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Open access

Visual dysfunction and neurodegeneration caused by severe inflammatory optic neuropathy after coil embolization of a paraclinoid aneurysm: illustrative case

Tomohiro Okuyama, Kota Kurisu, PhD, Toshiya Osanai, Masaki Ito, Taku Sugiyama, Haruto Uchino, and Miki Fujimura

BACKGROUND

Visual impairment due to delayed optic neuropathy is a rare complication of the endovascular treatment of paraclinoid aneurysms. An inflammatory response induced in the treated aneurysm wall is a known mechanism underlying this pathophysiology. The authors describe a case with severe and progressive optic neuropathy leading to neuronal degeneration and severe visual dysfunction.

OBSERVATIONS

A 42-year-old female with a history of surgical clipping for a paraclinoid aneurysm presented with a recurrence. Although the patient was unaware of any visual dysfunction, a preoperative ophthalmological examination revealed mild inferior quadrantanopia in the left eye. The coil embolization procedure was uneventful; however, the following day, the patient experienced progressive visual impairment, which worsened despite the initiation of steroid therapy. Ophthalmological examination revealed a severe decrease in visual acuity and further deterioration of the visual field. Magnetic resonance imaging showed remarkable swelling and edema of the left optic nerve adjacent to the treated aneurysm. Despite continued steroid therapy, the patient’s visual function did not recover well due to subsequent optic nerve degeneration.

LESSONS

Optic neuropathy after endovascular procedures can lead to severe visual dysfunction. Careful management is essential, particularly when treating a symptomatic paraclinoid aneurysm, even if symptoms are only apparent on detailed examination.

Open access

Angiographic evidence of an inadvertent cannulation of the marginal sinus following central line migration: illustrative case

Abdelaziz Amllay, Edwin Owolo, Kamil W Nowicki, Nanthiya Sujijantarat, Andrew Koo, Joseph P Antonios, Daniela Renedo, Charles C Matouk, and Ryan M Hebert

BACKGROUND

Central venous catheters (CVCs) play an indispensable role in clinical practice. Catheter malposition and tip migration can lead to severe complications. The authors present a case illustrating the endovascular management of inadvertent marginal sinus cannulation after an internal jugular vein (IJV) catheter tip migration.

OBSERVATIONS

A triple-lumen CVC was inserted without complications into the right IJV of a patient undergoing a repeat sternotomy for aortic valve replacement. Two weeks postinsertion, it was discovered that the tip had migrated superiorly, terminating below the torcula in the posterior fossa. In the interventional suite, a three-dimensional venogram confirmed the inadvertent marginal sinus cannulation. The catheter was carefully retracted to the sigmoid sinus to preserve the option of catheter exchange if embolization became necessary. After a subsequent venogram, which displayed an absence of contrast extravasation, the entire catheter was safely removed. The patient tolerated the procedure well.

LESSONS

Clinicians must be vigilant of catheter tip migration and malposition risks. Relying solely on postinsertion radiographs is insufficient. Once identified, prompt management of the malpositioned catheter is paramount in reducing morbidity and mortality and improving patient outcomes. Removing a malpositioned catheter constitutes a critical step, best performed by a specialized team under angiographic visualization.

Open access

Early cerebral venous drainage associated with focal seizures: a correlation of digital subtraction angiography and electroencephalography. Illustrative case

Olivia Holman, Joseph M Bibawy, Lara Wadi, Joel C Morgenlander, and Erik F Hauck

BACKGROUND

Early venous drainage is a critical diagnostic feature of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) and arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs). However, other conditions associated with early venous drainage can mimic AVMs and AVFs and mislead the treating physician team.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors present a unique case of a 56-year-old man with new left hemianopsia. Workup with magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance angiography had revealed cortical enhancement and early venous drainage, possibly caused by an AVF or AVM. Catheter angiography confirmed the presence of early venous drainage of specifically the right occipital lobe. The early venous drainage occurred as the result of local hyperperfusion limited to the right occipital lobe. Subsequent electroencephalography confirmed focal seizure activity in the right occipital lobe. After seizure control with multiple antiepileptic medications, the patient regained his vision. Repeat digital subtraction angiography revealed restoration of normal cerebral blood flow.

LESSONS

Early venous drainage observed during catheter angiography can be associated with seizure activity. Differentiation from other conditions, such as AVM, AVF, or ischemic stroke, is critical to facilitate prompt and appropriate treatment.

Open access

Evaluation of the shrinkage process of a neck remnant after stent-coil treatment of a cerebral aneurysm using silent magnetic resonance angiography and computational fluid dynamics analysis: illustrative case

Toru Satoh, Kenji Sugiu, Masafumi Hiramatsu, Jun Haruma, and Isao Date

BACKGROUND

Silent magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) mitigates metal artifacts, facilitating clear visualization of neck remnants after stent and coil embolization of cerebral aneurysms. This study aims to scrutinize hemodynamics at the neck remnant by employing silent MRA and computational fluid dynamics.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors longitudinally tracked images of a partially thrombosed anterior communicating artery aneurysm’s neck remnant, which had been treated with stent-assisted coil embolization, using silent MRA over a decade. Computational fluid dynamics delineated the neck remnant’s reduction process, evaluating hemodynamic parameters such as flow rate, wall shear stress magnitude and vector, and streamlines. The neck remnant exhibited diminishing surface area, volume, neck size, dome depth, and aspect ratio. Its reduction correlated with a decline in the flow rate ratio of the remnant dome to the inflow parent artery. Analysis delineated regions within the contracting neck remnant characterized by consistently low average wall shear stress magnitude and variation, accompanied by notable variations in wall shear stress vector directionality.

LESSONS

Evaluation of neck remnants after stent-coil embolization is possible through silent MRA and computational fluid dynamics. Predicting the neck remnant reduction may be achievable through hemodynamic parameter analysis.

Open access

Novel use of a closed-tip stent retriever to prevent distal embolism in the posterior circulation: illustrative case

Rikuo Nishii, Masanori Goto, Yuki Takano, Kota Nakajima, Takateru Takamatsu, Masanori Tokuda, Hikari Tomita, Mai Yoshimoto, Satohiro Kawade, Yasuhiro Yamamoto, Yuji Naramoto, Kunimasa Teranishi, Nobuyuki Fukui, Tadashi Sunohara, Ryu Fukumitsu, Junichi Takeda, Masaomi Koyanagi, Chiaki Sakai, Nobuyuki Sakai, and Tsuyoshi Ohta

BACKGROUND

In mechanical thrombectomy for tandem occlusions in vertebrobasilar stroke, distal emboli from the vertebral artery lesion should be prevented. However, no suitable embolic protection devices are currently available in the posterior circulation. Here, the authors describe the case of a vertebral artery lesion effectively treated with a closed-tip stent retriever as an embolic protection device in the posterior circulation.

OBSERVATIONS

A 65-year-old male underwent mechanical thrombectomy for basilar artery occlusion, with tandem occlusion of the proximal vertebral artery. After basilar artery recanalization via the nonoccluded vertebral artery, a subsequent mechanical thrombectomy was performed for the occluded proximal vertebral artery. To prevent distal embolization of the basilar artery, an EmboTrap III stent retriever was deployed as an embolic protection device within the basilar artery to successfully capture the thrombus.

LESSONS

A stent retriever with a closed-tip structure can effectively capture thrombi, making it a suitable distal embolic protection device in the posterior circulation.

Open access

Aortogenic calcified cerebral embolism diagnosed with an embolus retrieved by thrombectomy: illustrative case

Yasunori Yokochi, Hiroyuki Ikeda, Mai Tanimura, Takuya Osuki, Minami Uezato, Masanori Kinosada, Yoshitaka Kurosaki, and Masaki Chin

BACKGROUND

Calcified cerebral embolism has been reported as a cause of acute cerebral infarction, but an aortogenic origin has rarely been identified as the embolic source. The authors describe a case of aortogenic calcified cerebral embolism in a patient with other embolic sources.

OBSERVATIONS

In a patient with cerebral infarction and atrial fibrillation, a white hard embolus was retrieved by mechanical thrombectomy. Pathological analysis of the embolus revealed that it was mostly calcified, with some foam cells and giant cells. The macroscopic and pathological findings allowed the authors to finally diagnose an aortogenic calcified cerebral embolism.

LESSONS

Even in patients with cardiogenic embolic sources, it is possible to identify a complex aortic atheroma with calcification as the embolic source, based on the macroscopic and pathological findings of the embolus retrieved by mechanical thrombectomy.

Open access

First use of intraventricular nicardipine in a pediatric patient with vasospasm secondary to meningitis: illustrative case

V. Jane Horak, Nirali Patel, Sunny Abdelmageed, Jonathan Scoville, Melissa A LoPresti, and Sandi Lam

BACKGROUND

Cerebral vasospasm is commonly associated with adult aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage but can develop in children. The standard vasospasm treatment includes induced hypertension, avoidance of hypovolemia, systemic use of the calcium channel blocker (CCB) nimodipine, and cerebral angiography for intraarterial therapy. Emerging treatments in adults, such as intraventricular CCB administration, have not been investigated in children. This study demonstrates the successful use of an intraventricular CCB in a pediatric patient with refractory vasospasm secondary to meningitis.

OBSERVATIONS

A 12-year-old female presented with Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis and ventriculitis with refractory symptomatic cerebral vasospasm. She received a 5-day course of intrathecal nicardipine through an existing external ventricular drain. Her clinical status, transcranial Doppler studies, and radiography improved. Treatment was well tolerated.

LESSONS

Pediatric vasospasm is uncommon and potentially devastating. The management of vasospasm in adults occurs frequently. Principles of this management are adapted to pediatric care given the rarity of vasospasm in children. The use of intraventricular nicardipine has been reported in the care of adults with level 3 evidence. It has not been adequately reported in children with refractory vasospasm. Here, the first use of intraventricular nicardipine in treating pediatric cerebral vasospasm in the setting of meningitis is described and highlighted.

Open access

Combination of neuroendoscopic hematoma evacuation and endovascular coil embolization for a ruptured anterior choroidal artery aneurysm in patients with moyamoya disease: illustrative cases

Kohei Uemasu, Hiroyuki Koizumi, Daisuke Yamamoto, Sumito Sato, Hideto Komai, Madoka Inukai, Takuichiro Hide, Yasushi Asari, and Toshihiro Kumabe

BACKGROUND

The treatment strategy for hemorrhagic moyamoya disease (MMD) due to a ruptured aneurysm at the distal portion of the anterior choroidal artery remains controversial. The authors successfully treated the ruptured aneurysm with neuroendoscopic hematoma evacuation, followed by endovascular coil embolization.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors encountered two patients with massive hemorrhagic MMD whose MMD had already been diagnosed and who had a periventricular anastomosis due to a ruptured aneurysm of the distal portion of the anterior choroidal artery involving the periventricular anastomosis. In both cases, neuroendoscopic hematoma evacuation was performed for hemorrhagic MMD in the acute phase, followed by endovascular coil embolization of the ruptured aneurysm in the chronic phase. In both endovascular treatments, the patient’s condition was stabilized by hematoma evacuation, allowing a detailed preoperative evaluation of the anatomical findings of the vessel and functional findings of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring using continuous monitoring of motor evoked potentials to preserve motor function.

LESSONS

Combination therapy can be useful for hemorrhagic MMD in patients with diagnosed MMD with a periventricular anastomosis. Additionally, a preoperative understanding of the vascular construction and intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring will aid in the successful coil embolization of aneurysms at the distal portion of the anterior choroidal artery with hemorrhagic MMD.

Open access

Compatibility of the semijailing technique with extremely soft i-ED coils for ruptured blood blister–like and dissecting aneurysms: patient series

Hiroki Takahashi, Toshinori Matsushige, Yukishige Hashimoto, Takeshi Hara, Masahiro Hosogai, Shohei Kobayashi, and Nobutaka Horie

BACKGROUND

Optimal treatment options for ruptured blood blister–like aneurysms (BBAs) and dissecting aneurysms (DAs) have not yet been established. Endovascular treatment may achieve vessel reconstruction with the preservation of antegrade blood flow; however, securing curative hemostasis at the fragile rupture point remains a major concern.

OBSERVATIONS

Two ruptured BBAs and two ruptured DAs treated by stent-assisted coiling with the semijailing technique in the last 2 years are described herein. The devices used were braided stents and i-ED coils, which are new low-memory shape and extremely soft coils. Neither rebleeding nor ischemic complications were observed. All patients had a favorable outcome and showed no recurrence after treatment.

LESSONS

All aneurysms were treated without ischemic complications or rebleeding. The good compatibility of braided stents and the new concept coils in stent-assisted coiling by the semijailing technique provides insight into these intractable hemorrhagic vascular pathologies.

Open access

Acute large-vessel occlusion due to an infected thrombus formation induced by invasive sphenoid sinus aspergillosis: illustrative case

Yoshiyasu Matsumoto, Yosuke Akamatsu, Koji Yoshida, Yasushi Ogasawara, Toshinari Misaki, Shunichi Sasou, Hiromu Konno, and Kuniaki Ogasawara

BACKGROUND

The authors describe a rare case of acute large-vessel occlusion due to an infected thrombus formation that was induced by invasive sphenoid sinus aspergillosis.

OBSERVATIONS

An 82-year-old man with a history of immunoglobulin G4–related disease and long-term use of steroids and immunosuppressants was admitted to the authors’ hospital with severe right hemiparesis. Cerebral angiography revealed occlusion of the left internal carotid artery (ICA). He underwent thrombectomy, resulting in successful recanalization. However, severe stenosis was evident in the left ICA cavernous segment. Pathological analysis of the retrieved thrombus identified Aspergillus. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging revealed sinusitis in the left sphenoid sinus as a possible source of the infection. The patient’s general condition deteriorated during the course of hospitalization due to refractory aspiration pneumonia, and he died 46 days after thrombectomy. Pathological autopsy and histopathological investigation of the left ICA and the left sphenoid sinus showed that Aspergillus had invaded the wall of the left ICA from the adjacent sphenoid sinus. These findings indicate a diagnosis of acute large-vessel occlusion due to infected thrombus formation induced by invasive sphenoid sinus aspergillosis.

LESSONS

Pathological analysis of a retrieved thrombus appears useful for identifying rare stroke etiologies such as fungal infection.