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Open access

Acute morphological changes of impending rupture of vertebral artery dissection: clinical management of symptomatic but unruptured vertebral artery dissection. Illustrative case

Tatsuya Mori, Atsushi Fujita, Masaki Iwakura, Jun Imura, Kana Onobuchi, Masaaki Kohta, Hidehito Kimura, and Takashi Sasayama

BACKGROUND

The reported actual risk of rupture for vertebral artery dissection (VAD) in patients presenting with headache is very low, ranging from 0.4% to 1.0%. The authors report a case in which the dissection site dilated rapidly within several hours after the dissection occurred resulting in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH).

OBSERVATIONS

A 49-year-old healthy man who had participated in a marathon noticed a headache while running. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed 2 days later revealed no findings suspicious for right VAD, but a string sign was observed in the left side, suggesting left VAD. Three hours following MRI, he developed severe headaches and became unconscious at home, prompting emergency services to rush him to the hospital. A computed tomography scan showed diffuse SAH and a rapidly enlarged aneurysmal dilatation in the right vertebral artery. He underwent endovascular internal trapping to prevent rebleeding. He was discharged without any neurological symptoms. No recurrence or new dissection occurred after 2 years of follow-up.

LESSONS

Even in the absence of typical imaging findings, strict management, such as blood pressure control, is required when clinical findings strongly suggest VAD, and differentiation of VAD from primary headache is important.

https://thejns.org/doi/10.3171/CASE24202

Open access

Rare simultaneous fetal posterior cerebral artery and conventional posterior cerebral artery duplication in a patient with a ruptured posterior communicating artery aneurysm: illustrative case

Abrar A Ahmed, Gökce Hatipoglu Majernik, Alonso Alvarado-Bolaño, Maria Bres-Bullrich, and Sachin K Pandey

BACKGROUND

The fetal-type posterior cerebral artery (PCA) is defined as a variant anatomy in which the posterior communicating artery (PCOM) is larger than the hypoplastic or aplastic P1 segment of the PCA. The authors present the novel case of a patient with a duplicated right PCA in parallel with fetal-type and conventional PCAs supplying adjacent components of the PCA cerebral territory.

OBSERVATIONS

A 59-year-old woman presented with a modified Fisher Scale score 4 subarachnoid hemorrhage. A right irregular PCOM aneurysm that measured 9.5 mm × 4.5 mm × 4.5 mm arose from the base of a variant branch supplying a portion of the PCA, rather than a conventional PCOM, and was found on digital subtraction angiography. Following endovascular coil embolization, the patient was discharged home.

LESSONS

The fetal-type variant has implications for thromboembolic events. If an embolism occludes the anterior circulation in a patient with a fetal-type PCA, it may result in an infarct in the PCA territory. Awareness of cerebral arterial anatomy, including an atypical collateral supply, informs a treating team’s latitude in tolerance of which sites must be preserved and which can be safely sacrificed.

https://thejns.org/doi/10.3171/CASE23735

Open access

Splenic rupture following prone lateral discectomy and arthrodesis: illustrative case

Alexandra Echevarria, Benjamin Hershfeld, Emily Arciero, and Rohit Verma

BACKGROUND

The prone lateral approach to lumbar spine surgery is known to have a multitude of potential complications, including damage to neurovascular structures, surrounding viscera, and intra-abdominal structures near the surgical site. However, iatrogenic injury to the spleen following prone lateral lumbar discectomy and arthrodesis as a potential complication has not yet been described in the literature.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors present the case of a 71-year-old female with a history of L3–S1 laminectomy and L3–5 arthrodesis who underwent a prone lateral discectomy of L2–3 with arthrodesis of the endplates for chronic lower-back pain. On postoperative day 1, the patient developed hypotension unresponsive to pressor medications, significant abdominal pain, and anemia requiring 2 transfusions. Bedside ultrasound revealed free fluid in the abdomen. She then underwent an exploratory laparotomy for splenic injury.

LESSONS

Although rare, splenic rupture should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis for patients with hemodynamic instability after lateral surgical approaches to the lumbar spine. Any patient with evidence of hypotension, anemia, and/or abdominal pain following lumbar surgery should be evaluated for splenic injury with an abdominal computed tomography scan and considered for surgical intervention.

https://thejns.org/doi/10.3171/CASE23639

Open access

Rare case of tentorial cavernous malformation mimicking a meningioma: illustrative case

Michael Reinert, Danijela Kolenc, Elisabeth Rushing, Arne Fischmann, and Valentina Reinert

BACKGROUND

Cavernous malformations of the dura, especially of the tentorium, are exceedingly rare. In the available literature, only 10 cases have been described to date.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors present the case of a 46-year-old male patient with a 1-cm infratentorial lesion suspicious for meningioma that was found on routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed for vertigo. The lesion was followed for 1.5 years with no change in signal and size. Nevertheless, the patient was concerned about the lesion and requested removal. The removal was successful and without any neurological sequelae. However, histological evaluation demonstrated a cavernous malformation. Postoperative computed tomography and MRI showed complete removal. Preoperative MRI characteristics, intraoperative images, and a video, as well as histological evaluation, are shown. The case is discussed with respect to the literature.

LESSONS

Cavernous malformations of the tentorium are extremely rare and mimic meningiomas; thus, they need to be taken into account. DOTATOC positron emission tomography may help to differentiate in these cases. Considering the cases reported in the literature, in cases of large tumors, preoperative angiography and possibly embolization may be helpful.

https://thejns.org/doi/10.3171/CASE24168

Open access

Which is a more appropriate recipient for posterior circulation bypass surgery: V3 or V2? Differences in underlying disease and lesion sites between extracranial vertebral artery dissection and atherosclerotic changes. Illustrative cases

Shinjitsu Nishimura, Makoto Saito, Sumito Okuyama, Keiichi Kubota, Junko Matsuyama, Atsuhito Takemura, Tadao Matsushima, and Kazuo Watanabe

BACKGROUND

Revascularization for extracranial vertebral artery dissection or vertebral artery atherosclerotic occlusive lesions caused by vertebrobasilar insufficiency or posterior circulation infarction is relatively rare. When bypassing the cervical external carotid artery (ECA) or common carotid artery (CCA) using a radial artery (RA) or saphenous vein (SV) graft, it is difficult to determine whether the recipient site should be the V2 or V3 portion.

OBSERVATIONS

In case 1, cervical ECA-RA-V3 bypass was performed for bilateral extracranial vertebral artery dissection with the onset of ischemia, and cervical CCA-SV-V3 bypass was added 12 days later. Nine years after surgery, the bilateral vertebral artery dissection had improved, and the patient still had a patent bypass. In case 2, cervical ECA-RA-V2 bypass was performed for arteriosclerotic bilateral extracranial vertebral artery occlusion. The bypass was patent 5 years after surgery. The postoperative course was uneventful in both patients.

LESSONS

The authors present cases of posterior fossa revascularization using the vertebral artery V3 and V2 portions via skull base surgery and note that it is important to consider each patient’s individual characteristics when selecting the V3 or V2 portion.

Open access

Visual dysfunction and neurodegeneration caused by severe inflammatory optic neuropathy after coil embolization of a paraclinoid aneurysm: illustrative case

Tomohiro Okuyama, Kota Kurisu, PhD, Toshiya Osanai, Masaki Ito, Taku Sugiyama, Haruto Uchino, and Miki Fujimura

BACKGROUND

Visual impairment due to delayed optic neuropathy is a rare complication of the endovascular treatment of paraclinoid aneurysms. An inflammatory response induced in the treated aneurysm wall is a known mechanism underlying this pathophysiology. The authors describe a case with severe and progressive optic neuropathy leading to neuronal degeneration and severe visual dysfunction.

OBSERVATIONS

A 42-year-old female with a history of surgical clipping for a paraclinoid aneurysm presented with a recurrence. Although the patient was unaware of any visual dysfunction, a preoperative ophthalmological examination revealed mild inferior quadrantanopia in the left eye. The coil embolization procedure was uneventful; however, the following day, the patient experienced progressive visual impairment, which worsened despite the initiation of steroid therapy. Ophthalmological examination revealed a severe decrease in visual acuity and further deterioration of the visual field. Magnetic resonance imaging showed remarkable swelling and edema of the left optic nerve adjacent to the treated aneurysm. Despite continued steroid therapy, the patient’s visual function did not recover well due to subsequent optic nerve degeneration.

LESSONS

Optic neuropathy after endovascular procedures can lead to severe visual dysfunction. Careful management is essential, particularly when treating a symptomatic paraclinoid aneurysm, even if symptoms are only apparent on detailed examination.

Open access

Angiographic evidence of an inadvertent cannulation of the marginal sinus following central line migration: illustrative case

Abdelaziz Amllay, Edwin Owolo, Kamil W Nowicki, Nanthiya Sujijantarat, Andrew Koo, Joseph P Antonios, Daniela Renedo, Charles C Matouk, and Ryan M Hebert

BACKGROUND

Central venous catheters (CVCs) play an indispensable role in clinical practice. Catheter malposition and tip migration can lead to severe complications. The authors present a case illustrating the endovascular management of inadvertent marginal sinus cannulation after an internal jugular vein (IJV) catheter tip migration.

OBSERVATIONS

A triple-lumen CVC was inserted without complications into the right IJV of a patient undergoing a repeat sternotomy for aortic valve replacement. Two weeks postinsertion, it was discovered that the tip had migrated superiorly, terminating below the torcula in the posterior fossa. In the interventional suite, a three-dimensional venogram confirmed the inadvertent marginal sinus cannulation. The catheter was carefully retracted to the sigmoid sinus to preserve the option of catheter exchange if embolization became necessary. After a subsequent venogram, which displayed an absence of contrast extravasation, the entire catheter was safely removed. The patient tolerated the procedure well.

LESSONS

Clinicians must be vigilant of catheter tip migration and malposition risks. Relying solely on postinsertion radiographs is insufficient. Once identified, prompt management of the malpositioned catheter is paramount in reducing morbidity and mortality and improving patient outcomes. Removing a malpositioned catheter constitutes a critical step, best performed by a specialized team under angiographic visualization.

Open access

Early cerebral venous drainage associated with focal seizures: a correlation of digital subtraction angiography and electroencephalography. Illustrative case

Olivia Holman, Joseph M Bibawy, Lara Wadi, Joel C Morgenlander, and Erik F Hauck

BACKGROUND

Early venous drainage is a critical diagnostic feature of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs). However, other conditions associated with early venous drainage can mimic AVMs and AVFs and mislead the treating physician team.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors present a unique case of a 56-year-old man with new left hemianopsia. Workup with magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography had revealed cortical enhancement and early venous drainage, possibly caused by an AVF or AVM. Catheter angiography confirmed the presence of early venous drainage of specifically the right occipital lobe. The early venous drainage occurred as the result of local hyperperfusion limited to the right occipital lobe. Subsequent electroencephalography confirmed focal seizure activity in the right occipital lobe. After seizure control with multiple antiepileptic medications, the patient regained his vision. Repeat digital subtraction angiography revealed restoration of normal cerebral blood flow.

LESSONS

Early venous drainage observed during catheter angiography can be associated with seizure activity. Differentiation from other conditions, such as AVM, AVF, or ischemic stroke, is critical to facilitate prompt and appropriate treatment.

Open access

Epidural lipomatosis with foci of hemorrhage and acute compression of the spinal cord in a child with CLOVES syndrome: illustrative case

Dmytro Ishchenko, Iryna Benzar, and Andrii Holoborodko

BACKGROUND

Congenital lipomatous overgrowth, vascular malformations, epidermal nevi, spinal/skeletal anomalies, and/or scoliosis (CLOVES) syndrome is the most recently described combined vascular anomaly characterized by congenital excessive growth of adipose tissue, vascular malformations, epidermal nevi, and skeletal deformities. This condition exhibits a significant variability in clinical manifestations and a tendency for rapid progression and affects extensive anatomical regions. Information regarding the association of epidural lipomatosis with low-flow venous lymphatic malformations is rare, with few reports in the literature.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors present a case of a 6-year-old girl who was admitted to the emergency department complaining of rapidly progressing weakness in her lower extremities and partial loss of sensation in the inguinal area. Radiologically, an extradural mass was identified at the T2–6 level, causing acute spinal cord compression. Urgent decompression and partial resection of the mass were performed. Despite satisfactory intraoperative hemo- and lymphostasis, postoperative lymphorrhea/seroma leakage was encountered as a delayed complication and was managed conservatively.

LESSONS

CLOVES syndrome is characterized by the combination of various clinical symptoms, not all of which are included in the abbreviation, as well as a progressively deteriorating course, the emergence of new symptoms, and complications throughout the patient’s life. This necessitates ongoing monitoring of such patients.

Open access

Evaluation of the shrinkage process of a neck remnant after stent-coil treatment of a cerebral aneurysm using silent magnetic resonance angiography and computational fluid dynamics analysis: illustrative case

Toru Satoh, Kenji Sugiu, Masafumi Hiramatsu, Jun Haruma, and Isao Date

BACKGROUND

Silent magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) mitigates metal artifacts, facilitating clear visualization of neck remnants after stent and coil embolization of cerebral aneurysms. This study aims to scrutinize hemodynamics at the neck remnant by employing silent MRA and computational fluid dynamics.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors longitudinally tracked images of a partially thrombosed anterior communicating artery aneurysm’s neck remnant, which had been treated with stent-assisted coil embolization, using silent MRA over a decade. Computational fluid dynamics delineated the neck remnant’s reduction process, evaluating hemodynamic parameters such as flow rate, wall shear stress magnitude and vector, and streamlines. The neck remnant exhibited diminishing surface area, volume, neck size, dome depth, and aspect ratio. Its reduction correlated with a decline in the flow rate ratio of the remnant dome to the inflow parent artery. Analysis delineated regions within the contracting neck remnant characterized by consistently low average wall shear stress magnitude and variation, accompanied by notable variations in wall shear stress vector directionality.

LESSONS

Evaluation of neck remnants after stent-coil embolization is possible through silent MRA and computational fluid dynamics. Predicting the neck remnant reduction may be achievable through hemodynamic parameter analysis.