Browse

You are looking at 1 - 4 of 4 items for :

  • Traumatic Brain Injury x
  • Refine by Access: all x
Clear All
Open access

Wartime penetrating skull base trauma with unpredictable internal fragment ricochet and migration: illustrative case

Andrii Sirko, Alex Valadka, Rocco Armonda, Anthony J Dragun, and Yurii Cherednychenko

BACKGROUND

Transnasal transsphenoidal penetrating craniocerebral injury is very rare even in wartime. Cases with good outcomes are even less common.

OBSERVATIONS

A 20-year-old male sustained multiple fragment wounds to his head and face from a landmine explosion. One metal fragment entered his right nostril, traversed the nasal septum and anterior sphenoid sinus, and ricocheted superiorly off the clivus. The fragment then traveled almost to the surface of the left parietal lobe. Subsequently, under its own weight, it migrated back down its original track. The patient suffered cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea, pneumocephalus, and right-sided hemiparesis. Digital subtraction angiography was followed by microscopic transnasal skull base reconstruction supplemented by external lumbar drainage. Follow-up brain computed tomogrpahy showed further metallic fragment migration through the ventricular system. The fragment was removed through a transcortical approach. The patient’s neurological examination and brain magnetic resonance imaging results demonstrated good recovery.

LESSONS

The absence of external signs of deep injuries does not exclude the presence of a penetrating craniocerebral injury. Metal fragments may undergo ricochet and internal migration in both the brain parenchyma and the ventricular system. Timely diagnosis including three-dimensional reconstruction of a projectile’s trajectory may facilitate appropriate surgical planning in complex cases. Intraventricular fragment migration may necessitate microsurgical removal.

https://thejns.org/doi/10.3171/CASE24128

Open access

Vacuum-assisted scalp repositioning: a novel temporizing approach to acute sinking skin flap syndrome. Illustrative cases

Evan Courville, Joshua Marquez, Michael Homma, Michael Conley, Georgios P Skandalakis, Peter Shin, James Botros, and Christian Ricks

BACKGROUND

This report describes the use of a novel approach to address acute sinking skin flap syndrome (SSFS), a postcraniectomy complication arising from brain dysfunction beneath the skull defect. The authors present a case series of two patients, emphasizing the prospective application of an external plaster cast in tandem with a vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) device (wound VAC) to promptly reposition the scalp and relieve brain compression.

OBSERVATIONS

Following intervention, one patient showed immediate neurological improvement, with complete resolution of symptoms within hours. Conversely, the second patient developed nonconvulsive status epilepticus. Computed tomography scans postintervention validated the successful scalp repositioning and mass effect resolution in both instances. This temporary approach proved successful in one patient with moderate symptoms, serving as a bridge to cranioplasty.

LESSONS

The integration of an external plaster cast and wound VAC offers a cost-effective and prompt solution for patients with acute SSFS pending cranioplasty. Appropriate patient selection and heightened caution for those with severe symptoms should be exercised.

Open access

Severe hyperglycorrhachia and status epilepticus after endoscopic aqueductoplasty: illustrative case

Anand A. Dharia, Ahmad Masri, Jay F. Rilinger, and Christian B. Kaufman

BACKGROUND

While hypoglycorrhachia is observed and managed frequently, there are few reports in the literature of clinically significant hyperglycorrhachia after neurosurgery. Understanding the effects and management of severe hyperglycorrhachia is important to the neurosurgeon and neurocritical care teams who care for patients in these rare scenarios.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors present the case of a 3-month-old male with congenital hydrocephalus who faced profound hyperglycorrhachia and status epilepticus after an endoscopic aqueductoplasty using an irrigant composed of lactated Ringer’s solution with dextrose 5% in water. A multidisciplinary approach was developed to monitor and treat the patient’s seizures and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) osmolytes.

LESSONS

This case provides several learning opportunities for understanding CSF physiology, pathogenesis of common brain injuries related to osmotic shifts and inflammatory states, as well as clinical management of hyperglycorrhachia. It also reiterates the significance of meticulous intraoperative assessment to avoid preventable medical errors.

Open access

Cerebrospinal fluid fistula as a complication of reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction collection for the detection of coronavirus disease 2019: illustrative cases

Lucca B. Palavani, Camila V. F. Andrade, Renato A. Andrade, Egmond Alves, Marcio Falchi Barros, and João F. Barbieri

BACKGROUND

The most used method to detect coronavirus disease 2019 during the pandemic is reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction with nasal swab. Despite being highly effective, the test does not leave the patient risk-free and can lead to serious complications. These can be traumatic nasal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fistula and its consequences, such as meningitis.

OBSERVATIONS

In this article, the authors present 4 case reports and a literature review. The following MeSH terms in the research were used: “CSF leak case report and covid 19.” Six results were found and after searching the references and keywords 16 articles were identified. By using them, the authors tried to clarify the etiology of the fistula, its influences, and complications.

LESSONS

The authors conclude that professionals must receive training, since CSF fistula originates from technical failure and lack of anatomical knowledge. The diagnosis cannot be neglected because it can bring complications to the patient’s health.