Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 22 items for :

  • Neurosurgical Focus x
  • Refine by Access: user x
  • By Author: Jabbour, Pascal x
Clear All
Free access

Rawad Abbas, Fadi Al Saiegh, Kareem El Naamani, Ching-Jen Chen, Lohit Velagapudi, Georgios S. Sioutas, Joshua H. Weinberg, Stavropoula Tjoumakaris, M. Reid Gooch, Nabeel A. Herial, Robert H. Rosenwasser, and Pascal Jabbour

OBJECTIVE

Over the past 2 decades, robots have been increasingly used in surgeries to help overcome human limitations and perform precise and accurate tasks. Endovascular robots were pioneered in interventional cardiology, however, the CorPath GRX was recently approved by the FDA for peripheral vascular and extracranial interventions. The authors aimed to evaluate the operational learning curve for robot-assisted carotid artery stenting over a period of 19 months at a single institution.

METHODS

A retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained database was conducted, and 14 consecutive patients who underwent robot-assisted carotid artery stenting from December 2019 to June 2021 were identified. The metrics for proficiency were the total fluoroscopy and procedure times, contrast volume used, and radiation dose. To evaluate operator progress, the patients were divided into 3 groups of 5, 4, and 5 patients based on the study period.

RESULTS

A total of 14 patients were included. All patients received balloon angioplasty and stent placement. The median degree of stenosis was 95%. Ten patients (71%) were treated via the transradial approach and 4 patients (29%) via the transfemoral approach, with no procedural complications. The median contrast volume used was 80 mL, and the median radiation dose was 38,978.5 mGy/cm2. The overall median fluoroscopy and procedure times were 24.6 minutes and 70.5 minutes, respectively. Subgroup analysis showed a significant decrease in these times, from 32 minutes and 86 minutes, respectively, in group 1 to 21.9 minutes and 62 minutes, respectively, in group 3 (p = 0.002 and p = 0.008, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS

Robot-assisted carotid artery stenting was found to be safe and effective, and the learning curve for robotic procedures was overcome within a short period of time at a high-volume cerebrovascular center.

Free access

Purvee D. Patel, Nohra Chalouhi, Elias Atallah, Stavropoula Tjoumakaris, David Hasan, Hekmat Zarzour, Robert Rosenwasser, and Pascal Jabbour

The Pipeline embolization device (PED) is the most widely used flow diverter in endovascular neurosurgery. In 2011, the device received FDA approval for the treatment of large and giant aneurysms in the internal carotid artery extending from the petrous to the superior hypophyseal segments. However, as popularity of the device grew and neurosurgeons gained more experience, its use has extended to several other indications. Some of these off-label uses include previously treated aneurysms, acutely ruptured aneurysms, small aneurysms, distal circulation aneurysms, posterior circulation aneurysms, fusiform aneurysms, dissecting aneurysms, pseudoaneurysms, and even carotid-cavernous fistulas. The authors present a literature review of the safety and efficacy of the PED in these off-label uses.

Free access

Edison P. Valle-Giler, Elias Atallah, Stavropoula Tjoumakaris, Robert H. Rosenwasser, and Pascal Jabbour

The Pipeline embolization device (PED) has become a very important tool in the treatment of nonruptured cerebral aneurysms. However, a patient’s difficult anatomy or vascular stenosis may affect the device delivery. The purpose of this article was to describe an alternate technique for PED deployment when ipsilateral anatomy is not amenable for catheter navigation.

A 44-year-old woman with a symptomatic 6-mm right superior hypophyseal artery aneurysm and a known history of right internal carotid artery dissection presented for PED treatment of her aneurysm. An angiogram showed persistence of the arterial dissection with luminal stenosis after 6 months of dual antiplatelet treatment. The contralateral internal carotid artery was catheterized and the PED was deployed via a transcirculation approach, using the anterior communicating artery. Transcirculation deployment of a PED is a viable option when ipsilateral anatomy is difficult or contraindicated for this treatment.

Free access

Badih Daou, Petra Klinge, Stavropoula Tjoumakaris, Robert H. Rosenwasser, and Pascal Jabbour

OBJECTIVE

There are several etiologies that can lead to the development of secondary normal pressure hydrocephalus (sNPH). The aim of this study was to evaluate the etiology, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome in patients with sNPH and to highlight important differences between the separate etiologies.

METHODS

A comprehensive review of the literature was performed to identify studies conducted between 1965 and 2015 that included data regarding the etiology, treatment, diagnosis, and outcome in patients with sNPH. Sixty-four studies with a total of 1309 patients were included. The inclusion criteria of this study were articles that were written in English, included more than 2 patients with the diagnosis of sNPH, and contained data regarding the etiology, diagnosis, treatment, or outcome of NPH. The most common assessment of clinical improvement was based on the Stein and Langfitt grading scale or equivalent improvement on other alternative ordinal grading scales.

RESULTS

The main etiologies of sNPH were subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in 46.5%, head trauma in 29%, intracranial malignancies in 6.2%, meningoencephalitis in 5%, and cerebrovascular disease in 4.5% of patients. In 71.9% of patients the sNPH was treated with ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement, and 24.4% had placement of a ventriculoatrial shunt. Clinical improvement after shunt placement was reported in 74.4% and excellent clinical improvement in 58% of patients with sNPH. The mean follow-up period after shunt placement was 13 months. Improvement was seen in 84.2% of patients with SAH, 83% of patients with head trauma, 86.4% of patients with brain tumors, 75% of patients with meningoencephalitis, and 64.7% of patients with NPH secondary to stroke.

CONCLUSIONS

Secondary NPH encompasses a diverse group of clinical manifestations associated with a subset of patients with acquired hydrocephalus. The most common etiologies of sNPH include SAH and traumatic brain injury. Secondary NPH does indeed exist, and should be differentiated from idiopathic NPH based on outcome and on clinical, pathophysiological, and epidemiological characteristics, but should not be considered as a separate entity.

Free access

Thana Theofanis, Nohra Chalouhi, Richard Dalyai, Robert M. Starke, Pascal Jabbour, Robert H. Rosenwasser, and Stavropoula Tjoumakaris

Object

The authors conducted a study to assess the safety and efficacy of microsurgical resection of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and determine predictors of complications.

Methods

A total of 264 patients with cerebral AVMs were treated with microsurgical resection between 1994 and 2010 at the Jefferson Hospital for Neuroscience. A review of patient data was performed, including initial hemorrhage, clinical presentation, Spetzler-Martin (SM) grade, treatment modalities, clinical outcomes, and obliteration rates. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to determine predictors of operative complications.

Results

Of the 264 patients treated with microsurgery, 120 (45%) patients initially presented with hemorrhage. There were 27 SM Grade I lesions (10.2%), 101 Grade II lesions (38.3%), 96 Grade III lesions (36.4%), 31 Grade IV lesions (11.7%), and 9 Grade V lesions (3.4%). Among these patients, 102 (38.6%) had undergone prior endovascular embolization. In all patients, resection resulted in complete obliteration of the AVM. Complications occurred in 19 (7.2%) patients and resulted in permanent neurological deficits in 5 (1.9%). In multivariate analysis, predictors of complications were increasing AVM size (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.5–6.6; p = 0.001), increasing number of embolizations (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1–2.2; p = 0.01), and unruptured AVMs (OR 2.7, 95% CI 1–7.2; p = 0.05).

Conclusions

Microsurgical resection of AVMs is highly efficient and can be undertaken with low rates of morbidity at high-volume neurovascular centers. Unruptured and larger AVMs were associated with higher complication rates.

Free access

Richard Dalyai, Robert M. Starke, Nohra Chalouhi, Thana Theofanis, Christopher Busack, Pascal Jabbour, L. Fernando Gonzalez, Robert Rosenwasser, and Stavropoula Tjoumakaris

Object

Cigarette smoking has been well established as a risk factor in vascular pathology, such as cerebral aneurysms. However, tobacco’s implications for patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are controversial. The object of this study was to identify predictors of AVM obliteration and risk factors for complications.

Methods

The authors conducted a retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained database for all patients with AVMs treated using surgical excision, staged endovascular embolization (with N-butyl-cyanoacrylate or Onyx), stereotactic radiosurgery (Gamma Knife or Linear Accelerator), or a combination thereof between 1994 and 2010. Medical risk factors, such as smoking, abuse of alcohol or intravenous recreational drugs, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and coronary artery disease, were documented. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to detect predictors of periprocedural complications, obliteration, and posttreatment hemorrhage.

Results

Of 774 patients treated at a single tertiary care cerebrovascular center, 35% initially presented with symptomatic hemorrhage and 57.6% achieved complete obliteration according to digital subtraction angiography (DSA) or MRI. In a multivariate analysis a negative smoking history (OR 1.9, p = 0.006) was a strong independent predictor of AVM obliteration. Of the patients with obliterated AVMs, 31.9% were smokers, whereas 45% were not (p = 0.05). Multivariate analysis of obliteration, after controlling for AVM size and location (eloquent vs noneloquent tissue), revealed that nonsmokers were more likely (0.082) to have obliterated AVMs through radiosurgery. Smoking was not predictive of treatment complications or posttreatment hemorrhage. Abuse of alcohol or intravenous recreational drugs, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes mellitus, and coronary artery disease had no discernible effect on AVM obliteration, periprocedural complications, or posttreatment hemorrhage.

Conclusions

Cerebral AVM patients with a history of smoking are significantly less likely than those without a smoking history to have complete AVM obliteration on follow-up DSA or MRI. Therefore, patients with AVMs should be strongly advised to quit smoking.

Free access

Kenan AlKhalili, Nohra Chalouhi, Stavropoula Tjoumakaris, Robert Rosenwasser, and Pascal Jabbour

Stereotactic radiosurgery is an effective management strategy for properly selected patients with arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). However, the risk of postradiosurgical radiation-related injury is higher in patients with large AVMs. Multistaged volumetric management of large AVMs was undertaken to limit the radiation exposure to the surrounding normal brain. This strategy offers a promising method for obtaining high AVM obliteration rates with minimal normal tissue damage. The use of embolization as an adjunctive method in the treatment of large AVMs remains controversial. Unfortunately, staged-volume radiosurgery (SVR) has a number of potential pitfalls that affect the outcome. The aim of this article is to highlight the role of SVR in the treatment of large AVMs, to discuss the outcome comparing it to other treatment modalities, and to discuss the potential improvement that could be introduced to this method of treatment.

Free access

Vijay Agarwal, Ali Zomorodi, Pascal Jabbour, Nohra Chalouhi, Stavropoula Tjoumakaris, Ranjith Babu, Adam Back, and L. Fernando Gonzalez

We present a case of a patient with rapid loss of motor strength in his lower extremities. He became bedridden with bowel and bladder incontinence, and developed saddle anesthesia. MRI of the lumbar spine showed edema in the conus medullaris and multiple flow voids within the spinal canal. A spinal angiogram showed a dorsal Type I spinal AVF. This was treated successfully with Onyx 18 (eV3, Irvine, CA). The patient showed rapid post-procedure improvement, and at discharge from the hospital to a rehabilitation center he was fully ambulatory. At 3-year follow-up, the patient was found to ambulate without difficulty. He also had improved saddle anesthesia, and he was voiding spontaneously. There was no evidence of flow voids on repeat MRI of the lumbar spine.

The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/SDYNIGNQIW8.

Free access

Nohra Chalouhi, Stavropoula Tjoumakaris, Robert M. Starke, David Hasan, Nimrita Sidhu, Saurabh Singhal, Shannon Hann, L. Fernando Gonzalez, Robert Rosenwasser, and Pascal Jabbour

Object

Endovascular therapy has become a widely used method for achieving arterial recanalization in patients who are ineligible for intravenous thrombolysis or those in whom it is unsuccessful. Young stroke patients with large vessel occlusions may particularly benefit from endovascular intervention. This study aims to assess the authors' experience with the use of modern endovascular techniques to treat young patients (≤ 55 years old) with acute ischemic stroke and large vessel occlusions.

Methods

Young patients (≤ 55 years old) undergoing endovascular intervention for acute ischemic stroke at the authors' institution were identified from a prospectively maintained database. Only those patients with a confirmed large vessel occlusion were included. Modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores were determined at 90 days during a follow-up visit. A multivariate analysis was performed to determine predictors of outcome (mRS score 0–2).

Results

A total of 45 patients met the inclusion criteria. The mean age of the patients in this series was 45 ± 9.6 years. The mean admission NIH Stroke Scale score was 14.1 ± 5 (median 13.5). Mechanical thrombectomy was performed using the Solitaire FR device in 13 (29%) patients and the Merci/Penumbra systems in 32 (71%) patients. The rate of successful recanalization (Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction [TIMI] scale Grade II–III) was 93% (42/45). Only 1 patient (2.2%) had a symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage following intervention. One patient (2.2%) sustained a vessel perforation intraoperatively. The rate of 90-day favorable outcome (mRS score 0–2) was 77.5% and the rate of 90-day satisfactory outcome (mRS score 0–3) was 90%. The 90-day mortality rate was 7.5%. In multivariate analysis, postprocedure TIMI grade was the only statistically significant independent predictor of 90-day outcome (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.01–1.19; p = 0.05).

Conclusions

The results of this study demonstrate that endovascular therapy provides remarkably high rates of arterial recanalization and favorable outcomes in young patients with acute ischemic stroke and large vessel occlusions. These findings support aggressive interventional strategies in these patients. Randomized, controlled trials reflecting modern acute ischemic stroke treatment will be needed to confirm the findings of this study.

Full access

Nohra Chalouhi, Aaron S. Dumont, Stavropoula Tjoumakaris, L. Fernando Gonzalez, Jurij R. Bilyk, Ciro Randazzo, David Hasan, Richard T. Dalyai, Robert Rosenwasser, and Pascal Jabbour

Object

Endovascular therapy is the primary treatment option for carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCFs). Operative cannulation of the superior ophthalmic vein (SOV) provides a reasonable alternative route to the cavernous sinus when all transvenous and transarterial approaches have been unsuccessful. The role of the liquid embolic agent Onyx in the management of CCFs has not been well documented, especially when using an SOV approach. The purpose of this study is to assess the safety and efficacy of Onyx embolization of CCFs through a surgical cannulation of the SOV.

Methods

The authors retrospectively reviewed all patients with CCFs who were treated with Onyx through an SOV approach between April 2009 and April 2011. Traditional endovascular approaches had failed in all patients.

Results

A total of 10 patients were identified, 1 with a Type A CCF, 5 with a Type B CCF, and 4 with a Type D CCF. All fistulas were embolized in 1 session. Onyx was the sole embolic agent used in 7 cases and was combined with coils in 3 other cases. Complete obliteration was achieved in 8 patients and a significant reduction in fistulous flow was achieved in 2 patients, which later progressed to near-complete occlusion on angiographic follow-up. All patients experienced a complete clinical recovery with excellent cosmetic results and were free from recurrence at their latest clinical follow-up evaluations.

Conclusions

Onyx embolization is an excellent therapy for CCFs in general, and through an SOV approach in particular. Direct operative cannulation of the SOV followed by Onyx embolization may be the best treatment option in patients with CCFs when all other endovascular approaches have been exhausted.