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Open access

Bilateral and asymmetrical localization of language function identified by the superselective infusion of propofol in an epilepsy patient with a mild malformation of cortical development: illustrative case

Mayuko Otomo, Shin-ichiro Osawa, Kyoko Suzuki, Kazuo Kakinuma, Kazushi Ukishiro, Hiroyoshi Suzuki, Kuniyasu Niizuma, Norio Narita, Nobukazu Nakasato, and Teiji Tominaga

BACKGROUND

Atypical localization of language function can result in unexpected postsurgical deficits after cortical resection, but it is difficult to predict the risk in the presurgical evaluation. The authors experienced a rare case of the bilateral and independent existence of different components of language function identified by segmented evaluation of anatomical anterior and posterior language areas using the superselective infusion of propofol.

OBSERVATIONS

A 32-year-old right-handed female presented with drug-resistant epilepsy. Comprehensive epilepsy evaluation suggested that the epileptic foci involved the whole left frontal lobe but provided less evidence of structural abnormality. To estimate the extent of functional deterioration likely to be caused by an extended left frontal lobectomy, the authors evaluated segmented cortical function in the ipsi- and contralateral hemispheres by the superselective infusion of propofol into the branches of the intracranial artery. The results revealed bilateral and asymmetrical localization of language function because the patient presented with different components of aphasia in each hemisphere. Based on the authors’ assessment of her functional tolerance, an extended left frontal lobectomy was performed and resulted in neurological deficits within the anticipated range.

LESSONS

An accurate understanding of the correlations between vascular and functional anatomy and the highly specific evaluation of language function provides more advanced presurgical assessment, allowing more tailored planning of cortical resection.

Open access

Utilization of three-dimensional fusion images with high-resolution computed tomography angiography for preoperative evaluation of microvascular decompression: patient series

Takamitsu Iwata, Koichi Hosomi, Naoki Tani, Hui Ming Khoo, Satoru Oshino, and Haruhiko Kishima

BACKGROUND

High-resolution computed tomography (CT), outfitted with a 0.25-mm detector, has superior capability for identifying microscopic anatomical structures compared to conventional CT. This study describes the use of high-resolution computed tomography angiography (CTA) for preoperative microvascular decompression (MVD) assessment and explores the potential effectiveness of three-dimensional (3D) image fusion with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by comparing it with traditional imaging methods.

OBSERVATIONS

Four patients who had undergone preoperative high-resolution CTA and MRI for MVD at Osaka University Hospital between December 2020 and March 2022 were included in this study. The 3D-reconstructed images and intraoperative findings were compared. One patient underwent conventional CTA, thus allowing for a comparison between high-resolution and conventional CTA in terms of radiation exposure and vascular delineation. Preoperative simulations reflected the intraoperative findings for all cases; small vessel compression of the nerve was identified preoperatively in two cases.

LESSONS

Compared with conventional CTA, high-resolution CTA showed superior vascular delineation with no significant change in radiation exposure. The use of high-resolution CTA with reconstructed 3D fusion images can help to simulate prior MVD. Knowing the location of the nerves and blood vessels can perioperatively guide neurosurgeons.

Open access

Radiofrequency ablation during stereoelectroencephalography: from diagnostic tool to therapeutic intervention. Illustrative case

Demitre Serletis, Juan Bulacio, Justin Bingaman, Elham Abushanab, Stephen P. Harasimchuk, Richard Rammo, Silvia Neme-Mercante, and William Bingaman

BACKGROUND

Radiofrequency thermocoagulation (RFTC) during intracranial stereoelectroencephalography (sEEG) was first described as a safe technique for creating lesions of epileptic foci in 2004. Since that time, the method has been applied as a diagnostic and/or palliative intervention. Although widely practiced in European epilepsy surgical programs, the technique has not been popularized in the United States given the lack of Food and Drug Administration (FDA)–approved technologies permitting safe usage of in situ sEEG electrodes for this purpose.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors present a case report of a young female patient with refractory left neocortical temporal lobe epilepsy undergoing sEEG electrode implantation, who underwent sEEG-guided RFTC via a stereotactic temperature-sensing pallidotomy probe. Although used as a diagnostic step in her workup, the patient has remained seizure-free for nearly 18 months.

LESSONS

The use of in situ sEEG electrodes for RFTC remains limited in the United States. In this context, this case highlights a safe alternative and temporizing approach to performing diagnostic sEEG-guided RFTC, using a temperature-sensing pallidotomy probe to create small, precise stereotactic lesions. The authors caution careful consideration of this technique as a temporary work-around solution while also highlighting the rising need for new FDA-approved technologies for safe RFTC through in situ temperature-sensing sEEG electrodes.

Open access

Trigeminal neuralgia caused by a persistent primitive trigeminal artery: preoperative three-dimensional multifusion imaging and computational fluid dynamics analysis. Illustrative case

Toru Satoh, Takao Yasuhara, Michiari Umakoshi, and Isao Date

BACKGROUND

Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is caused by trigeminal nerve compression by colliding vessels. Preoperative three-dimensional (3D) multifusion images are useful for surgical simulations. Moreover, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of colliding vessels may be useful for hemodynamic evaluation at the site of neurovascular contact (NVC).

OBSERVATIONS

A 71-year-old woman had TN due to compression of the trigeminal nerve by the superior cerebellar artery (SCA) fused with the persistent primitive trigeminal artery (PTA). Preoperative 3D multifusion simulation images of silent magnetic resonance (MR) angiography and MR cisternography depicted the NVC, including the trigeminal nerve, SCA, and PTA. CFD analysis revealed the hemodynamic condition of the NVC, including the SCA and PTA. The wall shear stress magnitude (WSSm) at the NVC showed a local elevation due to flow confluence from the SCA and PTA. High WSSm was observed in the NVC.

LESSONS

Preoperative simulation images of MR angiography and MR cisternography may depict the NVC. CFD analysis can provide the hemodynamic condition at the NVC.

Open access

Preoperative three-dimensional multifusion imaging aiding successful microvascular decompression of a cerebellopontine angle lipoma: associated hemifacial spasm. Illustrative case

Hiroki Seto, Ryosuke Ogura, Tetsuya Hiraishi, Yoshihiro Tsukamoto, Taiki Saito, Satoshi Shibuma, Kohei Shibuya, Kouichirou Okamoto, Makoto Oishi, and Yukihiko Fujii

BACKGROUND

Cerebellopontine angle (CPA) lipoma–associated hemifacial spasm (HFS) is rare. As the removal of CPA lipomas has a high risk of worsening the neurological symptoms, surgical exploration is warranted only in selected patients. Preoperative identification of the lipoma affected site of the facial nerve, and offending artery are crucial for patient selection and successful microvascular decompression (MVD).

OBSERVATIONS

Presurgical simulation using three-dimensional (3D) multifusion imaging showed a tiny CPA lipoma wedged between the facial and auditory nerves, as well as an affected facial nerve by the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) at the cisternal segment. Although a recurrent perforating artery from the AICA anchored the AICA to the lipoma, successful MVD was achieved without lipoma removal.

LESSONS

The presurgical simulation using 3D multifusion imaging could identify the CPA lipoma, affected site of the facial nerve, and offending artery. It was helpful for patient selection and successful MVD.