Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 10,136 items for

  • User-accessible content x
Clear All
Restricted access

Sarah Stricker, Grégoire Boulouis, Sandro Benichi, Marie Bourgeois, Florent Gariel, Lorenzo Garzelli, Jean-François Hak, Quentin Alias, Basile Kerleroux, Kevin Beccaria, Anaïs Chivet, Timothée de Saint Denis, Syril James, Giovanna Paternoster, Michel Zerah, Manoelle Kossorotoff, Nathalie Boddaert, Francis Brunelle, Philippe Meyer, Stéphanie Puget, Olivier Naggara, and Thomas Blauwblomme

OBJECTIVE

Rupture of brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is the main etiology of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in children. Ensuing intracranial hypertension is among the modifiable prognosis factors and sometimes requires emergency hemorrhage evacuation (HE). The authors aimed to analyze variables associated with HE in children with ruptured AVM.

METHODS

This study was a single-center retrospective analysis of children treated for ruptured AVM. The authors evaluated the occurrence of HE, its association with other acute surgical procedures (e.g., nidal excision, decompressive hemicraniectomy), and clinical outcome. Variables associated with each intervention were analyzed using univariable and multivariable models. Clinical outcome was assessed at 18 months using the ordinal King’s Outcome Scale for Childhood Head Injury.

RESULTS

A total of 104 patients were treated for 112 episodes of ruptured AVM between 2002 and 2018. In the 51 children (45.5% of cases) who underwent HE, 37 procedures were performed early (i.e., within 24 hours after initial cerebral imaging) and 14 late. Determinants of HE were a lower initial Glasgow Coma Scale score (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.83, 95% CI 0.71–0.97 per point increase); higher ICH/brain volume ratio (aOR 18.6, 95% CI 13–26.5 per percent increase); superficial AVM location; and the presence of a brain herniation (aOR 3.7, 95% CI 1.3–10.4). Concurrent nidal surgery was acutely performed in 69% of Spetzler-Martin grade I–II ruptured AVMs and in 25% of Spetzler-Martin grade III lesions. Factors associated with nidal surgery were superficial AVMs, late HE, and absent alteration of consciousness at presentation. Only 8 cases required additional surgery due to intracranial hypertension. At 18 months, overall mortality was less than 4%, 58% of patients had a favorable outcome regardless of surgical intervention, and 87% were functioning independently.

CONCLUSIONS

HE is a lifesaving procedure performed in approximately half of the children who suffer AVM rupture. The good overall outcome justifies intensive initial management.

Restricted access

Eui Hyun Kim, Jihwan Yoo, In-Ho Jung, Ji Woong Oh, Ju-Seong Kim, Jin Sook Yoon, Ju Hyung Moon, Seok-Gu Kang, Jong Hee Chang, and Tae Hoon Roh

OBJECTIVE

The insula is a complex anatomical structure. Accessing tumors in the insula remains a challenge due to its anatomical complexity and the high chance of morbidity. The goal of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of an endoscopic transorbital approach (ETOA) to the insular region based on a cadaveric study.

METHODS

One cadaveric head was used to study the anatomy of the insula and surrounding vessels. Then, anatomical dissection was performed in 4 human cadaveric heads using a dedicated endoscopic system with the aid of neuronavigation guidance. To assess the extent of resection, CT scanning was performed before and after dissection. The insular region was directly exposed by a classic transcranial approach to check the extent of resection from the side with a classic transcranial approach.

RESULTS

The entire procedure consisted of two phases: an extradural orbital phase and an intradural sylvian phase. After eyelid incision, the sphenoid bone and orbital roof were extensively drilled out with exposure of the frontal and temporal dural layers. After making a dural window, the anterior ramus of the sylvian fissure was opened and dissected. The M2 segment of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) was identified and traced posterolaterally. A small corticectomy was performed on the posterior orbital gyrus. Through the window between the lateral lenticulostriate arteries and M2, the cortex and medulla of the insula were resected in an anteroposterior direction without violation of the M2 segment of the MCA or its major branches. When confirmed by pterional craniotomy, the sylvian fissure and the MCA were found to be anatomically preserved. After validation of the feasibility and safety based on a cadaveric study, the ETOA was successfully performed in a patient with a high-grade glioma (WHO grade III) in the right insula.

CONCLUSIONS

The transorbital route can be considered a potential option to access tumors located in the insula. Using an ETOA, the MCA and its major branches were identified and preserved while removal was performed along the long axis of the insula. In particular, lesions in the anterior part of the insula are most benefited by this approach. Because this approach was implemented in only one patient, additional discussion and further verification is required.

Restricted access

Dong Ah Shin and Dong Kyu Chin

Originally founded in 1885, Gwanghyewon later became the Severance Hospital (named after philanthropist Louis Severance, who supported and funded the construction of a modern hospital) and Yonsei University College of Medicine. The Department of Neurosurgery at Severance Hospital was established in 1957, and its residency program began in 1961. Currently, the Department of Neurosurgery has 34 professors and 17 fellows; specialties include vascular, functional, pediatric, tumor, skull base, and spine neurosurgery. With its state-of-the-art neurosurgical facilities and services, the Department of Neurosurgery has developed into a department of excellence within the Yonsei University Health System. In this vignette, the authors present a historic overview of the Department of Neurosurgery.

Restricted access

Daniel Gebrezgiabhier, Yang Liu, Adithya S. Reddy, Evan Davis, Yihao Zheng, Albert J. Shih, Aditya S. Pandey, and Luis E. Savastano

OBJECTIVE

Endovascular removal of emboli causing large vessel occlusion (LVO)–related stroke utilizing suction catheter and/or stent retriever technologies or thrombectomy is a new standard of care. Despite high recanalization rates, 40% of stroke patients still experience poor neurological outcomes as many cases cannot be fully reopened after the first attempt. The development of new endovascular technologies and techniques for mechanical thrombectomy requires more sophisticated testing platforms that overcome the limitations of phantom-based simulators. The authors investigated the use of a hybrid platform for LVO stroke constructed with cadaveric human brains.

METHODS

A test bed for embolic occlusion of cerebrovascular arteries and mechanical thrombectomy was developed with cadaveric human brains, a customized hydraulic system to generate physiological flow rate and pressure, and three types of embolus analogs (elastic, stiff, and fragment-prone) engineered to match mechanically and phenotypically the emboli causing LVO strokes. LVO cases were replicated in the anterior and posterior circulation, and thrombectomy was attempted using suction catheters and/or stent retrievers.

RESULTS

The test bed allowed radiation-free visualization of thrombectomy for LVO stroke in real cerebrovascular anatomy and flow conditions by transmural visualization of the intraluminal elements and procedures. The authors were able to successfully replicate 105 LVO cases with 184 passes in 12 brains (51 LVO cases and 82 passes in the anterior circulation, and 54 LVO cases and 102 passes in the posterior circulation). Observed recanalization rates in this model were graded using a Recanalization in LVO (RELVO) scale analogous to other measures of recanalization outcomes in clinical use.

CONCLUSIONS

The human brain platform introduced and validated here enables the analysis of artery-embolus-device interaction under physiological hemodynamic conditions within the unmodified complexity of the cerebral vasculature inside the human brain.

Restricted access

Christine Park, Lefko T. Charalambous, Zidanyue Yang, Syed M. Adil, Sarah E. Hodges, Hui-Jie Lee, Laura Zitella Verbick, Aaron R. McCabe, and Shivanand P. Lad

OBJECTIVE

Nontraumatic, primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accounts for 2 million strokes worldwide annually and has a 1-year survival rate of 50%. Recent studies examining functional outcomes from ICH evacuation have been performed, but limited work has been done quantifying the incidence of subsequent complications and their healthcare economic impact. The purpose of this study was to quantify the incidence and healthcare resource utilization (HCRU) for major complications that can arise from ICH.

METHODS

The IBM MarketScan Research databases were used to retrospectively identify patients with ICH from 2010 to 2015. Complications examined included cerebral edema, hydrocephalus, venous thromboembolic events (VTEs), pneumonia, urinary tract infections (UTIs), and seizures. For each complication, inpatient mortality and HCRU were assessed.

RESULTS

Of 25,322 adult patients included, 10,619 (42%) developed complications during the initial admission of ICH: 22% had cerebral edema, 11% hydrocephalus, 10% pneumonia, 6% UTIs, 5% seizures, and 5% VTEs. The inpatient mortality rates at 7 and 30 days for each complication of ICH ranked from highest to lowest were hydrocephalus (24% and 32%), cerebral edema (15% and 20%), pneumonia (8% and 18%), seizure (7% and 13%), VTE (4% and 11%), and UTI (4% and 8%). Hydrocephalus had the highest total cost (median $92,776, IQR $39,308–$180,716) at 7 days post–ICH diagnosis and the highest cumulative total cost (median $170,839, IQR $91,462–$330,673) at 1 year post–ICH diagnosis.

CONCLUSIONS

This study characterizes one of the largest cohorts of patients with nontraumatic ICH in the US. More than 42% of the patients with ICH developed complications during initial admission, which resulted in high inpatient mortality and considerable HCRU.

Restricted access

Christopher Wilson, Mariana Hoyos, Andrew Huh, Blake Priddy, Stephen Avila, Stephen Mendenhall, Miracle C. Anokwute, George J. Eckert, and David W. Stockwell

OBJECTIVE

Type II odontoid fractures may be managed operatively or nonoperatively. If managed with bracing, bony union may never occur despite stability. This phenomenon is termed fibrous union. The authors aimed to determine associations with stable fibrous union and compare the morbidity of patients managed operatively and nonoperatively.

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective review of their spine trauma database for adults with type II odontoid fractures between 2015 and 2019. Two-sample t-tests and Fisher’s exact tests identified associations with follow-up stability and were used to compare operative and nonoperative outcomes. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values were calculated to validate initial stable upright cervical radiographs related to follow-up stability.

RESULTS

Among 88 patients, 10% received upfront surgical fixation, and 90% were managed nonoperatively, of whom 22% had fracture instability on follow-up. Associations with instability after nonoperative management include myelopathy (OR 0.04, 95% CI 0.0–0.92), cerebrovascular disease (OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.06–1.0), and dens displacement ≥ 2 mm (OR 0.29, 95% CI 0.07–1.0). Advanced age was not associated with follow-up instability. Initial stability on upright radiographs was associated with stability on follow-up (OR 4.29, 95% CI 1.0–18) with excellent sensitivity and positive predictive value (sensitivity 89%, specificity 35%, positive predictive value 83%, and negative predictive value 46%). The overall complication rate and respiratory failure requiring ventilation on individual complication analysis were more common in operatively managed patients (33% vs 3%, respectively; p = 0.007), even though they were generally younger and healthier than those managed nonoperatively. Operative or nonoperative management conferred no difference in length of hospital or ICU stay, discharge disposition, or mortality.

CONCLUSIONS

The authors delineate the validity of upright cervical radiographs on presentation in association with follow-up stability in type II odontoid fractures. In their experience, factors associated with instability included cervical myelopathy, cerebrovascular disease, and fracture displacement but not increased age. Operatively managed patients had higher complication rates than those managed without surgery. Fibrous union, which can occur with nonoperative management, provided adequate stability.

Restricted access

Kazuya Motomura, Lushun Chalise, Hiroyuki Shimizu, Junya Yamaguchi, Tomohide Nishikawa, Fumiharu Ohka, Kosuke Aoki, Kuniaki Tanahashi, Masaki Hirano, Toshihiko Wakabayashi, and Atsushi Natsume

OBJECTIVE

This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of levetiracetam (LEV) combined with perampanel (PER) therapy for intraoperative seizure treatment to determine whether a combination of LEV and PER can aid in the prevention of intraoperative intractable seizures during awake surgery.

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective cohort study in 78 consecutive patients with glioma who underwent awake surgery using intraoperative direct electrical stimulation mapping. To prevent intraoperative seizures, 50 patients were treated with the antiepileptic drug LEV only (LEV group) from January 2017 to January 2019, while the remaining 28 patients were treated with LEV plus PER (LEV + PER group) between March 2019 and January 2020. LEV (1000–3000 mg) and/or PER (2–4 mg) were administered before the surgery.

RESULTS

Preoperative seizures with International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) class II–VI occurred in 44% of the patients in the LEV group and in 35.7% of patients in the LEV + PER group, with no significant difference between groups (p = 0.319). Total intraoperative seizures occurred in 18 patients (36.0%) in the LEV therapy group and in 2 patients (7.1%) in the LEV + PER group (p = 0.009). Of these, there were no patients (0%) with intractable seizures in the LEV + PER group. Regarding factors that influence intraoperative seizures in glioma patients during awake brain surgery, multivariate logistic regression models revealed that the occurrence of intraoperative seizures was significantly related to the involvement of motor-related regions (positive vs negative, HR 6.98, 95% CI 1.71–28.56, p = 0.007), preoperative seizure (ILAE class II–VI vs ILAE class I, HR 4.44, 95% CI 1.22–16.11, p = 0.024), and LEV + PER group (positive vs negative, HR 0.07, 95% CI 0.01–0.44, p = 0.005). Treatment-related adverse effects were rare and mild, including sleepiness, tiredness, and dizziness in both treatment groups.

CONCLUSIONS

This study demonstrates that LEV + PER therapy is significantly associated with a lower risk of intraoperative seizures compared with LEV therapy alone in patients with glioma during awake brain mapping. These findings will help neurosurgeons conduct safe and reliable awake surgeries and reduce the rate of intraoperative intractable seizures during such procedures.

Restricted access

John W. Hopewell, Ian Paddick, Bleddyn Jones, and Thomas Klinge

Restricted access

Phillip A. Bonney, Frank J. Attenello, and William J. Mack

Restricted access

Asham Khan, John Pollina, and Jeffrey P. Mullin