Browse

You are looking at 1 - 7 of 7 items for :

  • Refine by Access: all x
Clear All
Open access

A rare case of atypical intradural extramedullary glioblastoma diagnosed utilizing next-generation sequencing and methylation profiling: illustrative case

William J Shelton, Andrew P Mathews, Karrar Aljiboori, J. Stephen Nix, Murat Gokden, and Analiz Rodriguez

BACKGROUND

Primary spinal cord tumors, especially primary spinal cord glioblastoma multiforme (PSC-GBM), are exceptionally rare, accounting for less than 1.5% of all spinal tumors. Their infrequency and aggressive yet atypical presentation make diagnosis challenging. In uncertain cases, a surgical approach for tissue diagnosis is often optimal.

OBSERVATIONS

A 76-year-old male presented with a rapidly progressing clinical history marked by worsening extremity weakness, urinary retention, and periodic fecal incontinence alongside diffuse changes on neuraxis imaging. The patient, in whom subacute polyneuropathy was initially diagnosed, received multiple rounds of steroids and intravenous immunoglobulin without clinical improvement. Histopathological review of the biopsy tissue yielded an initial diagnosis of spindle cell neoplasm. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is done routinely on all neuropathology specimens at the authors’ institution, and methylation profiling is pursued in difficult cases. Ultimately, NGS and methylation profiling results were essential to an integrated final diagnosis of GBM.

LESSONS

PSC-GBM is a rare but highly aggressive occurrence of this tumor. Prolonged back pain, rapid neurological decline, and imaging changes warrant the consideration of lesional biopsy for precise disease characterization. In inconclusive cases, NGS has proved invaluable for clinical clarification and diagnosis, underscoring its importance for integrated diagnoses in guiding appropriate treatment strategies.

Open access

Supraorbital keyhole approaches in the first 3 years of practice: outcomes and lessons learned. Patient series

Adnan Hussain Shahid, Danner Butler, Garrett Dyess, Maxon Bassett, Luke Harris, Ursula Hummel, Danielle Chason, and Jai Deep Thakur

BACKGROUND

Supraorbital keyhole approaches (SKAs) have garnered criticism for a limited surgical exposure, restrictive surgical freedom, blind spots, and the learning curve. This retrospective study of patients who underwent SKA aims to explore the outcomes, technical nuances, and the learning curve reflected in a single surgeon’s experience in the initial 3 years of practice.

OBSERVATIONS

A total of 20 SKA operations were performed in 19 patients. Gross- or near-total resection was achieved in 14 of 17 tumor cases. The mean blood loss was 80.5 mL, the mean duration of surgery was 5 hours, and the median stay was 3 days. Endoscopic augmentation was used in 11 cases in which additional tumor removal occurred in 8 of the 11 cases. There were no cases of cerebrospinal fluid leakage or wound infection. A 30-day readmission and typical narcotics after discharge were seen in one patient each. When comparing two halves of a neurosurgery practice over 3 years, the duration of surgery was significantly longer in the later year, which is likely due to operating on a larger tumor size as the years progressed. No cases required static retractors or conversion to larger craniotomies.

LESSONS

Careful case selection and respecting the learning curve allows the safe incorporation of SKA in the early stages of neurosurgical practice.

Open access

The infundibulochiasmatic angle and the favorability of an endoscopic endonasal approach in type IV craniopharyngioma: illustrative case

Guilherme Finger, Maria Jose C Ruiz, Eman H Salem, Matthew D Marquardt, Kyle C Wu, Lucas P Carlstrom, Ricardo L Carrau, Luciano M Prevedello, and Daniel M Prevedello

BACKGROUND

Lesions located in the floor of the third ventricle are among the most difficult to access in neurosurgery. The neurovascular structures can limit transcranial exposure, whereas tumor extension into the third ventricle can limit visualization and access. The midline transsphenoidal route is an alternative approach to tumor invading the third ventricle if the tumor is localized at its anterior half and a working space between the optic apparatus and the pituitary infundibulum exists. The authors introduce the “infundibulochiasmatic angle,” a valuable measurement supporting the feasibility of the translamina terminalis endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) for resection of type IV craniopharyngiomas.

OBSERVATIONS

Due to a favorable infundibulochiasmatic angle measurement on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), an endoscopic endonasal transsellar transtubercular approach was performed to resect a type IV craniopharyngioma. At 2-month follow-up, the patient’s neurological exam was unremarkable, with improvement in bitemporal hemianopsia. Postoperative MRI confirmed gross-total tumor resection.

LESSONS

The infundibulochiasmatic angle is a radiological tool for evaluating the feasibility of EEA when resecting tumors in the anterior half of the third ventricle. Advantages include reduced brain retraction and excellent rates of resection, with minimal postoperative risks of cerebrospinal fluid leakage and permanent pituitary dysfunction.

Open access

Connectomics as a prognostic tool of functional outcome in glioma surgery of the supplementary motor area: illustrative case

Eric Suero Molina, Matthew J. Tait, and Antonio Di Ieva

BACKGROUND

The supplementary motor area (SMA) is essential in facilitating the commencement and coordination of complex self-initiated movements. Its complex functional connectivity poses a great risk for postoperative neurological deterioration. SMA syndrome can occur after tumor resection and comprises hemiakinesia and akinetic mutism (often, but unpredictably temporary). Although awake surgery is preferred for mapping and monitoring eloquent areas, connectomics is emerging as a novel technique to tailor neurosurgical approaches and predict functional prognosis, as illustrated in this case.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors report on a patient presenting with recurrent oligodendroglioma after subtotal resection 7 years earlier. After extensive neuropsychological and neuroradiological assessment (including connectomics), awake surgery was indicated. No intraoperative deficits were recorded; however, the patient presented with postoperative right-sided akinesia and mutism. Postoperative neuroimaging demonstrated the connectome overlapping the preoperative one, and indeed, neurological symptoms resolved after 3 days.

LESSONS

Comparison of the pre- and postoperative connectome can be used to objectively evaluate surgical outcomes and assess patient prognosis. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first case demonstrating the feasibility of quantitative functional connectivity analysis as a prognostic tool for neurological improvement after surgery. A better understanding of brain networks is instrumental for improving diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of neuro-oncological patients.

Open access

En bloc resection of a high cervical chordoma followed by reconstruction with a free vascularized fibular graft: illustrative case

Zachariah W. Pinter, Eric J. Moore, Peter S. Rose, Ahmad N. Nassr, and Bradford L. Currier

BACKGROUND

Wide excision of chordoma provides better local control than intralesional resection or definitive radiotherapy. The en bloc excision of high cervical chordomas is a challenging endeavor because of the complex anatomy of this region and limited reconstructive options.

OBSERVATIONS

This is the first case report to describe reconstruction with a free vascularized fibular graft following the en bloc excision of a chordoma involving C1–3.

LESSONS

This report demonstrates the durability of this construct at 10-year follow-up and is the first case report demonstrating satisfactory long-term oncological outcomes after a true margin-negative resection of a high cervical chordoma.

Open access

Presacral mature cystic teratoma associated with Currarino syndrome in an adolescent with androgen insensitivity: illustrative case

Grant Koskay, Patrick Opperman, Frank M. Mezzacappa, Joseph Menousek, Megan K. Fuller, Linden Fornoff, and Daniel Surdell

BACKGROUND

Currarino syndrome is a rare disorder that classically presents with the triad of presacral mass, anorectal malformation, and spinal dysraphism. The presacral mass is typically benign, although malignant transformation is possible. Surgical treatment of the mass and exploration and repair of associated dysraphism are indicated for diagnosis and symptom relief. There are no previous reports of Currarino syndrome in an androgen-insensitive patient.

OBSERVATIONS

A 17-year-old female patient presented with lack of menarche. Physical examination and laboratory investigation identified complete androgen insensitivity. Imaging analysis revealed a presacral mass lesion, and the patient was taken to surgery for resection of the mass and spinal cord untethering. Intraoperative ultrasound revealed a fibrous stalk connecting the thecal sac to the presacral mass, which was disconnected without the need for intrathecal exploration. The presacral mass was then resected, and pathological analysis revealed a mature cystic teratoma. Postoperatively, the patient recovered without neurological or gastrointestinal sequelae.

LESSONS

Diagnosis of incomplete Currarino syndrome may be difficult but can be identified via work-up of other disorders, such as androgen insensitivity. Intraoperative ultrasound is useful for surgical decision making and may obviate the need for intrathecal exploration during repair of dysraphism in the setting of Currarino syndrome.

Open access

The use of an endoscopic endonasal approach for a secondary intraorbital meningioma: illustrative case

Breno W. M. Guedes, Joilson F. de Souza Júnior, Nelson A. D’Avila Melo, João M. B. de Menezes Neto, André Beer-Furlan, and Arthur M. P. Oliveira

BACKGROUND

Meningiomas are the most frequent primary tumors in the central nervous system (CNS), but intraorbital location is uncommon and accounts for only 0.2% to 4% of all CNS meningiomas. Lesions in this compartment could be classified as primary, secondary, or ectopic. The close relationship with the optic nerve sheath is a landmark to identify the tumor as primary, whereas secondary tumors commonly come from an extension of an intracranial meningioma, and ectopic meningioma is a concept not yet completely established.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors present a rare case of a secondary intraorbital meningioma operated through an endoscopic endonasal approach. Secondary meningiomas at the medial orbit are very uncommon, given their more common superior and lateral location as an extension of sphenoid meningiomas. The endoscopic endonasal route provides direct access to the medial orbit. The authors present an illustrative case of a meningioma located at the medial orbit and resected through an endoscopic endonasal approach that provided excellent visualization and anatomical exposure. Additionally, the authors review the concept and possible similarities between secondary and ectopic intraorbital meningiomas.

LESSONS

An endoscopic endonasal approach should be considered as a feasible treatment option for intraorbital meningiomas, especially if they are in the medial orbital wall.