Manjila, Prachi Mehndiratta, Fahd Khan, Benjamin R. Miller, Kaine Onwuzulike, Gianfranco Puoti, Mark L. Cohen, Lawrence B. Schonberger and Ignazio Cali

The human prion diseases, or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, have captivated our imaginations since their discovery in the Fore linguistic group in Papua New Guinea in the 1950s. The mysterious and poorly understood “infectious protein” has become somewhat of a household name in many regions across the globe. From bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), commonly identified as mad cow disease, to endocannibalism, media outlets have capitalized on these devastatingly fatal neurological conditions. Interestingly, since their discovery, there have been more than 492 incidents of iatrogenic transmission of prion diseases, largely resulting from prion-contaminated growth hormone and dura mater grafts. Although fewer than 9 cases of probable iatrogenic neurosurgical cases of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) have been reported worldwide, the likelihood of some missed cases and the potential for prion transmission by neurosurgery create considerable concern. Laboratory studies indicate that standard decontamination and sterilization procedures may be insufficient to completely remove infectivity from prion-contaminated instruments. In this unfortunate event, the instruments may transmit the prion disease to others. Much caution therefore should be taken in the absence of strong evidence against the presence of a prion disease in a neurosurgical patient. While the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and World Health Organization (WHO) have devised risk assessment and decontamination protocols for the prevention of iatrogenic transmission of the prion diseases, incidents of possible exposure to prions have unfortunately occurred in the United States. In this article, the authors outline the historical discoveries that led from kuru to the identification and isolation of the pathological prion proteins in addition to providing a brief description of human prion diseases and iatrogenic forms of CJD, a brief history of prion disease nosocomial transmission, and a summary of the CDC and WHO guidelines for prevention of prion disease transmission and decontamination of prion-contaminated neurosurgical instruments.

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Sunil Manjila, Gagandeep Singh, Ayham M. Alkhachroum and Ciro Ramos-Estebanez

Edward Muybridge was an Anglo-American photographer, well known for his pioneering contributions in photography and his invention of the “zoopraxiscope,” a forerunner of motion pictures. However, this 19th-century genius, with two original patents in photographic technology, made outstanding contributions in art and neurology alike, the latter being seldom acknowledged. A head injury that he sustained changed his behavior and artistic expression. The shift of his interests from animal motion photography to human locomotion and gait remains a pivotal milestone in our understanding of patterns in biomechanics and clinical neurology, while his own behavioral patterns, owing to an injury to the orbitofrontal cortex, remain a mystery even for cognitive neurologists. The behavioral changes he exhibited and the legal conundrum that followed, including a murder of which he was acquitted, all depict the complexities of his personality and impact of frontal lobe injuries. This article highlights the life journey of Muybridge, drawing parallels with Phineas Gage, whose penetrating head injury has been studied widely. The wide sojourn of Muybridge also illustrates the strong connections that he maintained with Stanford and Pennsylvania universities, which were later considered pinnacles of higher education on the two coasts of the United States.

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Swetha J. Sundar, Jason K. Hsieh, Sunil Manjila, Justin D. Lathia and Andrew Sloan

Recurrence in glioblastoma is nearly universal, and its prognosis remains dismal despite significant advances in treatment over the past decade. Glioblastoma demonstrates considerable intratumoral phenotypic and molecular heterogeneity and contains a population of cancer stem cells that contributes to tumor propagation, maintenance, and treatment resistance. Cancer stem cells are functionally defined by their ability to self-renew and to differentiate, and they constitute the diverse hierarchy of cells composing a tumor. When xenografted into an appropriate host, they are capable of tumorigenesis. Given the critical role of cancer stem cells in the pathogenesis of glioblastoma, research into their molecular and phenotypic characteristics is a therapeutic priority. In this review, the authors discuss the evolution of the cancer stem cell model of tumorigenesis and describe the specific role of cancer stem cells in the pathogenesis of glioblastoma and their molecular and microenvironmental characteristics. They also discuss recent clinical investigations into targeted therapies against cancer stem cells in the treatment of glioblastoma.