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Open access

Angiographic evidence of an inadvertent cannulation of the marginal sinus following central line migration: illustrative case

Abdelaziz Amllay, Edwin Owolo, Kamil W Nowicki, Nanthiya Sujijantarat, Andrew Koo, Joseph P Antonios, Daniela Renedo, Charles C Matouk, and Ryan M Hebert

BACKGROUND

Central venous catheters (CVCs) play an indispensable role in clinical practice. Catheter malposition and tip migration can lead to severe complications. The authors present a case illustrating the endovascular management of inadvertent marginal sinus cannulation after an internal jugular vein (IJV) catheter tip migration.

OBSERVATIONS

A triple-lumen CVC was inserted without complications into the right IJV of a patient undergoing a repeat sternotomy for aortic valve replacement. Two weeks postinsertion, it was discovered that the tip had migrated superiorly, terminating below the torcula in the posterior fossa. In the interventional suite, a three-dimensional venogram confirmed the inadvertent marginal sinus cannulation. The catheter was carefully retracted to the sigmoid sinus to preserve the option of catheter exchange if embolization became necessary. After a subsequent venogram, which displayed an absence of contrast extravasation, the entire catheter was safely removed. The patient tolerated the procedure well.

LESSONS

Clinicians must be vigilant of catheter tip migration and malposition risks. Relying solely on postinsertion radiographs is insufficient. Once identified, prompt management of the malpositioned catheter is paramount in reducing morbidity and mortality and improving patient outcomes. Removing a malpositioned catheter constitutes a critical step, best performed by a specialized team under angiographic visualization.

Open access

Bilateral and asymmetrical localization of language function identified by the superselective infusion of propofol in an epilepsy patient with a mild malformation of cortical development: illustrative case

Mayuko Otomo, Shin-ichiro Osawa, Kyoko Suzuki, Kazuo Kakinuma, Kazushi Ukishiro, Hiroyoshi Suzuki, Kuniyasu Niizuma, Norio Narita, Nobukazu Nakasato, and Teiji Tominaga

BACKGROUND

Atypical localization of language function can result in unexpected postsurgical deficits after cortical resection, but it is difficult to predict the risk in the presurgical evaluation. The authors experienced a rare case of the bilateral and independent existence of different components of language function identified by segmented evaluation of anatomical anterior and posterior language areas using the superselective infusion of propofol.

OBSERVATIONS

A 32-year-old right-handed female presented with drug-resistant epilepsy. Comprehensive epilepsy evaluation suggested that the epileptic foci involved the whole left frontal lobe but provided less evidence of structural abnormality. To estimate the extent of functional deterioration likely to be caused by an extended left frontal lobectomy, the authors evaluated segmented cortical function in the ipsi- and contralateral hemispheres by the superselective infusion of propofol into the branches of the intracranial artery. The results revealed bilateral and asymmetrical localization of language function because the patient presented with different components of aphasia in each hemisphere. Based on the authors’ assessment of her functional tolerance, an extended left frontal lobectomy was performed and resulted in neurological deficits within the anticipated range.

LESSONS

An accurate understanding of the correlations between vascular and functional anatomy and the highly specific evaluation of language function provides more advanced presurgical assessment, allowing more tailored planning of cortical resection.

Open access

Bilateral infraoptic origin of the anterior cerebral artery: illustrative case

Neil Majmundar, Joseph Quillin, James K Liu, and Pankaj K Agarwalla

BACKGROUND

A bilateral infraoptic origin of the anterior cerebral arteries (ACAs) is a rare anatomical variant that can be encountered during anterior skull base surgery. The ACAs arise from the internal carotid artery (ICA) at the level of the ophthalmic artery and course medially, traveling inferior to the ipsilateral optic nerves. Herein, the authors discuss the different configurations of the anatomical variant, its prevalence, and hypotheses leading to the variable configuration of this anomaly.

OBSERVATIONS

A 67-year-old woman presented with worsening dizziness over a week-long period and was found to have a large left sphenocavernous meningioma with optic, cavernous, and suprasellar extension. The tumor incorporated the left supraclinoid ICA and its branches. She underwent a left modified orbitozygomatic craniotomy for tumor resection. Early identification of the aberrant ACA anatomy was crucial in avoiding vascular injury.

LESSONS

While this variant is typically encountered during the treatment of vascular pathologies—namely, intracranial aneurysms—its existence should be kept in mind during the treatment of any anterior skull base pathology. Failure to account for the presence of this variant may lead to potential intraoperative complications.

Open access

A cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula treated by direct puncture of the superior ophthalmic vein with craniotomy: illustrative case

Katsuma Iwaki, Koichi Arimura, Shunichi Fukuda, Soh Takagishi, Keisuke Ido, Ryota Kurogi, Kenichi Matsumoto, Akira Nakamizo, and Koji Yoshimoto

BACKGROUND

The authors report a case of symptomatic cavernous sinus (CS) dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF) that was successfully treated using direct puncture of the superior ophthalmic vein (SOV) with craniotomy. CS dAVF is commonly treated using transvenous embolization (TVE), with the most common access route via the inferior petrosal sinus (IPS). However, this route is sometimes unavailable because of an occluded, hypoplastic, aplastic, or tortuous IPS. The SOV is an alternative, albeit tortuous and long, route to the CS; therefore, direct SOV puncture is occasionally performed. Direct SOV puncture is mostly percutaneous; however, in this case, it was difficult because of subcutaneous SOV narrowing.

OBSERVATIONS

As the patient experienced increased intraocular pressure, decreased vision, and eye movement disorders, CS embolization was performed via direct puncture with a craniotomy because of other access difficulties.

LESSONS

Several reports have described CS dAVF in patients receiving endovascular treatment via direct SOV puncture using a transorbital approach. However, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first reported case of a CS dAVF treated using TVE with craniotomy. This approach is useful when the SOV cannot be reached intravenously and its distance from the epidermis is long.

Open access

Middle meningeal artery pseudoaneurysm and pterygoid plexus fistula following percutaneous radiofrequency rhizotomy: illustrative case

Rahim Ismail, Derrek Schartz, Timothy Hoang, and Alexander Kessler

BACKGROUND

Percutaneous treatment for trigeminal neuralgia is a safe and effective therapeutic methodology and can be accomplished in the form of balloon compression, glycerol rhizotomy, and radiofrequency thermocoagulation. These procedures are generally well tolerated and demonstrate minimal associated morbidity. Moreover, vascular complications of these procedures are exceedingly rare.

OBSERVATIONS

We present the case of a 64-year-old female with prior microvascular decompression and balloon rhizotomy who presented after symptom recurrence and underwent a second balloon rhizotomy at our institution. Soon thereafter, she presented with pulsatile tinnitus and a right preauricular bruit on physical examination. Subsequent imaging revealed a middle meningeal artery (MMA) to pterygoid plexus fistula and an MMA pseudoaneurysm. Coil and Onxy embolization were used to manage the pseudoaneurysm and fistula.

LESSONS

This case illustrates the potential for MMA pseudoaneurysm formation as a complication of percutaneous trigeminal balloon rhizotomy, which has not been seen in the literature. Concurrent MMA-pterygoid plexus fistula is also a rarity demonstrated in this case.

Open access

Transvenous embolization for an intraosseous clival arteriovenous fistula via a proper access route guiding a three-dimensional fusion image: illustrative case

Yu Iida, Jun Suenaga, Nobuyuki Shimizu, Kaoru Shizawa, Ryosuke Suzuki, Shigeta Miyake, Taisuke Akimoto, Satoshi Hori, Kensuke Tateishi, Yasunobu Nakai, and Tetsuya Yamamoto

BACKGROUND

Intraosseous clival arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs), in which the shunt drains extracranially from the posterior and anterior condylar veins rather than from the cavernous sinus (CS), are rare. Targeting embolization of an intraosseous clival AVF is challenging because of its complex venous and skull base anatomy; therefore, a therapeutic strategy based on detailed preoperative radiological findings is required to achieve a favorable outcome. Here, the authors report the successful targeted embolization of an intraosseous clival AVF using an ingenious access route.

OBSERVATIONS

A 74-year-old woman presented with left-sided visual impairment, oculomotor nerve palsy, and right facial pain. A fusion image of three-dimensional rotational angiography and cone-beam computed tomography revealed a left CS dural AVF and a right intraosseous clival AVF. The shunt flow of the clival AVF drained extracranially from the posterior and anterior condylar veins via the intraosseous venous route. Transvenous embolization was performed by devising suboccipital, posterior condylar, and intraosseous access routes. The symptoms resolved after the bilateral AVFs were treated.

LESSONS

Accurate diagnosis and proper transvenous access based on detailed intraosseous and craniocervical venous information obtained from advanced imaging modalities are key to resolving intraosseous clival AVF.

Open access

Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for persistent primitive hypoglossal artery stenosis: illustrative case

Katsuma Iwaki, Koichi Arimura, Shunichi Fukuda, Soh Takagishi, Ryota Kurogi, Kuniyuki Nakamura, Akira Nakamizo, and Koji Yoshimoto

BACKGROUND

We report a case of symptomatic, progressive stenosis of a persistent primitive hypoglossal artery (PPHA), which was successfully treated with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) of the origin of the PPHA. The PPHA is a type of carotid-basilar anastomosis with an incidence of 0.02% to 0.10%. It originates from the internal carotid artery (ICA), passes through the hypoglossal canal, and merges with the basilar artery. In many cases, the ipsilateral vertebral artery is hypoplastic; therefore, PPHA stenosis causes cerebral infarction in the posterior circulation territory, as in this case.

OBSERVATIONS

The patient’s right PPHA had severe and progressive stenosis; therefore, he experienced cerebral infarction despite medical treatment. Therefore, PTA for the stenosis was performed, which ceased the recurrence of cerebral infarction and dizziness by improving blood flow in the posterior circulation.

LESSONS

Several reports have described ICA stenosis accompanied by PPHA or PPHA stenosis in patients receiving endovascular treatments. Almost all cases were nonprogressive, and the treatment procedure was stenting. However, in our case, the PPHA stenosis was progressive, and we performed PTA because the patient experienced resistance to antiplatelet drugs and had poor collateral flow.

Open access

Rescue stenting after artery occlusion as a complication of an intrasaccular device–assisted coiling embolization: illustrative case

Félix Gallo-Pineda, Miriam Fernández-Gómez, and Carlos Hidalgo-Barranco

BACKGROUND

Endovascular embolization of wide-necked aneurysms can be challenging. The development of intrasaccular devices like the Contour has enabled us to approach these aneurysms effectively by reducing recanalization rates and eliminating the need for dual antiplatelet therapy, which is particularly beneficial in the case of ruptured aneurysms. Although complications from using these devices are rare, it is crucial to address them properly. In this case, the authors highlight how to manage artery thrombosis caused by device protrusion during aneurysm embolization.

OBSERVATIONS

This report describes a complication in a male patient with a ruptured anterior communicating artery wide-necked aneurysm. Following Contour-assisted coiling of the aneurysm, a realignment of the detachable apex of the device occluded the A2 segment of the right anterior cerebral artery. After the failure of intra-arterial and intravenous tirofiban infusion as well as mechanical thrombectomy, a self-expanding open-cell stent was deployed in the involved vessel, achieving successful reperfusion.

LESSONS

The Contour device has a detachable zone that can cause occlusion of the parent vessel after deployment. The use of a stent as a rescue maneuver may be useful if reperfusion of the vessel cannot be achieved through other methods such as aspiration or full-dose antiplatelet therapy.

Open access

Vein of Galen malformations in the newborn: case series

Erik F. Hauck, Jeremy A. Yarden, Lily I. Hauck, Joseph M. Bibawy, Shervin Mirshahi, and Gerald A. Grant

BACKGROUND

Vein of Galen malformations (VoGMs) in newborns often represent life-threatening emergencies. Outcome is difficult to predict. The authors review 50 VoGM cases to correlate anatomical types with treatment and outcome.

OBSERVATIONS

Four distinct types of VoGMs are identified: mural simple (type I), mural complex (type II), choroidal (type III), and choroidal with deep venous drainage (type IV). Seven patients presented with mural simple VoGMs with a “single hole” fistula supplied by only one large feeder. These patients were treated electively at >6 months; development was normal. Fifteen patients presented with complex mural VoGMs. Multiple large feeders joined a single fistulous point within the wall of the varix. Patients typically presented with congestive heart failure (CHF) and required emergent transarterial intervention. Mortality was 7.7% with less than two-thirds developing normally. Twenty-five patients presented with choroidal VoGMs. Multiple large arterial feeders joined at multiple fistulous sites. Severe CHF in most patients required emergent transarterial and sometimes transvenous intervention. Mortality was 9.5%; two-thirds of the patients had a normal development. Three babies presented with choroidal VoGMs with deep intraventricular venous drainage. This phenomenon caused fatal “melting brain syndrome” in all three patients.

LESSONS

Recognition of the specific VoGM type determines treatment options and sets outcome expectations.

Open access

Spinal dural arteriovenous fistula masquerading as a herniated disc: illustrative case

Moustafa A. Mansour, Dyana F. Khalil, Soliman El-Sokkary, Mostafa A. Mostafa, and Ahmad A. Ayad

BACKGROUND

Spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF) is a rare disorder with an unknown etiology. Often, the clinical presentation and imaging findings are misleading, causing this condition to be mistaken for other entities, such as demyelinating or degenerative spinal lesions.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors report a challenging case of SDAVF in which the patient’s symptoms were initially thought to be attributable to a herniated disc based on his imaging studies at another institution. He sought the authors for a second opinion, which yielded a confirmed diagnosis of SDAVF. Due to his rapidly progressive neurological manifestations, he underwent a surgical division of the fistula using intraoperative video angiography via indocyanine green injections. His symptoms progressively improved over a 3-month period. He regained full sphincter control by 4 months, which gave him a better recovery than seen in other patients with SDAVFs, who do not generally fully regain sphincter control.

LESSONS

SDAVF is a critical spinal vascular pathology that should not be overlooked in the differential diagnosis of any patient presenting with signs of progressive myelopathy. Despite its associated vague initial clinical symptoms, SDAVF typically, but not always, demonstrates a characteristic imaging appearance on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies; therefore, MR angiography is still required for definitive diagnosis. Surgical treatment for SDAVF is almost always definitive and curative.