Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 11 items for :

  • Journal of Neurosurgery: Case Lessons x
  • Degenerative x
  • Refine by Access: all x
Clear All
Open access

Incidental durotomy resulting in a postoperative lumbosacral nerve root with eventration into the adjacent facet joint: illustrative cases

Michael J Kelly, Franziska C. S Altorfer, Marco D Burkhard, Russel C Huang, Frank P Cammisa Jr., and J. Levi Chazen

BACKGROUND

Radicular pain after lumbar decompression surgery can result from epidural hematoma/seroma, recurrent disc herniation, incomplete decompression, or other rare complications. A less recognized complication is postoperative nerve root herniation, resulting from an initially unrecognized intraoperative or, more commonly, a spontaneous postoperative durotomy. Rarely, this nerve root herniation can become entrapped within local structures, including the facet joint. The aim of this study was to illustrate our experience with three cases of lumbosacral nerve root eventration into an adjacent facet joint and to describe our diagnostic and surgical approach to this rare complication.

OBSERVATIONS

Three patients who had undergone lumbar decompression surgery with or without fusion experienced postoperative radiculopathy. Exploratory revision surgery revealed all three had a durotomy with nerve root eventration into the facet joint. Significant symptom improvement was achieved in all patients following liberation of the neural elements from the facet joints.

LESSONS

Entrapment of herniated nerve roots into the facet joint may be a previously underappreciated complication and remains quite challenging to diagnose even with the highest-quality advanced imaging. Thus, clinicians must have a high index of suspicion to diagnose this issue and a low threshold for surgical exploration.

Open access

Successful coil embolization of a ruptured pseudoaneurysm of the superior gluteal artery after a percutaneous awake robot-assisted sacroiliac joint fusion: illustrative case

Samah Morsi, Alyssa M Bartlett, Andrew A Hardigan, Mounica Paturu, Shawn W Adams, Malcolm R DeBaun, Waleska Pabon-Ramos, and Muhammad M Abd-El-Barr

BACKGROUND

Robot-assisted sacroiliac joint (SIJ) fusion has gained popularity, but it carries the risk of complications such as injury to the superior gluteal artery (SGA). The authors present the case of an awake percutaneous robot-assisted SIJ fusion leading to an SGA pseudoaneurysm.

OBSERVATIONS

An 80-year-old male, who had undergone an awake percutaneous robot-assisted SIJ fusion, experienced postoperative left hip pain and bruising. Subsequent arteriography demonstrated an SGA branch pseudoaneurysm requiring coil embolization.

LESSONS

An SGA injury, although uncommon (1.2% incidence), can arise from percutaneous screw placement, aberrant anatomy, or hardware contact. Thorough preoperative imaging, precise robot-assisted screw insertion, and soft tissue protection are crucial to mitigate risks. Immediate angiography aids in prompt diagnosis and effective intervention. Comprehensive knowledge of anatomical variants is essential for managing complications and optimizing preventative measures in robot-assisted SIJ fusion.

Open access

Two-year results of single-level fixation with lateral mass screws for cervical degenerative spondylolisthesis: patient series

Hiroyasu Kodama, Naohiro Kawamura, Junichi Ohya, Yuki Onishi, Chiaki Horii, Mitsuhiro Nishizawa, Masaya Sekimizu, Yuji Ishino, and Junichi Kunogi

BACKGROUND

In surgery for cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) with spondylolisthesis, there is no consensus on the correction and fixation for spondylolisthesis. The authors retrospectively studied whether the correction of single-level fixation with lateral mass screws (LMSs) could be maintained.

OBSERVATIONS

The records of patients with CSM with spondylolisthesis who had been treated with posterior decompression and single-level fusion with LMSs from 2017 to 2021 were retrospectively reviewed. Radiographic measurements included cervical parameters such as C2–7 lordosis, T1 slope, and the degree of spondylolisthesis (percent slippage) before surgery, immediately after surgery, and at the final observation.

Ten cases (mean age 72.8 ± 7.8 years) were included in the final analysis, and four cases (40%) were on hemodialysis. The median observation period was 26.5 months (interquartile range, 12–35.75). The mean percent slippage was 16.8% ± 4.7% before surgery, 5.3% ± 4.0% immediately after surgery, and 6.5% ± 4.7% at the final observation. Spearman’s rank correlation showed a moderate correlation between preoperative slippage magnitude and correction loss (r = 0.659; p = 0.038). Other parameters showed no correlation with correction loss.

LESSONS

For CSM with spondylolisthesis, single-level fixation with LMSs achieved and maintained successful correction in the 2-year observation.

Open access

Bilateral L5 pedicle fracture with L5–S1 spondylolisthesis after single-level L4–5 posterior lumbar interbody fusion: illustrative case

Toshiyuki Kitaori, Masato Ota, and Jiro Tamura

BACKGROUND

Single-level posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) or transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) is a commonly performed surgical procedure for L4–5 isthmic spondylolisthesis. Postoperative L5 pedicle fracture with rapidly progressive spondylolisthesis at L5–S1 segment after L4–5 PLIF/TLIF is quite rare, and the etiology remains unclear. This report describes this rare complication and proposes a possible etiology focusing on the lumbosacral sagittal imbalance characterized by an anteriorly shifted lumbar loading axis.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors report a case complicated by L5 bilateral pedicle fractures and rapidly progressive spondylolisthesis at the L5–S1 segment very early after a single-level PLIF for L4–5 isthmic spondylolisthesis. Meyerding grade III anterolisthesis was observed at L5–S1 segment by 3 months after the initial surgery. Additional surgery was performed, and the fixation was extended to L4–ilium. Fracture healing was observed at 6 months postoperatively.

LESSONS

This complication may have been caused by abnormal local shear forces on the posterior neural arch of L5 vertebra and L5–S1 intervertebral disc, which were triggered by the fusion surgery for L4 shear-type spondylolisthesis. L4 sagittal vertical axis is considered a reasonable parameter representing lumbosacral sagittal imbalance with an anteriorly shifted loading axis and may be a candidate for the predictive parameters of this rare complication.

Open access

Contralateral lower limb radiculopathy by extraforaminal disc herniation following oblique lumbar interbody fusion in degenerative lumbar disorder: illustrative cases

Satoshi Hattori and Toru Maeda

BACKGROUND

Contralateral lower limb radiculopathy is a potential early complication of oblique lumbar interbody fusion (OLIF) in degenerative lumbar disorders. Among several pathologies related to contralateral radiculopathy following OLIF, extraforaminal disc herniation during the OLIF procedure is very rare.

OBSERVATIONS

Case 1 is a 68-year-old male underwent L4–5 and L5–6 OLIF for recurrent lumbar canal stenosis–expressed right leg pain and muscle weakness after surgery. Case 2 is a 76-year-old female on whom L4–5 OLIF was performed for L4 degenerative spondylolisthesis and who presented right leg pain and numbness postoperatively. In both patients, OLIF cages were inserted into the posterior part of the disc space or obliquely and the extraforaminal extruded disc compressed opposite exiting nerve roots (L5 root in case 1 and L4 root in case 2) as shown on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Surgical decompression with discectomy was required for pain relief and neurological improvement in both cases.

LESSONS

When emerging from new-onset opposite limb radiculopathy attributed to the OLIF procedure, extraforaminal disc herniation should be considered a potential pathology and MRI is useful for early diagnosis and selecting a subsequent management, including surgery.

Open access

Uniportal full endoscopic spinous process–preserving laminectomy for bilateral decompression in cervical stenotic myelopathy: patient series

Hyun-Jin Ma, Sang-Ho Lee, and Chan Hong Park

BACKGROUND

Endoscopic decompression for cervical stenotic myelopathy has several advantages over conventional open surgery. However, sometimes performing bilateral decompression, especially contralateral decompression, can be dangerous. The cervical spine has specific characteristics, including a shallower lamina angle and thinner lamina than the lumbar or thoracic lamina. These characteristics may cause cord compression when instruments approach the contralateral side of the lamina. This article introduces a novel surgical technique that can overcome the specificities of the cervical spine and discusses the efficacy and safety of uniportal full endoscopy for cervical decompression.

OBSERVATIONS

Fourteen patients underwent uniportal full endoscopic spinous process–preserving laminectomy (ESP-L) for bilateral decompression of multilevel cervical stenotic myelopathy. The mean follow-up period was 13.44 months (range: 4–17 months). The preoperative and postoperative cervical spine angle and cervical range of motion did not differ significantly. The Japanese Orthopaedic Association score significantly improved postoperatively. The numeric rating scale scores significantly improved postoperatively. The mean duration of postoperative hospitalization was 2.3 days.

LESSONS

ESP-L is a new, safe, effective, and noninvasive technique that can achieve complete decompression of multilevel cervical stenotic myelopathy.

Open access

Robotics planning in minimally invasive surgery for adult degenerative scoliosis: illustrative case

Zach Pennington, Nolan J. Brown, Saif Quadri, Seyedamirhossein Pishva, Cathleen C. Kuo, and Martin H. Pham

BACKGROUND

Minimally invasive surgical techniques are changing the landscape in adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery, enabling surgical correction to be achievable in increasingly medically complex patients. Spinal robotics are one technology that have helped facilitate this. Here the authors present an illustrative case of the utility of robotics planning workflow for minimally invasive correction of ASD.

OBSERVATIONS

A 60-year-old female presented with persistent and debilitating low back and leg pain limiting her function and quality of life. Standing scoliosis radiographs demonstrated adult degenerative scoliosis (ADS), with a lumbar scoliosis of 53°, a pelvic incidence–lumbar lordosis mismatch of 44°, and pelvic tilt of 39°. Robotics planning software was utilized for preoperative planning of the multiple rod and 4-point pelvic fixation in the posterior construct.

LESSONS

To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report detailing the use of spinal robotics for complex 11-level minimally invasive correction of ADS. Although additional experiences adapting spinal robotics to complex spinal deformities are necessary, the present case represents a proof-of-concept demonstrating the feasibility of applying this technology to minimally invasive correction of ASD.

Open access

Spinal dural arteriovenous fistula masquerading as a herniated disc: illustrative case

Moustafa A. Mansour, Dyana F. Khalil, Soliman El-Sokkary, Mostafa A. Mostafa, and Ahmad A. Ayad

BACKGROUND

Spinal dural arteriovenous fistula (SDAVF) is a rare disorder with an unknown etiology. Often, the clinical presentation and imaging findings are misleading, causing this condition to be mistaken for other entities, such as demyelinating or degenerative spinal lesions.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors report a challenging case of SDAVF in which the patient’s symptoms were initially thought to be attributable to a herniated disc based on his imaging studies at another institution. He sought the authors for a second opinion, which yielded a confirmed diagnosis of SDAVF. Due to his rapidly progressive neurological manifestations, he underwent a surgical division of the fistula using intraoperative video angiography via indocyanine green injections. His symptoms progressively improved over a 3-month period. He regained full sphincter control by 4 months, which gave him a better recovery than seen in other patients with SDAVFs, who do not generally fully regain sphincter control.

LESSONS

SDAVF is a critical spinal vascular pathology that should not be overlooked in the differential diagnosis of any patient presenting with signs of progressive myelopathy. Despite its associated vague initial clinical symptoms, SDAVF typically, but not always, demonstrates a characteristic imaging appearance on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies; therefore, MR angiography is still required for definitive diagnosis. Surgical treatment for SDAVF is almost always definitive and curative.

Open access

Lumbar pedicle screw pseudoarthrosis salvage technique with moldable, bioabsorbable, calcium phosphate–based putty: illustrative case

Nathan Esplin, Shahed Elhamdani, Seung W. Jeong, Michael Moran, Brandon Rogowski, and Jonathan Pace

BACKGROUND

Pseudoarthrosis is a complication of spinal fixation. Risk factors include infection, larger constructs, significant medical comorbidities, and diabetes. The authors present a case report of dilated pedicle screw pseudoarthrosis salvaged with moldable, settable calcium phosphate–based putty.

OBSERVATIONS

The patient presented with back pain and radiculopathy in the setting of poorly controlled diabetes. He was taken to the operating room for laminectomy and fusion complicated by postoperative infection requiring incision and drainage. He returned to the clinic 6 months later with pseudoarthrosis of the L4 screws and adjacent segment degeneration. He was taken for revision with extension of fusion. The L4 tracts were significantly dilated. A moldable, bioabsorbable polymer-based putty containing calcium phosphate was used to augment the dilated tract after decortication back to bleeding bone, allowing good purchase of screws. The patient did well postoperatively.

LESSONS

There are several salvage options for clinically significant pseudoarthrosis after spinal fixation, including anterior or lateral constructs, extension, and revision of fusion. The authors were able to obtain good screw purchase with dilated screw tracts after addition of moldable, bioabsorbable polymer-based putty containing calcium phosphate. It appears that this may represent an effective salvage strategy for dilated pseudoarthropathy in select settings to support extension of fusion.

Open access

Bilateral papilledema with vision loss due to post–COVID-19–induced thiamine deficiency: illustrative case

Kern H. Guppy, Yekaterina K. Axelrod, and Han Kim

BACKGROUND

Bilateral papilledema with vision loss is considered a neurosurgical emergency due to high intracranial pressure. However, it may not be the only cause of papilledema. The authors reported an association among coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), bilateral papilledema, blindness, and Wernicke’s encephalopathy (WE).

OBSERVATIONS

An 18-year-old woman presented to the neurosurgery service with rapid profound vision loss and bilateral papilledema. She had COVID-19 3 months earlier with subsequent loss of smell (anosmia) and taste (ageusia), which resulted in hyperemesis and a 43-lb weight loss. Examination revealed ataxia, horizontal nystagmus, and blindness. Magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic resonance venography of her brain were normal. Presumptive diagnosis of WE was made, and she was treated with intravenous thiamine with restoration of vision within 48 hours. Patient’s thiamine level was less than half the normal value.

LESSONS

Neurosurgeons should be aware of this unique correlation between papilledema and vision loss and its association with WE due to post–COVID-19 hyperemesis and weight loss from anosmia and ageusia.