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Chronic subdural hematoma associated with type II and type III Galassi arachnoid cysts: illustrative cases

Bac Thanh Nguyen, Van Dinh Tran, Jehan Bista, and Trung Van Trinh

BACKGROUND

Arachnoid cysts (ACs) are congenital abnormalities that can be located anywhere within the subarachnoid space along the cerebrospinal axis, although they are most often found on the left side in the temporal fossa and sylvian fissure. ACs comprise approximately 1% of all intracranial space-occupying lesions and are considered potential risk factors for subdural hematoma (SDH) in individuals of all age groups who have experienced traumatic brain injury. Although it is uncommon for an intracystic hemorrhage of an AC to occur without evidence of head trauma, it may be more common among children and young adults. Here, the authors present three cases of spontaneous AC intracystic hemorrhage with chronic SDH. Additionally, they provide a thorough review of the existing literature.

OBSERVATIONS

All three patients with AC were adolescent males. In all cases, AC was identified using the Galassi classification (type II or III) and associated with spontaneous intracystic hemorrhage and chronic SDH as seen on imaging.

LESSONS

Spontaneous intracystic hemorrhage is a rare complication and occurs most commonly on the left side. Surgery is the definitive treatment, requiring either craniotomy or burr hole for hematoma evacuation and microsurgical fenestration to drain the cyst into the subarachnoid cisterns.

Open access

Frontal intradiploic encephalocele in a 44-year-old male patient: illustrative case

Baran Atli, Sebastian Rath, Johannes Burtscher, Johannes A. Hainfellner, and Simon Hametner

BACKGROUND

Encephaloceles are protrusions of the cerebral tissue through a skull defect. They occur mostly in children and very rarely in adults.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors present a case of a 44-year-old man presenting with a first-time generalized seizure. Computed tomography of the head showed bone destruction associated with a right frontal lesion. Magnetic resonance imaging scans demonstrated a largely isointense lesion in the intradiploic space that contained small, hyperintense nodular components and showed a low to moderate contrast agent enhancement.

LESSONS

The patient underwent resection, during which the histological examination found the lesion to be an intradiploic encephalocele. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course with a cessation of seizures. The imaging and neuropathological findings as well as a literature review, together with a discussion on the etiology of intradiploic encephaloceles, are contained in this report.