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Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas: association with cerebral venous thrombosis, baseline aggressiveness, and clinical outcomes. A retrospective multicenter study on 263 consecutive patients and literature review

Clara Cohen, Stéphanie Lenck, Atika Talbi, Héloïse Ifergan, Kévin Premat, Grégoire Boulouis, Kévin Janot, Anne-Laure Boch, Christophe Magni, Denis Herbreteau, Nader Sourour, Eimad Shotar, Valère Barrot, and Frédéric Clarençon

OBJECTIVE

The pathogenesis of intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (icDAVFs) is controversial. Cerebral vein thrombosis (CVT) and venous hypertension are recognized predisposing factors. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of association between icDAVF and CVT and describe baseline aggressiveness and clinical outcomes for icDAVFs associated with CVT. The authors also performed a literature review of studies reporting icDAVF associated with CVT.

METHODS

Two hundred sixty-three consecutive patients in two university hospitals with confirmed icDAVFs were included. A double-blind imaging review was performed to determine the presence or absence of CVT close or distant to the icDAVF. Location, type (using the Cognard classification), aggressiveness of the icDAVF, clinical presentation, treatment modality, and clinical and/or angiographic outcomes at 6 months were also collected. All prior brain imaging was analyzed to determine the natural history of onset of the icDAVF.

RESULTS

Among the 263 included patients, 75 (28.5%) presented with a CVT concomitant to their icDAVF. For 18 (78.3%) of 23 patients with previous brain imaging available, CVT preceding the icDAVF was proven (6.8% of the overall population). Former/active smoking (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.079–3.682, p = 0.022) and prothrombogenic status (active inflammation or cancer/coagulation trouble) were risk factors for CVT associated with icDAVF (OR 3.135, 95% CI 1.391–7.108, p = 0.003). One hundred eighty-seven patients (71.1%) had a baseline aggressive icDAVF, not linked to the presence of a CVT (p = 0.546). Of the overall population, 11 patients (4.2%) presented with spontaneous occlusion of their icDAVF at follow-up. Seven patients (2.7%) died during the follow-up period. Intracranial DAVF + CVT was not associated with a worse prognosis (modified Rankin Scale score at 3–6 months: 0 [interquartile range {IQR} 0–1] for icDAVF + CVT vs 0 [IQR 0–0] for icDAVF alone; p = 0.055).

CONCLUSIONS

This was one of the largest studies focused on the incidence of CVT associated with icDAVF. For 6.8% of the patients, a natural history of CVT leading to icDAVF was proven, corresponding to 78.3% of patients with previous imaging available. This work offers further insights into icDAVF pathophysiology, aiding in identifying high-risk CVT patients for long-term follow-up imaging. Annual imaging follow-up using noninvasive vascular imaging (CT or MR angiography) for a minimum of 3 years after the diagnosis of CVT should be considered in high-risk patients, i.e., smokers and those with prothrombogenic status.

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Endovascular treatment as first-line therapy in Spetzler-Martin grade III brain arteriovenous malformations: a multicenter retrospective study

Julien Burel, Chrysanthi Papagiannaki, Nader Sourour, Atika Talbi, Matthieu Garnier, Capucine Hermary, Maichael Talaat, Anne-Laure Boch, Aurélien Nouet, Stéphanie Lenck, Kévin Premat, Eimad Shotar, and Frédéric Clarençon

OBJECTIVE

The management of Spetzler-Martin grade (SMG) III brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVMs) may be challenging, whatever the exclusion treatment modality chosen. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of endovascular treatment (EVT) as a first-line treatment of SMG III bAVMs.

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective, two-center, observational cohort study. Cases recorded in institutional databases between January 1998 and June 2021 were reviewed. Patients who were ≥ 18 years of age, had ruptured or unruptured SMG III bAVMs, and received EVT as first-line therapy were included. Baseline characteristics of patients and bAVMs, procedure-related complications, clinical outcome according to the modified Rankin Scale, and angiographic follow-up were assessed. The independent risk factors of procedure-related complications and poor clinical outcome were assessed using binary logistic regression.

RESULTS

One hundred sixteen patients with 116 SMG III bAVMs were included. The mean age of the patients was 41.9 ± 14.0 years. The most common presentation was hemorrhage (66.4%). Forty-nine (42.2%) bAVMs were found to be completely obliterated by EVT alone at follow-up. Complications occurred in 39 patients (33.6%), including 5 (4.3%) major procedure-related complications. There was no independent predictor of procedure-related complication. Age > 40 years and poor preoperative modified Rankin Scale score were the independent predictors of poor clinical outcome.

CONCLUSIONS

EVT of SMG III bAVMs provides encouraging results but needs further improvement. When the embolization procedure performed with intent to cure appears difficult and/or risky, a combined technique (with microsurgery or radiosurgery) may be a safer and more effective strategy. In terms of safety and effectiveness, the benefit of EVT (alone or included in a multimodal management strategy) for SMG III bAVMs needs to be confirmed by randomized controlled trials.

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Whole blood levels of S1PR4 mRNA associated with cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

Anne-Sophie Pulcrano-Nicolas, Alice Jacquens, Carole Proust, Frédéric Clarençon, Claire Perret, Eimad Shotar, Louis Puybasset, Wilfried Le Goff, Vincent Degos, David-Alexandre Trégouët, and Sophie Garnier

OBJECTIVE

The authors sought to identify mRNA biomarkers of cerebral vasospasm in whole blood of patients suffering from aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH).

METHODS

A prospective transcriptomic study for vasospasm was conducted in whole blood samples of 44 aSAH patients who developed (VSP+ group, n = 22) or did not develop (VSP group, n = 22) vasospasm. Samples from all patients were profiled for 21,460 mRNA probes using the Illumina Human HT12v4.0 array. Differential statistical analysis was performed using a linear mixed model.

RESULTS

Levels of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 4 (S1PR4) mRNA were significantly higher (p = 8.03 × 10−6) at presentation in patients who developed vasospasm after aSAH than in patients who did not.

CONCLUSIONS

The results, which are consistent with findings of previous experimental investigations conducted in animal models, support the role of S1PR4 and its ligand, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), in arterial-associated vasoconstriction, which suggests that S1PR4 could be used as a biomarker for cerebral vasospasm in aSAH patients.