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Fred G. Barker II and Bob S. Carter

Systematic reviews and metaanalyses have become increasingly popular ways of summarizing, and sometimes extending, existing medical knowledge. In this review the authors summarize current methods of performing meta-analyses, including the following: formulating a research question; performing a structured literature search and a search for trials not published in the formal medical literature; summarizing and, where appropriate, combining results from several trials; and reporting and presenting results. Topics such as cumulative and Bayesian metaanalysis and metaregression are also addressed. References to textbooks, articles, and Internet resources are also provided. The goal is to assist readers who wish to perform their own metaanalysis or to interpret critically a published example.

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Carlos E. Sanchez, Christopher S. Ogilvy and Bob S. Carter

✓Successfully measuring cerebrovascular neurosurgery outcomes requires an appreciation of the current state-of-the-art epidemiological instruments, their specific relevance to surgical treatments and the underlying pathological entity, and ultimately the right set of questions for the next generation of studies. In this paper the authors address these questions with specific attention to measurement targets, individual modeling scales, and types of studies, all within a conceptual framework for specific disease models in their current state of outcomes modeling in cerebrovascular neurosurgery.

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Low-grade gliomas

Mitchel S. Berger and Bob S. Carter

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David D. Gonda, Vincent J. Cheung, Karra A. Muller, Amit Goyal, Bob S. Carter and Clark C. Chen

Differentiating between low-grade gliomas (LGGs) of astrocytic and oligodendroglial origin remains a major challenge in neurooncology. Here the authors analyzed The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) profiles of LGGs with the goal of identifying distinct molecular characteristics that would afford accurate and reliable discrimination of astrocytic and oligodendroglial tumors. They found that 1) oligodendrogliomas are more likely to exhibit the glioma-CpG island methylator phenotype (G-CIMP), relative to low-grade astrocytomas; 2) relative to oligodendrogliomas, low-grade astrocytomas exhibit a higher expression of genes related to mitosis, replication, and inflammation; and 3) low-grade astrocytic tumors harbor microRNA profiles similar to those previously described for glioblastoma tumors. Orthogonal intersection of these molecular characteristics with existing molecular markers, such as IDH1 mutation, TP53 mutation, and 1p19q status, should facilitate accurate and reliable pathological diagnosis of LGGs.

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Bob S. Carter, E. Antonio Chiocca, Russell Lonser, Andrew H. Kaye and Nicolas de Tribolet

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Samir Sarda, Wei Dong and Joshua J. Chern

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R. Loch Macdonald

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Brandon A. McCutcheon, David C. Chang, Logan Marcus, David D. Gonda, Abraham Noorbakhsh, Clark C. Chen, Mark A. Talamini and Bob S. Carter


This study was designed to assess the relationship between insurance status and likelihood of receiving a neurosurgical procedure following admission for either extraaxial intracranial hemorrhage or spinal vertebral fracture.


A retrospective analysis of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS; 1998–2009) was performed. Cases of traumatic extraaxial intracranial hematoma and spinal vertebral fracture were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) diagnosis codes. Within this cohort, those patients receiving a craniotomy or spinal fusion and/or decompression in the context of an admission for traumatic brain or spine injury, respectively, were identified using the appropriate ICD-9 procedure codes.


A total of 190,412 patients with extraaxial intracranial hematoma were identified between 1998 and 2009. Within this cohort, 37,434 patients (19.7%) received a craniotomy. A total of 477,110 patients with spinal vertebral fracture were identified. Of these, 37,302 (7.8%) received a spinal decompression and/or fusion. On multivariate analysis controlling for patient demographics, severity of injuries, comorbidities, hospital volume, and hospital characteristics, uninsured patients had a reduced likelihood of receiving a craniotomy (odds ratio [OR] 0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.71–0.82) and spinal fusion (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.64–0.71) relative to insured patients. This statistically significant trend persisted when uninsured and insured patients were matched on the basis of mortality propensity score. Uninsured patients demonstrated an elevated risk-adjusted mortality rate relative to insured patients in cases of extraaxial intracranial hematoma. Among patients with spinal injury, mortality rates were similar between patients with and without insurance.


In this study, uninsured patients were consistently less likely to receive a craniotomy or spinal fusion for traumatic intracranial extraaxial hemorrhage and spinal vertebral fracture, respectively. This difference persisted after accounting for overall injury severity and patient access to high- or low-volume treatment centers, and potentially reflects a resource allocation bias against uninsured patients within the hospital setting. This information adds to the growing literature detailing the benefits of health reform initiatives seeking to expand access for the uninsured.

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Bob S. Carter