Kamlesh S. Bhaisora, Kuntal Kanti Das, Suyash Singh and Arun K. Srivastava
Fabio A. Frisoli, Joshua S. Catapano, Jacob F. Baranoski and Michael T. Lawton
The anterior and posterior communicating arteries are natural connections between arteries that enable different adjacent circulations to redistribute blood flow instantly in response to changing supply and demand. An analogous communication does not exist in the middle cerebral circulation. A middle communicating artery (MCoA) can be created microsurgically between separate middle cerebral artery (MCA) trunks, enabling flow to redistribute in response to changing supply and demand. The MCoA would draw blood flow from an adjacent circulation such as the external carotid circulation. The MCoA requires the application of fourth-generation techniques to reconstruct bi- and trifurcations after occluding complex MCA trunk aneurysms. In this report, the authors describe two recent cases of complex MCA bi- and trifurcation aneurysms in which the occluded efferent trunks were revascularized by creating an MCoA.
The first MCoA was created with a “double-barrel” superficial temporal artery–M2 segment bypass and end-to-end reimplantation of the middle and inferior MCA trunks. The second MCoA was created with an external carotid artery–radial artery graft–M2 segment interpositional bypass and end-to-side reimplantation of the inferior trunk onto the superior trunk. Both aneurysms were occluded, and both patients experienced good outcomes.
This report introduces the concept of the MCoA and demonstrates two variations. Angioarchitectural and technical elements include the donation of flow from an adjacent circulation, a communicating bypass, the application of fourth-generation bypass techniques, and a minimized ischemia time. The MCoA construct is ideally suited for rebuilding bi- and trifurcated anatomy after trapping or distally occluding complex MCA aneurysms.
Xiaochun Zhao, Ali Tayebi Meybodi, Mohamed A. Labib, Sirin Gandhi, Evgenii Belykh, Komal Naeem, Mark C. Preul, Peter Nakaji and Michael T. Lawton
Aneurysms that arise on the medial surface of the paraclinoid segment of the internal carotid artery (ICA) are surgically challenging. The contralateral interoptic trajectory, which uses the space between the optic nerves, can partially expose the medial surface of the paraclinoid ICA. In this study, the authors quantitatively measure the area of the medial ICA accessible through the interoptic triangle and propose a potential patient-selection algorithm that is based on preoperative measurements on angiographic imaging.
The contralateral interoptic trajectory was studied on 10 sides of 5 cadaveric heads, through which the medial paraclinoid ICA was identified. The falciform ligament medial to the contralateral optic canal was incised, the contralateral optic nerve was gently elevated, and the medial surface of the paraclinoid ICA was inspected via different viewing angles to obtain maximal exposure. The accessible area on the carotid artery was outlined. The distance from the distal dural ring (DDR) to the proximal and distal borders of this accessible area was measured. The superior and inferior borders were measured using the clockface method relative to a vertical line on the coronal plane. To validate these parameters, preoperative measurements and intraoperative findings were reviewed in 8 clinical cases.
In the sagittal plane, the mean (SD) distances from the DDR to the proximal and distal ends of the accessible area on the paraclinoid ICA were 2.5 (1.52) mm and 8.4 (2.32) mm, respectively. In the coronal plane, the mean (SD) angles of the superior and inferior ends of the accessible area relative to a vertical line were 21.7° (14.84°) and 130.9° (12.75°), respectively. Six (75%) of 8 clinical cases were consistent with the proposed patient-selection algorithm.
The contralateral interoptic approach is a feasible route to access aneurysms that arise from the medial paraclinoid ICA. An aneurysm can be safely clipped via the contralateral interoptic trajectory if 1) both proximal and distal borders of the aneurysm neck are 2.5–8.4 mm distal to the DDR, and 2) at least one border of the aneurysm neck on the coronal clockface is 21.7°–130.9° medial to the vertical line.
Jacob F. Baranoski, Ankush Bajaj, Colin J. Przybylowski, Joshua S. Catapano, Fabio A. Frisoli, Michael J. Lang and Michael T. Lawton
Supracerebellar transtentorial (SCTT) approaches have become a popular option for treatment of a variety of pathologies in the medial and basal temporal and occipital lobes and thalamus. Transtentorial approaches provide numerous advantages over transcortical approaches, including obviating the need to traverse eloquent cortex, not requiring parenchymal retraction, and circumventing critical vascular structures. All of these approaches require a tentorial opening, and numerous techniques for retraction of the incised tentorium have been described, including sutures, fixed retractors, and electrocautery. However, all of these techniques have considerable drawbacks and limitations. The authors describe a novel application of clip retraction of the tentorium to the supracerebellar approaches in which an aneurysm clip is used to suspend the tentorial flap, and an illustrative case is provided. Clip retraction of the tentorium is an efficient, straightforward adaptation of an established technique, typically used for subtemporal approaches, that improves visualization and surgical ergonomics with little risk to nearby venous structures. The authors find this technique particularly useful for the contralateral SCTT approaches.
Ethan A. Winkler, Alex Lu, Ramin A. Morshed, John K. Yue, W. Caleb Rutledge, Jan-Karl Burkhardt, Arati B. Patel, Simon G. Ammanuel, Steve Braunstein, Christine K. Fox, Heather J. Fullerton, Helen Kim, Daniel Cooke, Steven W. Hetts, Michael T. Lawton, Adib A. Abla and Nalin Gupta
Brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) consist of dysplastic blood vessels with direct arteriovenous shunts that can hemorrhage spontaneously. In children, a higher lifetime hemorrhage risk must be balanced with treatment-related morbidity. The authors describe a collaborative, multimodal strategy resulting in effective and safe treatment of pediatric AVMs.
A retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained database was performed in children with treated and nontreated pediatric AVMs at the University of California, San Francisco, from 1998 to 2017. Inclusion criteria were age ≤ 18 years at time of diagnosis and an AVM confirmed by a catheter angiogram.
The authors evaluated 189 pediatric patients with AVMs over the study period, including 119 ruptured (63%) and 70 unruptured (37%) AVMs. The mean age at diagnosis was 11.6 ± 4.3 years. With respect to Spetzler-Martin (SM) grade, there were 38 (20.1%) grade I, 40 (21.2%) grade II, 62 (32.8%) grade III, 40 (21.2%) grade IV, and 9 (4.8%) grade V lesions. Six patients were managed conservatively, and 183 patients underwent treatment, including 120 resections, 82 stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), and 37 endovascular embolizations. Forty-four of 49 (89.8%) high-grade AVMs (SM grade IV or V) were treated. Multiple treatment modalities were used in 29.5% of low-grade and 27.3% of high-grade AVMs. Complete angiographic obliteration was obtained in 73.4% of low-grade lesions (SM grade I–III) and in 45.2% of high-grade lesions. A periprocedural stroke occurred in a single patient (0.5%), and there was 1 treatment-related death. The mean clinical follow-up for the cohort was 4.1 ± 4.6 years, and 96.6% and 84.3% of patients neurologically improved or remained unchanged in the ruptured and unruptured AVM groups following treatment, respectively. There were 16 bleeding events following initiation of AVM treatment (annual rate: 0.02 events per person-year).
Coordinated multidisciplinary evaluation and individualized planning can result in safe and effective treatment of children with AVMs. In particular, it is possible to treat the majority of high-grade AVMs with an acceptable safety profile. Judicious use of multimodality therapy should be limited to appropriately selected patients after thorough team-based discussions to avoid additive morbidity. Future multicenter studies are required to better design predictive models to aid with patient selection for multimodal pediatric care, especially with high-grade AVMs.
Christopher S. Graffeo and Michael T. Lawton
Oliver Y. Tang, James S. Yoon, Anna R. Kimata and Michael T. Lawton
Previous research has demonstrated the association between increased hospital volume and improved outcomes for a wide range of neurosurgical conditions, including adult neurotrauma. The authors aimed to determine if such a relationship was also present in the care of pediatric neurotrauma patients.
The authors identified 106,146 pediatric admissions for traumatic intracranial hemorrhage (tICH) in the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) for the period 2002–2014 and 34,017 admissions in the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB) for 2012–2015. Hospitals were stratified as high volume (top 20%) or low volume (bottom 80%) according to their pediatric tICH volume. Then the association between high-volume status and favorable discharge disposition, inpatient mortality, complications, and length of stay (LOS) was assessed. Multivariate regression modeling was used to control for patient demographics, severity metrics, hospital characteristics, and performance of neurosurgical procedures.
In each database, high-volume hospitals treated over 60% of pediatric tICH admissions. In the NIS, patients at high-volume hospitals presented with worse severity metrics and more frequently underwent neurosurgical intervention over medical management (all p < 0.001). After multivariate adjustment, admission to a high-volume hospital was associated with increased odds of a favorable discharge (home or short-term facility) in both databases (both p < 0.001). However, there were no significant differences in inpatient mortality (p = 0.208). Moreover, high-volume hospital patients had lower total complications in the NIS and lower respiratory complications in both databases (all p < 0.001). Although patients at high-volume hospitals in the NTDB had longer hospital stays (β-coefficient = 1.17, p < 0.001), they had shorter stays in the intensive care unit (β-coefficient = 0.96, p = 0.024). To determine if these findings were attributable to the trauma center level rather than case volume, an analysis was conducted with only level I pediatric trauma centers (PTCs) in the NTDB. Similarly, treatment at a high-volume level I PTC was associated with increased odds of a favorable discharge (OR 1.28, p = 0.009), lower odds of pneumonia (OR 0.60, p = 0.007), and a shorter total LOS (β-coefficient = 0.92, p = 0.024).
Pediatric tICH patients admitted to high-volume hospitals exhibited better outcomes, particularly in terms of discharge disposition and complications, in two independent national databases. This trend persisted when examining level I PTCs exclusively, suggesting that volume alone may have an impact on pediatric neurotrauma outcomes. These findings highlight the potential merits of centralizing neurosurgery and pursuing regionalization policies, such as interfacility transport networks and destination protocols, to optimize the care of children affected by traumatic brain injury.
Sirin Gandhi, Tsinsue Chen, Justin R. Mascitelli, Claudio Cavallo, Mohamed A. Labib, Michael J. Lang and Michael T. Lawton
This video illustrates a contralateral supracerebellar transtentorial (cSCTT) approach for resection of a ruptured thalamic cavernous malformation in a 56-year-old woman with progressive right-sided homonymous hemianopsia. The patient was placed in the sitting position, and a torcular craniotomy was performed for the cSCTT approach. The lesion was resected completely. Postoperatively, the patient had intact motor strength and baseline visual field deficits with moderate right-sided paresthesias. The cSCTT approach maximizes the lateral surgical reach without the cortical transgression seen with alternative transcortical routes. Contralaterality is a defining feature, with entry of the neurosurgeon’s instruments from the craniotomy edge of the craniotomy, contralateral to the lesion, allowing access to the lateral aspect of the lesion. The sitting position facilitates gravity-assisted cerebellar retraction and enhances the superior reach of this approach (Used with permission from Barrow Neurological Institute, Phoenix, Arizona).
The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/lqB9mu_T8NQ.
The future of open vascular neurosurgery: perspectives on cavernous malformations, AVMs, and bypasses for complex aneurysms
JNSPG 75th Anniversary Invited Review Article
Michael T. Lawton and Michael J. Lang
Despite the erosion of microsurgical case volume because of advances in endovascular and radiosurgical therapies, indications remain for open resection of pathology and highly technical vascular repairs. Treatment risk, efficacy, and durability make open microsurgery a preferred option for cerebral cavernous malformations, arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), and many aneurysms. In this paper, a 21-year experience with 7348 cases was reviewed to identify trends in microsurgical management. Brainstem cavernous malformations (227 cases), once considered inoperable and managed conservatively, are now resected in increasing numbers through elegant skull base approaches and newly defined safe entry zones, demonstrating that microsurgical techniques can be applied in ways that generate entirely new areas of practice. Despite excellent results with microsurgery for low-grade AVMs, brain AVM management (836 cases) is being challenged by endovascular embolization and radiosurgery, as well as by randomized trials that show superior results with medical management. Reviews of ARUBA-eligible AVM patients treated at high-volume centers have demonstrated that open microsurgery with AVM resection is still better than many new techniques and less invasive approaches that are occlusive or obliterative. Although the volume of open aneurysm surgery is declining (4479 cases), complex aneurysms still require open microsurgery, often with bypass techniques. Intracranial arterial reconstructions with reimplantations, reanastomoses, in situ bypasses, and intracranial interpositional bypasses (third-generation bypasses) augment conventional extracranial-intracranial techniques (first- and second-generation bypasses) and generate innovative bypasses in deep locations, such as for anterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysms. When conventional combinations of anastomoses and suturing techniques are reshuffled, a fourth generation of bypasses results, with eight new types of bypasses. Type 4A bypasses use in situ suturing techniques within the conventional anastomosis, whereas type 4B bypasses maintain the basic construct of reimplantations or reanastomoses but use an unconventional anastomosis. Bypass surgery (605 cases) demonstrates that open microsurgery will continue to evolve. The best neurosurgeons will be needed to tackle the complex lesions that cannot be managed with other modalities. Becoming an open vascular neurosurgeon will be intensely competitive. The microvascular practice of the future will require subspecialization, collaborative team effort, an academic medical center, regional prominence, and a large catchment population, as well as a health system that funnels patients from hospital networks outside the region. Dexterity and meticulous application of microsurgical technique will remain the fundamental skills of the open vascular neurosurgeon.