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Open access

A vertebrobasilar junction aneurysm successfully treated with a combination of surgical clipping and flow diverter placement based on the results of computational fluid dynamics analysis: illustrative case

Tatsuya Mori, Hidehito Kimura, Atsushi Fujita, Kosuke Hayashi, Tatsuo Hori, Masahiro Sugihara, Yusuke Ikeuchi, Masaaki Kohta, Akio Tomiyama, and Takashi Sasayama

BACKGROUND

The treatment of vertebrobasilar junction (VBJ) aneurysms is challenging. Although flow diverters (FDs) are a possible treatment option, geometrical conditions hinder intervention. VBJ aneurysms possess dual inflow vessels from the bilateral vertebral arteries (VAs), one of which is ideally occluded prior to FD treatment. However, it remains unclear which VA should be occluded.

OBSERVATIONS

A 75-year-old male with a growing VBJ complex aneurysm exhibiting invagination toward the brainstem and causing perifocal edema required intervention. Preoperative computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis demonstrated that left VA occlusion would result in more stagnant flow and less impingement of flow than right VA occlusion. According to the simulated strategy, surgical clipping of the left VA just proximal to the aneurysm was performed, followed by FD placement from the basilar artery trunk to the right VA. The patient demonstrated tolerance of the VA occlusion, and follow-up computed tomography angiography at 18 months after FD treatment confirmed the disappearance of the aneurysm.

LESSONS

Preoperative flow dynamics simulations using CFD analysis can reveal an optimal treatment strategy involving a hybrid surgery that combines FD placement and direct surgical occlusion for a VBJ complex aneurysm.

Open access

Continuous direct intraarterial treatment of meningitis-induced vasospasm in a pediatric patient: illustrative case

Aubrey C Rogers, Aditya D Goyal, and Alexandra R Paul

BACKGROUND

Bacterial meningitis–induced ischemic stroke continues to cause significant long-term complications in pediatric patients. The authors present a case of severe right internal carotid artery terminus and M1 segment vasospasm in a 9-year-old with an infected cholesteatoma, which was refractory to multiple intraarterial treatments with verapamil and milrinone. This is the first report of continuous intraarterial antispasmodic treatment in a pediatric patient as well as the first report of continuous treatment in an awake and extubated patient.

OBSERVATIONS

Arterial narrowing was successfully treated by continuous direct intraarterial administration of both a calcium channel blocker (verapamil) and a phosphodiesterase-3 inhibitor (milrinone). The patient recovered remarkably well and was discharged home with no neurological deficit (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score 0) and ambulatory without assistance after 22 days. The authors report a promising outcome of this technique performed in a pediatric patient.

LESSONS

This represents a novel treatment option for the prevention of stroke in pediatric bacterial meningitis. Continuous, direct intraarterial administration of antispasmodic medications can successfully prevent long-term neurological deficit in pediatric meningitis-associated vasospasm. The described method has the potential to significantly improve outcomes in severe pediatric meningitis-associated vasospasm.

Open access

Bilateral and asymmetrical localization of language function identified by the superselective infusion of propofol in an epilepsy patient with a mild malformation of cortical development: illustrative case

Mayuko Otomo, Shin-ichiro Osawa, Kyoko Suzuki, Kazuo Kakinuma, Kazushi Ukishiro, Hiroyoshi Suzuki, Kuniyasu Niizuma, Norio Narita, Nobukazu Nakasato, and Teiji Tominaga

BACKGROUND

Atypical localization of language function can result in unexpected postsurgical deficits after cortical resection, but it is difficult to predict the risk in the presurgical evaluation. The authors experienced a rare case of the bilateral and independent existence of different components of language function identified by segmented evaluation of anatomical anterior and posterior language areas using the superselective infusion of propofol.

OBSERVATIONS

A 32-year-old right-handed female presented with drug-resistant epilepsy. Comprehensive epilepsy evaluation suggested that the epileptic foci involved the whole left frontal lobe but provided less evidence of structural abnormality. To estimate the extent of functional deterioration likely to be caused by an extended left frontal lobectomy, the authors evaluated segmented cortical function in the ipsi- and contralateral hemispheres by the superselective infusion of propofol into the branches of the intracranial artery. The results revealed bilateral and asymmetrical localization of language function because the patient presented with different components of aphasia in each hemisphere. Based on the authors’ assessment of her functional tolerance, an extended left frontal lobectomy was performed and resulted in neurological deficits within the anticipated range.

LESSONS

An accurate understanding of the correlations between vascular and functional anatomy and the highly specific evaluation of language function provides more advanced presurgical assessment, allowing more tailored planning of cortical resection.

Open access

Surgically treated intracranial arteriovenous fistulas with hemorrhage, resulting in complete obliteration: illustrative cases

Ako Matsuhashi, Kei Yanai, Satoshi Koizumi, and Gakushi Yoshikawa

BACKGROUND

Intracranial arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is a rare disease, defined as anastomoses between cerebral or meningeal arteries and dural venous sinuses or cortical veins. With the development of new agents and devices, endovascular embolization has been considered safe and effective in a majority of cases. However, cases that require direct surgery do exist. Herein, the authors present 3 cases of intracranial AVFs that presented with hemorrhage and were treated with direct surgery, achieving complete obliteration and favorable outcomes.

OBSERVATIONS

Intracranial AVFs that present with hemorrhage require immediate and complete obliteration. When AVFs involve the dural sinus, transvenous embolization is usually the first choice of treatment. AVFs with single cortical venous drainage are best treated with interruption of the draining vein close to the fistula. Transarterial embolization can be a curative treatment if there are no branches supplying cranial nerves or an association with pial feeders. In cases in which endovascular treatment is technically challenging or has resulted in incomplete occlusion, surgical treatment is indicated.

LESSONS

Despite the recent rise in endovascular treatment, it is important to recognize situations in which such treatment is not suitable for intracranial AVFs. Direct surgery is effective in such cases to offer the best possible outcome.

Open access

Middle meningeal artery pseudoaneurysm and pterygoid plexus fistula following percutaneous radiofrequency rhizotomy: illustrative case

Rahim Ismail, Derrek Schartz, Timothy Hoang, and Alexander Kessler

BACKGROUND

Percutaneous treatment for trigeminal neuralgia is a safe and effective therapeutic methodology and can be accomplished in the form of balloon compression, glycerol rhizotomy, and radiofrequency thermocoagulation. These procedures are generally well tolerated and demonstrate minimal associated morbidity. Moreover, vascular complications of these procedures are exceedingly rare.

OBSERVATIONS

We present the case of a 64-year-old female with prior microvascular decompression and balloon rhizotomy who presented after symptom recurrence and underwent a second balloon rhizotomy at our institution. Soon thereafter, she presented with pulsatile tinnitus and a right preauricular bruit on physical examination. Subsequent imaging revealed a middle meningeal artery (MMA) to pterygoid plexus fistula and an MMA pseudoaneurysm. Coil and Onxy embolization were used to manage the pseudoaneurysm and fistula.

LESSONS

This case illustrates the potential for MMA pseudoaneurysm formation as a complication of percutaneous trigeminal balloon rhizotomy, which has not been seen in the literature. Concurrent MMA-pterygoid plexus fistula is also a rarity demonstrated in this case.

Open access

Late-developing posttraumatic dural arteriovenous fistula of the vertebral artery: illustrative case

Hanna E Schenck, Thomas B Fodor, Bart A. J. M Wagemans, and Roel H. L Haeren

BACKGROUND

A dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF) involving the vertebral artery (VA) is a rare vascular pathology that can result from damage to the VA, most frequently following cervical spine trauma. In most traumatic cases, the dAVF develops and manifests shortly after trauma.

OBSERVATIONS

A patient was admitted after a fall from the stairs causing neck pain. Computed tomography of the cervical spine revealed a Hangman’s fracture, and angiography showed a left VA dissection. The patient was treated with a cervical brace and clopidogrel. Three weeks after trauma, the patient was admitted because of bilateral leg ataxia, dizziness, and neck pain. Repeat imaging revealed increased displacement of the cervical fracture and a dAVF from the left VA with retrograde filling of the dAVF from the right VA. Embolization of the dAVF using coils proximally and distally to the dAVF was performed prior to placing a halo brace. At 6 months, all symptoms had disappeared and union of the cervical spine fracture had occurred.

LESSONS

This case report emphasizes the need for follow-up angiography after traumatic VA injury resulting from cervical spine fracture and underlines important treatment considerations for successful obliteration of a dAVF of the VA.

Open access

Transvenous embolization for an intraosseous clival arteriovenous fistula via a proper access route guiding a three-dimensional fusion image: illustrative case

Yu Iida, Jun Suenaga, Nobuyuki Shimizu, Kaoru Shizawa, Ryosuke Suzuki, Shigeta Miyake, Taisuke Akimoto, Satoshi Hori, Kensuke Tateishi, Yasunobu Nakai, and Tetsuya Yamamoto

BACKGROUND

Intraosseous clival arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs), in which the shunt drains extracranially from the posterior and anterior condylar veins rather than from the cavernous sinus (CS), are rare. Targeting embolization of an intraosseous clival AVF is challenging because of its complex venous and skull base anatomy; therefore, a therapeutic strategy based on detailed preoperative radiological findings is required to achieve a favorable outcome. Here, the authors report the successful targeted embolization of an intraosseous clival AVF using an ingenious access route.

OBSERVATIONS

A 74-year-old woman presented with left-sided visual impairment, oculomotor nerve palsy, and right facial pain. A fusion image of three-dimensional rotational angiography and cone-beam computed tomography revealed a left CS dural AVF and a right intraosseous clival AVF. The shunt flow of the clival AVF drained extracranially from the posterior and anterior condylar veins via the intraosseous venous route. Transvenous embolization was performed by devising suboccipital, posterior condylar, and intraosseous access routes. The symptoms resolved after the bilateral AVFs were treated.

LESSONS

Accurate diagnosis and proper transvenous access based on detailed intraosseous and craniocervical venous information obtained from advanced imaging modalities are key to resolving intraosseous clival AVF.

Open access

Asymptomatic subarachnoid hemorrhage following carotid endarterectomy: illustrative case

Shin Nemoto, Takuma Maeda, Keiichi Yamashita, Taro Yanagawa, Masataka Torii, Masaru Kiyomoto, Masaki Tanaka, Eishi Sato, Yoichi Harada, Toru Hatayama, Takuji Kono, and Hiroki Kurita

BACKGROUND

Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and carotid artery stenting are common surgical interventions for internal carotid artery stenosis. Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS) is a well-known complication of both procedures that can lead to intracranial hemorrhage and worsen clinical outcomes. Here, the authors report a rare case of non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) following CEA and review the relevant literature.

OBSERVATIONS

A 70-year-old woman with hypertension and diabetes presented with progressive visual loss in the right eye and was diagnosed with ocular ischemic syndrome. Imaging revealed severe right cervical carotid artery stenosis. CEA was performed with no complications. Postoperatively, the patient’s blood pressure was tightly controlled, with no evidence of CHS. However, an asymptomatic SAH was detected on postoperative day 7. Careful observation and blood pressure control were maintained. Since follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed no enlarging of the SAH and the patient was asymptomatic, she was discharged on postoperative day 15 with a modified Rankin scale score of 0.

LESSONS

This case highlights the potential occurrence of non-aneurysmal SAH as a rare complication of CEA, even in asymptomatic patients. Repeated postoperative MRI is necessary to detect such complications. It is crucial to carefully control blood pressure after CEA regardless of symptoms.

Open access

Microsurgical intraluminal obliteration of type IV perimedullary arteriovenous fistula with an in situ hemostatic agent: illustrative case

Jacques Lara-Reyna, Jonathan R Garst, Nolan Winslow, and Jeffrey D Klopfenstein

BACKGROUND

Spinal arteriovenous fistulas (SAVFs) are underdiagnosed entities that can lead to severe morbidity from spinal cord dysfunction or hemorrhage. Treatment options include endovascular embolization or direct surgical obliteration at the level of the arteriovenous shunt. The authors present a case of intraluminal microsurgical access for occlusion with a hemostatic agent of a type IV SAVF near the conus medullaris as an alternative to clip occlusion to avoid nerve root compromise.

OBSERVATIONS

Temporary microsurgical clipping of the SAVF led to nerve root compromise detected via intraoperative monitoring. Instead, the authors advanced elongated pieces of a hemostatic agent directly into the arterial lumen via arteriotomy to create direct obliteration of the fistula without intraoperative monitoring changes.

LESSONS

In patients unable to tolerate clipping of the SAVF because of nerve root involvement and neurophysiological signal decline, open access of the vessels and direct intraluminal obliteration using a hemostatic agent should be considered as an alternative method of fistula occlusion.

Open access

Partially thrombosed giant basilar artery aneurysm with attenuated contrast enhancement of the intraluminal thrombus on vessel wall MRI after flow diversion treatment: illustrative case

So Matsukawa, Akira Ishii, Yasutaka Fushimi, Yu Abekura, Takashi Nagahori, Takayuki Kikuchi, Masakazu Okawa, Yukihiro Yamao, Natsuhi Sasaki, Hirofumi Tsuji, Ryo Akiyama, and Susumu Miyamoto

BACKGROUND

The effect of vessel wall magnetic resonance imaging (VW-MRI) enhancement in partially thrombosed aneurysms has previously indicated aneurysmal instability and a rupture risk. However, whether the contrast effect of the wall changes before or after flow diversion treatment is still under investigation.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors report a case of a partially thrombosed basilar artery aneurysm that increased in size over a short period, worsened brainstem compression symptoms, and was treated with a flow diverter stent with good results. In this case, VW-MRI after surgery showed a reduced contrast effect on the intraluminal thrombus within the aneurysm. The aneurysm thrombosed and markedly regressed over the next 5 months, with remarkable improvement in the brainstem compression symptoms.

LESSONS

This finding on VW-MRI may indicate an attenuation of neovascularization in the thrombus wall and be a sign of aneurysm stabilization.