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Open access

Trigeminal neuralgia secondary to vascular compression and neurocysticercosis: illustrative case

Mao Vásquez, Luis J. Saavedra, Hector H. García, Evelyn Vela, Jorge E. Medina, Miguel Lozano, Carlos Hoyos, and William W. Lines-Aguilar

BACKGROUND

Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is a frequent neurosurgical problem negatively influencing the quality of life of patients. The standard surgical treatment is microvascular decompression for primary cases and decompression of the mass effect, mainly tumors, for secondary cases. Neurocysticercosis (NCC) in the cerebellopontine angle is a rare etiology of TN. The authors report a case in which NCC cysts around the trigeminal nerve coexisted with a vascular loop, which compressed the exit of the trigeminal nerve from the pons.

OBSERVATIONS

A 78-year-old woman presented with a 3-year history of persistent severe pain in the left side of her face, refractory to medical treatment. On gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging, cystic lesions were observed around the left trigeminal nerve and a vascular loop was also present and in contact with the nerve. A retrosigmoid approach for cyst excision plus microvascular decompression of the trigeminal nerve was successfully performed. There were no complications. The patient was discharged without facial pain.

LESSONS

Albeit rare, TN secondary to NCC cysts should be considered in the differential diagnosis in NCC-endemic regions. In this case, the cause of the neuralgia was probably both problems, because when both were treated, the patient improved.

Open access

Cerebrospinal fluid fistula as a complication of reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction collection for the detection of coronavirus disease 2019: illustrative cases

Lucca B. Palavani, Camila V. F. Andrade, Renato A. Andrade, Egmond Alves, Marcio Falchi Barros, and João F. Barbieri

BACKGROUND

The most used method to detect coronavirus disease 2019 during the pandemic is reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction with nasal swab. Despite being highly effective, the test does not leave the patient risk-free and can lead to serious complications. These can be traumatic nasal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistula and its consequences, such as meningitis.

OBSERVATIONS

In this article, the authors present 4 case reports and a literature review. The following MeSH terms in the research were used: “CSF leak case report and covid 19.” Six results were found and after searching the references and keywords 16 articles were identified. By using them, the authors tried to clarify the etiology of the fistula, its influences, and complications.

LESSONS

The authors conclude that professionals must receive training, since CSF fistula originates from technical failure and lack of anatomical knowledge. The diagnosis cannot be neglected because it can bring complications to the patient’s health.

Open access

Endoscopic endonasal resection of craniovertebral junction osteomyelitis: illustrative cases

Alexander Keister, Joshua Vignolles-Jeong, Daniel Kreatsoulas, Kyle VanKoevering, Stephanus Viljoen, Daniel Prevedello, and Andrew J. Grossbach

BACKGROUND

Operative management of craniovertebral junction (CVJ) osteomyelitis has traditionally been extracranial and focused on debriding the infection. In select patients, the endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) with a focus on additional resection versus debridement may be preferred. The goal of this study is to present the authors’ experience with the EEA with gross or subtotal resection for the treatment of osteomyelitis at the CVJ and describe their technique in the context of the literature.

OBSERVATIONS

Two patients of the authors’ and 6 detailed case reports in the literature were identified with a mean age of 58.9 years. Most patients (n = 5; 62.5%) underwent skull base surgery and debridement (n = 5; 62.5%). Although more common, debridement was inferior to resection in terms of neurological improvement (66.7% vs. 100.0%) postoperatively. The majority (n = 7; 87.5%) of patients underwent occipitocervical fusion.

LESSONS

Osteomyelitis is an exceedingly rare lesion of the CVJ. Despite the region’s delicate biomechanical stability, resection of infected bone may be superior to debridement alone in terms of clinical outcome. Given how well established the safety of the EEA is to this region, further study of outcomes with resection is warranted.

Open access

Transventricular endoscopic approach to the anterior interhemispheric fissure for neurocysticercosis: illustrative cases

Mao Vásquez, Luis J. Saavedra, Hector H. García, Alejandro Apaza, Yelimer Caucha, Jorge E. Medina, Dennis Heredia, Fernando Romero, and William W. Lines-Aguilar

BACKGROUND

Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a global public health problem. It is a complex disease to manage and a cause of great morbidity and mortality in affected patients. Conventional surgical approaches have been used for many years, but currently, minimally invasive approaches are being used with good results. The authors present a case of NCC in the anterior interhemispheric fissure that was treated with a transventricular endoscopic approach.

OBSERVATIONS

A 32-year-old male patient was admitted for persistent moderate headache and dizziness. Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed multiple parenchymal, ventricular, and subarachnoid cystic lesions, especially in the anterior interhemispheric space. A transventricular endoscopic approach was selected and applied. There were no complications during surgery. Pathological analysis confirmed the diagnosis of NCC. Control MRI demonstrated the absence of cysts in the anterior interhemispheric space.

LESSONS

Minimally invasive approaches are an excellent alternative for patients with NCC, especially if a patient requires more than one surgery.

Open access

Endoscope-assisted far lateral craniotomy for resection of posterior fossa neurocysticercosis: illustrative case

Jerrell Fang, Christopher Banerjee, Amanda Barrett, Bruce C. Gilbert, and Martin J. Rutkowski

BACKGROUND

Neurocysticercosis is a parasitic infection that commonly affects the ventricles, subarachnoid spaces, and spinal cord of the central nervous system. The authors report an unusual manifestation of purely posterior fossa neurocysticercosis treated with endoscope-assisted open craniotomy for resection.

OBSERVATIONS

A 67-year-old male presented with 2 months of progressive dizziness, gait ataxia, headaches, decreased hearing, and memory impairment. Imaging revealed an extra-axial cystic lesion occupying the foramen magnum and left cerebellopontine angle with significant mass effect and evidence of early hydrocephalus. Gross-total resection was accomplished via a left far lateral craniotomy with open endoscopic assistance, and pathological findings were consistent with neurocysticercosis. Postoperatively, he was noted to have a sixth nerve palsy, and adjuvant therapy included albendazole. By 9 months postoperatively, he exhibited complete resolution of an immediate postoperative sixth nerve palsy in addition to all preoperative symptoms. His hydrocephalus resolved and did not require permanent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion.

LESSONS

When combined with traditional skull base approaches, open endoscopic techniques allow for enhanced visualization and resection of complex lesions otherwise inaccessible under the microscope alone. Recognition and obliteration of central nervous system neurocysticercosis can facilitate excellent neurological recovery without the need for CSF diversion.