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Marie-Andrée Coulombe, Lior M. Elkaim, Naif M. Alotaibi, Daniel A. Gorman, Alexander G. Weil, Aria Fallah, Suneil K. Kalia, Nir Lipsman, Andres M. Lozano, and George M. Ibrahim

OBJECTIVE

Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) is a disorder characterized by motor and vocal tics. Although by definition the onset of GTS is before age 18 years, clinical trials of deep brain stimulation (DBS) have been conducted only in adults. Using individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis methodology, the current study investigated the safety and efficacy of DBS as a treatment for GTS in children and youth.

METHODS

A systematic review with no date or language restrictions was performed according to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) statement. Three electronic databases were searched: PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science. From 843 articles screened, the IPD of 58 children and youth (ages 12–21 years) extracted from 21 articles were collected and analyzed. A mixed-effects univariable analysis followed by multivariable hierarchical regression was performed using change in the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) score as the primary outcome and reported measures of comorbidities as secondary outcomes.

RESULTS

The authors’ results showed an average improvement of 57.5% ± 24.6% across studies on the YGTSS. They also found that comorbid depression and stimulation pulse width each correlated negatively with outcome (p < 0.05). In patients with less severe GTS, greater improvements were evident following thalamic stimulation. More than one-quarter (n = 16, 27.6%) of participants experienced side effects, the majority of which were minor.

CONCLUSIONS

DBS in the pediatric population may be an effective option with a moderate safety profile for treatment of GTS in carefully selected children and youth. Large, prospective studies with long-term follow-up are necessary to understand how DBS influences tic symptoms and may alter the natural course of GTS in children.

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Ghassan Awad Elkarim, Naif M. Alotaibi, Nardin Samuel, Shelly Wang, George M. Ibrahim, Aria Fallah, Alexander G. Weil, and Abhaya V. Kulkarni

OBJECTIVE

A recent survey has shown that caregivers of children with shunt-treated hydrocephalus frequently use social media networks for support and information gathering. The objective of this study is to describe and assess social media utilization among users interested in hydrocephalus.

METHODS

Publicly accessible accounts and videos dedicated to the topic of hydrocephalus were comprehensively searched across 3 social media platforms (Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube) throughout March 2016. Summary statistics were calculated on standard metrics of social media popularity. A categorization framework to describe the purpose of pages, groups, accounts, channels, and videos was developed following the screening of 100 titles. Categorized data were analyzed using nonparametric tests for statistical significance.

RESULTS

The authors’ search identified 30 Facebook pages, 213 Facebook groups, 17 Twitter accounts, and 253 YouTube videos. These platforms were run by patients, caregivers, nonprofit foundations, and patient support groups. Most accounts were from the United States (n = 196), followed by the United Kingdom (n = 31), Canada (n = 17), India (n = 15), and Germany (n = 12). The earliest accounts were created in 2007, and a peak of 65 new accounts were created in 2011. The total number of users in Facebook pages exceeded those in Facebook groups (p < 0.001). The majority of users in Facebook groups were in private groups, in contrast to public groups (p < 0.001). The YouTube videos with the highest median number of views were for surgical products and treatment procedures.

CONCLUSIONS

This study presents novel observations into the characteristics of social media use in the topic of hydrocephalus. Users interested in hydrocephalus seek privacy for support communications and are attracted to treatment procedure and surgical products videos. These findings provide insight into potential avenues of hydrocephalus outreach, support, or advocacy in social media.