Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 3,480 items for :

  • Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics x
  • Refine by Access: all x
Clear All
Restricted access

Intraoperative neuromonitoring potentials and evidence of preserved neuronal circuitry below the anatomical and functional level in patients with complex spinal dysraphism undergoing detethering reoperations

Margaret McGrath, Sananthan Sivakanthan, Sharon Durfy, Amy Lee, Samuel Browd, Jason S. Hauptman, Richard G. Ellenbogen, Gregory A. Kinney, Jeffrey G. Ojemann, and Hannah E. Goldstein

OBJECTIVE

Spina bifida represents one of the most common birth defects, occurring in approximately 1–2 children per 1000 live births worldwide. The functional level of patients with spina bifida is highly variable and believed to be correlated with the anatomical level of the lesion. The variable clinical picture is well established, but the correlation with anatomical level and intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) data has not been investigated. Furthermore, the potential for preserving function beyond the apparent clinical level has also not been investigated. The objective of this research was to determine the presence and level of intraoperative transcranial motor evoked potential (tcMEP) and triggered electromyography (tEMG) responses, and the association of these responses with preoperative clinical function and radiographic data in pediatric cases of complex tethered cord release reoperations.

METHODS

A single-center retrospective review of pediatric patients with complex spinal dysraphism undergoing detethering reoperations was conducted. Preoperative demographic and clinical data, including the radiographic and clinical level of dysraphism, were collected. IONM, including tcMEPs and tEMG responses, were obtained and compared with preoperative clinical data. Descriptive analysis was performed, by patient for demographics and by case for surgeries performed.

RESULTS

In 100% of 21 cases of complex detethering reoperations, representing 20 patients, intraoperative tcMEPs could be generated at (4.8%) or below (95.2%) the level of clinical function. Compared with the preoperative clinical examination, 5 cases (23.8%) demonstrated tcMEP responses that were 1 level below the clinical function level, 11 cases (52.4%) were 2 levels below, and 4 cases (19.0%) were 3 levels below. Overall, 18 of 21 cases showed tEMG responses at or below the level of clinical function; of these, 7 cases (33%) were 1 level below and 3 (14%) were ≥ 2 levels below the clinical function level.

CONCLUSIONS

The presence of positive stimulation potentials below the level of clinical function in patients with complex spinal dysraphism undergoing detethering reoperations indicates a degree of preserved neuronal connectivity. These findings suggest novel future treatment approaches for these patients, including using devices targeted to stimulation of these neurological pathways.

Restricted access

Patient and caregiver perceptions of Chiari malformation: a qualitative analysis of online discussion boards

Gretchen M. Koller, Michael R. Kann, Sangami Pugazenthi, Shriya Koneru, Sanjeevani Bhavsar, and Jennifer M. Strahle

OBJECTIVE

Patients and their caregivers utilize online discussion board forums as a means to seek and exchange information about their or a loved one’s condition. It is important for providers to be aware of such concerns and experiences. The goal of this study was to identify the primary concerns expressed on these discussion boards regarding Chiari malformation type I (CM) and to help guide clinicians in understanding patient challenges in the treatment of CM.

METHODS

The authors performed thematic analysis of anonymous online discussion board posts as identified through internet search engines. They then adopted a previously developed grounded theory method that utilizes a three-tiered coding and grouping process of posts based on commonly discovered content themes.

RESULTS

Analysis of 400 discussion board posts identified four distinct themes raised by CM patients and their caregivers: the path to diagnosis, symptoms experienced, surgical intervention, and high emotional burden. Although each individual experience was unique, the path toward a CM diagnosis was expressed as a journey involving multiple physicians, alternative diagnoses, and feelings of dismissal from providers. The most common reported symptoms included dizziness, headaches, neck and back pain, sensory issues, weakness and paresthesias of the extremities, speech issues, and general fatigue. Additionally, there was an overall sense of uncertainty from patients seeking advice regarding surgical intervention, with users expressing diverse sentiments that included both positive and negative outcomes regarding surgical treatment. Lastly, a wide range of emotions was expressed related to a CM diagnosis, including concern, worry, anxiety, depression, stress, fear, and frustration.

CONCLUSIONS

CM is a frequent imaging diagnosis identified in patients presenting with a wide range of symptoms, and as a result this leads to a diverse set of patient experiences. Analysis of CM patient and caregiver discussion boards revealed key themes that clinicians may address when counseling for CM.

Restricted access

Sport-related concussion in 8- to 12-year-olds: an understudied population

Michael Zargari, Jacob Jo, Kristen Williams, Aaron M. Yengo-Kahn, E. Haley Vance, Christopher M. Bonfield, Douglas P. Terry, and Scott L. Zuckerman

OBJECTIVE

Most studies regarding sport-related concussion (SRC) focus on high school and collegiate athletes; however, little has been published on children younger than 12 years of age. In a cohort of children aged 8–12 years with SRC, the authors sought to describe demographics, initial presentation, and recovery in this understudied population.

METHODS

A retrospective cohort study of children aged 8–12 years who sustained an SRC between November 2017 and April 2022 and were treated at a regional sports concussion center was conducted. Demographic information, injury characteristics, traditional Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 5 (SCAT5) and Child/Parent SCAT5 scores, and outcomes, defined as days to return to learn (RTL), symptom resolution, and return to play (RTP), were reported. Outcomes in boys and girls were compared using effect size analyses given sample size constraints.

RESULTS

Forty-seven athletes were included. The mean age was 11.0 ± 0.8 years, and the majority were male (34, 72.3%). A sizable proportion of patients visited an emergency department (19, 40.4%), and many received head imaging (16, 34.0%), mostly via CT (n = 13). The most common sport for boys was football (15, 44.1%), and the most common sports for girls were soccer (4, 30.8%) and cheerleading (4, 30.8%). These athletes reported a variety of symptoms on presentation. It took a mean of 8.8 ± 10.8 days to RTL, 27.3 ± 38.3 days to reach symptom resolution, and 35.4 ± 41.9 days to RTP. When comparing boys versus girls, there appeared to be moderate differences in symptom severity scores (Cohen’s d = 0.44 for SCAT5, 0.13 for Child SCAT5, and 0.38 for Parent SCAT5) and minimal differences in recovery (Cohen’s d = 0.11 for RTL, n = 35; 0.22 for symptom resolution, n = 22; and 0.12 for RTP, n = 21).

CONCLUSIONS

In this cohort of concussed athletes aged 8–12 years, a little less than half of the athletes initially presented to the emergency department, and approximately one-third received acute head imaging. Across all athletes, the mean RTL was slightly more than a week and the mean symptom resolution and RTP were both approximately 1 month; however, much of the cohort is missing recovery outcome measures. This study demonstrated a strong positive correlation between Child SCAT5 and Parent SCAT5 symptom reporting. Future efforts are needed to evaluate differences in clinical presentation and outcomes following SRC between children and older populations.

Restricted access

Intellectual function and memory in children with moyamoya disease: relationship between Wechsler Intelligence Scale and Benton Visual Retention Test scores and regional cerebral blood flow

Satoshi Karashima, Akira Nakamizo, Koichi Arimura, and Koji Yoshimoto

OBJECTIVE

Intellectual function declines in about 30% of children with moyamoya disease (MMD). Memory function underpins higher order brain function, but the relationship between intellectual function and memory in pediatric MMD patients has not been well studied. This study aimed to investigate correlations between scores on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) and the Benton Visual Retention Test (BVRT), a visual memory test that can be administered to children, in children with MMD. Relationships between intellectual function or memory and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) have also not been well clarified in pediatric MMD patients. The authors also investigated associations between WISC or BVRT scores and rCBF in various brain regions.

METHODS

WISC and BVRT scores and rCBF were assessed in 17 children with ischemic-onset MMD before revascularization. Single-photon emission CT with 123I-iodoamphetamine was used to measure rCBF. Relationships between WISC and BVRT scores were evaluated using Spearman’s correlation coefficient and multivariate linear regression analysis. Cutoff values were identified for BVRT scores. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated to predict full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ) > 85 or ≤ 85. Associations between rCBF and WISC or BVRT scores were evaluated using linear regression analysis.

RESULTS

BVRT scores were significantly correlated with FSIQ and scores on the Working Memory Index (WMI), Processing Speed Index, and Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI)/Verbal Intelligence Quotient (VIQ) of WISC. Multivariate linear regression revealed that number correct score and number of errors score of BVRT were associated with FSIQ. As cutoff values, a number correct score of 5 and a number of errors score of 8 offered the most reliable predictors of FSIQ > 85 and ≤ 85, respectively. FSIQ correlated positively with rCBF in the right and left hemispheres, right and left ganglia, right and left thalamus, right and left cerebellum, right middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory, pons, and vermis. WMI score was positively associated with rCBF in the right hemisphere, right anterior cerebral artery territory, right MCA territory, right basal ganglia, right and left thalamus, right and left cerebellum, pons, and vermis.

CONCLUSIONS

BVRT score correlated well with WISC index scores, suggesting that BVRT may be helpful in screening for intellectual impairments in children with MMD. In the MCA territory, basal ganglia, thalamus, cerebellum, pons, and vermis, rCBF associated well with WISC index scores, suggesting that reduced rCBF in relevant brain regions may influence intellectual function.

Open access

Rapid brain MRI for image-guided ventricular catheter placement in pediatric patients: protocol and preliminary clinical outcomes

Grace Y. Lai, Andria Powers, Taylor Chung, and Peter P. Sun

OBJECTIVE

Neuronavigation is a useful adjunct for catheter placement during neurosurgical procedures for hydrocephalus or ventricular access. MRI protocols for navigation are lengthy and require sedation for young children. CT involves ionizing radiation. In this study, the authors introduce the clinical application of a 1-minute rapid MRI sequence that does not require sedation in young children and report their preliminary clinical experience using this technique in their pediatric population.

METHODS

All patients who underwent ventricular catheter placement at a children’s hospital using a rapid noncontrast MRI protocol, standard MRI, or head CT from July 2021 to August 2023 were included. Type of procedure, etiology of hydrocephalus, ventricle configuration and size, morphology of ventricles, need for adjunctive intraoperative ultrasound, duration of procedure, accuracy of catheter placement, and need for proximal revision within 90 days were retrospectively recorded and compared across imaging modalities.

RESULTS

Sixty-eight patients underwent 83 procedures: 21 underwent CT navigation, 29 standard MRI, and 33 rapid MRI. Patients who received standard MRI more often had tumor etiology, while those who underwent CT and rapid MRI had posthemorrhagic etiology (χ2 = 13.04, p = 0.042). Intraoperative ultrasound was required for 1 patient in the standard MRI group and 1 patient in the CT group. There was no difference in procedure time across groups (p = 0.831). On multivariable analysis, procedure time differed by procedure type, where external ventricular drain placement and proximal revision were faster (p < 0.001 and p < 0.028, respectively). Proximal revision due to obstruction within 90 days occurred in 3 cases (in the same patient with complex loculated hydrocephalus) in the rapid MRI group and 2 cases in the CT group.

CONCLUSIONS

Although this study was not powered for statistical inference, the authors report on the clinical use of a 1-minute rapid MRI sequence for neuronavigation in hydrocephalus or ventricular access surgery. There were no instances in which intraoperative ultrasound was required as an adjunct for procedures navigated with rapid MRI, and intraoperative time did not differ from that of standard navigation protocols.

Restricted access

Repeat stereotactic radiosurgery for persistent cerebral arteriovenous malformations in pediatric patients

Gracie Garcia, Georgios Mantziaris, Stylianos Pikis, Chloe Dumot, L. Dade Lunsford, Ajay Niranjan, Zhishuo Wei, Priyanka Srinivasan, Lilly W. Tang, Roman Liscak, Jaromir May, Cheng-Chia Lee, Huai-Che Yang, Selcuk Peker, Yavuz Samanci, Ahmed M. Nabeel, Wael A. Reda, Sameh R. Tawadros, Khaled Abdel Karim, Amr M. N. El-Shehaby, Reem Emad Eldin, Ahmed Hesham Elazzazi, Nuria Martínez Moreno, Roberto Martínez Álvarez, Varun Padmanaban, Francis J. Jareczek, James McInerney, Kevin M. Cockroft, Juan Diego Alzate, Douglas Kondziolka, Manjul Tripathi, and Jason P. Sheehan

OBJECTIVE

The purpose of this study was to describe the long-term outcomes and associated risks related to repeat stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for persistent arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in pediatric patients.

METHODS

Under the auspices of the International Radiosurgery Research Foundation, this retrospective multicenter study analyzed pediatric patients who underwent repeat, single-session SRS between 1987 and 2022. The primary outcome variable was a favorable outcome, defined as nidus obliteration without hemorrhage or neurological deterioration. Secondary outcomes included rates and probabilities of hemorrhage, radiation-induced changes (RICs), and cyst or tumor formation.

RESULTS

The cohort included 83 pediatric patients. The median patient age was 11 years at initial SRS and 15 years at repeat SRS. Fifty-seven children (68.7%) were managed exclusively using SRS, and 42 (50.6%) experienced hemorrhage prior to SRS. Median AVM diameter and volume were substantially different between the first (25 mm and 4.5 cm3, respectively) and second (16.5 mm and 1.6 cm3, respectively) SRS, while prescription dose and isodose line remained similar. At the 5-year follow-up evaluation from the second SRS, nidus obliteration was achieved in 42 patients (50.6%), with favorable outcome in 37 (44.6%). The median time to nidus obliteration and hemorrhage was 35.5 and 38.5 months, respectively. The yearly cumulative probability of favorable outcome increased from 2.5% (95% CI 0.5%–7.8%) at 1 year to 44% (95% CI 32%–55%) at 5 years. The probability of achieving obliteration followed a similar pattern and reached 51% (95% CI 38%–62%) at 5 years. The 5-year risk of hemorrhage during the latency period after the second SRS reached 8% (95% CI 3.2%–16%). Radiographically, 25 children (30.1%) had RICs, but only 5 (6%) were symptomatic. Delayed cyst formation occurred in 7.2% of patients, with a median onset of 47 months. No radiation-induced neoplasia was observed.

CONCLUSIONS

The study results showed nidus obliteration in most pediatric patients who underwent repeat SRS for persistent AVMs. The risks of symptomatic RICs and latency period hemorrhage were quite low. These findings suggest that repeat radiosurgery should be considered when treating pediatric patients with residual AVM after prior SRS. Further study is needed to define the role of repeat SRS more fully in this population.

Restricted access

Complications following resection of primary and recurrent pediatric posterior fossa ependymoma

Armaan K. Malhotra, Liana Nobre, George M. Ibrahim, Abhaya V. Kulkarni, James M. Drake, James T. Rutka, Michael D. Taylor, Vijay Ramaswamy, Peter B. Dirks, and Michael C. Dewan

OBJECTIVE

Extent of resection (EOR) is the most important modifiable prognostic variable for pediatric patients with posterior fossa ependymoma. An understanding of primary and recurrent ependymoma complications is essential to inform clinical decision-making for providers, patients, and families. In this study, the authors characterize postsurgical complications following resection of primary and recurrent pediatric posterior fossa ependymoma in a molecularly defined cohort.

METHODS

The authors conducted a 20-year retrospective single-center review of pediatric patients undergoing resection of posterior fossa ependymoma at the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Canada. Complications were dichotomized into major and minor groups; EOR was compared across complication categories. The association between complication occurrence with length of stay (LOS) and mortality was also assessed using multivariable regressions.

RESULTS

There were 60 patients with primary resection included, 41 (68%) of whom were alive at the time of data collection. Gross-total resection was achieved in 33 (58%) of 57 patients at primary resection. There were no 30-day mortality events following primary and recurrent ependymoma resection. Following primary resection, 6 patients (10%) had posterior fossa syndrome (PFS) and 36 (60%) developed cranial neuropathies, 56% of which recovered within 1 year. One patient (1.7%) required a tracheostomy and 9 patients (15%) required gastrostomy tubes. There were 14 ventriculoperitoneal shunts (23%) inserted for postoperative hydrocephalus. Among recurrent cases, there were 48 recurrent resections performed in 24 patients. Complications included new cranial neuropathy in 10 patients (21%), of which 5 neuropathies resolved within 1 year. There were no cases of PFS following resection of recurrent ependymoma. Gastrostomy tube insertion was required in 3 patients (6.3%), and 1 patient (2.0%) required a tracheostomy. Given the differences in the location of tumor recurrence, a direct comparison between primary and recurrent resection complications was not feasible. Following multivariate analysis adjusting for sex, age, molecular status, and EOR, occurrence of major complications was found to be associated with prolonged LOS but not mortality.

CONCLUSIONS

These results detail the spectrum of postsurgical morbidity following primary and recurrent posterior fossa ependymoma resection. The crude complication rate following resection of infratentorial recurrent ependymoma was lower than that of primary ependymoma, although a statistical comparison revealed no significant differences between the groups. These results should serve to inform providers of the morbidity profile following surgical management of posterior fossa ependymoma and inform perioperative counseling of patients and their families.

Restricted access

What can a morphometric study of unoperated children teach us about the natural history of metopic synostosis?

Ahmed M. Elawadly, Luke P. J. Smith, Alessandro Borghi, Khaled I. Abdelaziz, Adikarige Haritha Dulanka Silva, David J. Dunaway, Noor Ul Owase Jeelani, Juling Ong, Richard D. Hayward, and Greg James

OBJECTIVE

Outcomes of surgical repair of trigonocephaly are well reported in the literature, but there is a paucity of information on the natural history of unoperated children. The authors evaluated a group of unoperated children with metopic synostosis to describe the natural change in head shape over time.

METHODS

A database was screened for scans of children with unoperated trigonocephaly (2010–2021). Multisuture cases and those with a metopic ridge were excluded. Three-dimensional surface scans (3D stereophotogrammetry/CT) were used for morphological analysis. Nine previously published parameters were used: frontal angle (FA30°), anteroposterior (AP) volume ratio (APVR), AP area ratio (APAR), AP width ratios 1 and 2 (APWR1 and APWR2), and 4 AP diagonal ratios (30° right APDR [rAPDR30], 30° left APDR [lAPDR30], 60° right APDR [rAPDR60], and 60° left APDR [lAPDR60]).

RESULTS

Ninety-seven scans were identified from a cohort of 316 patients with a single metopic suture, in which the male-to-female ratio was 2.7:1. Ages at the time of the scan ranged from 9 days to 11 years and were stratified into 4 groups: group 1, < 6 months; group 2, 6–12 months; group 3, 1–3 years; and group 4, > 3 years. Significant improvements were detected in 5 parameters (APVR, APAR, APWR1, rAPDR30, and lAPDR30) over time, whereas no significant differences were found in FA30, APWR2, rAPDR60, and lAPDR60 between age groups.

CONCLUSIONS

Forehead shape (surface area and volume), as well as narrowing and anterolateral contour at the frontal points, differed significantly over time without surgery. However, forehead angulation, narrowing, and anterolateral contour at temporal points did not show significant differences. This knowledge will aid in surgical and parental decision-making.

Restricted access

Correlation of the transorbital ultrasonographic optic nerve sheath diameter with intracranial pressure measured intraoperatively in infants with hydrocephalus

Samuel E. Okpara, Enoch O. Uche, Nneka I. Iloanusi, Izuchukwu C. Iloabachie, Wilfred C. Mezue, Ephraim E. Onyia, Mark C. Chikani, and Mesi Mathew

OBJECTIVE

Hydrocephalus is a highly significant global public health concern. In infants, it may be associated with a potentially deleterious increase in intracranial pressure (ICP). Currently, the gold standard for accurate monitoring of ICP is an intraventricular ICP monitor, but this method is invasive and expensive. Transorbital ultrasound measurement of the optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) may provide a noninvasive and cost-effective alternative method for monitoring ICP. The goal of the study was to determine the extent of the correlation between ultrasonographic ONSD and ICP in infants.

METHODS

A prospective observational study of 47 children with hydrocephalus aged ≤ 18 months was performed. The ONSD was measured with a transorbital ultrasound scan, while the intraventricular CSF opening pressure was assessed using a manometer during ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertion. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. The ONSD and ICP measurements were correlated, the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was evaluated, and a sensitivity analysis was performed. Inferences were made using the 0.05 alpha level of significance.

RESULTS

The mean age of the study cohort was 4.8 ± 4.3 months, and 93.6% of patients were infants. The mean ONSD was 4.5 ± 0.7 mm (range 2.9–6.0 mm), and the mean ICP was 19.9 ± 6.5 mm Hg (range 5.2–32.4 mm Hg). Both ONSD and ICP increased with increasing age. The Pearson correlation coefficient revealed a strong positive correlation between ONSD and ICP (r = 0.77, p < 0.001). The ONSD cutoff points were 3.2 mm, 4.0 mm, and 4.6 mm for patients with ICPs of 10 mm Hg, 15 mm Hg, and ≥ 20 mm Hg, respectively. The sensitivity of ONSD was 97.7% (area under the ROC curve 0.99), and for every 14.3–mm Hg increase in ICP, the ONSD increased by 1.0 mm holding age constant.

CONCLUSIONS

ONSD has a strong positive correlation with ICP. Correspondingly, ONSD is highly sensitive in estimating ICP.

Free access

Erratum. Letter to the Editor. Intracranial invasive group A streptococcus: importance of culture-independent diagnostics

Gillian Shasby