Browse

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 23,984 items for :

  • Journal of Neurosurgery x
  • Refine by Access: all x
Clear All
Free access

Nan-xiang Xiong and Yi-xuan Zhou

Free access

Robert J. Macielak, Katherine P. Wallerius, Skye K. Lawlor, Christine M. Lohse, John P. Marinelli, Brian A. Neff, Jamie J. Van Gompel, Colin L. W. Driscoll, Michael J. Link, and Matthew L. Carlson

OBJECTIVE

Detection of vestibular schwannoma (VS) growth during observation leads to definitive treatment at most centers globally. Although ≥ 2 mm represents an established benchmark of tumor growth on serial MRI studies, 2 mm of linear tumor growth is unlikely to significantly alter microsurgical outcomes. The objective of the current work was to ascertain where the magnitude of change in clinical outcome is the greatest based on size.

METHODS

A single-institution retrospective review of a consecutive series of patients with sporadic VS who underwent microsurgical resection between January 2000 and May 2020 was performed. Preoperative tumor size cutpoints were defined in 1-mm increments and used to identify optimal size thresholds for three primary outcomes: 1) the ability to achieve gross-total resection (GTR); 2) maintenance of normal House-Brackmann (HB) grade I facial nerve function; and 3) preservation of serviceable hearing (American Academy of Otolaryngology–Head and Neck Surgery class A/B). Optimal size thresholds were obtained by maximizing c-indices from logistic regression models.

RESULTS

Of 603 patients meeting inclusion criteria, 502 (83%) had tumors with cerebellopontine angle (CPA) extension. CPA tumor size was significantly associated with achieving GTR, postoperative HB grade I facial nerve function, and maintenance of serviceable hearing (all p < 0.001). The optimal tumor size threshold to distinguish between GTR and less than GTR was 17 mm of CPA extension (c-index 0.73). In the immediate postoperative period, the size threshold between HB grade I and HB grade > I was 17 mm of CPA extension (c-index 0.65). At the most recent evaluation, the size threshold between HB grade I and HB grade > I was 23 mm (c-index 0.68) and between class A/B and C/D hearing was 18 mm (c-index 0.68). Tumors within 3 mm of the 17-mm CPA threshold displayed similarly strong c-indices. Among purely intracanalicular tumors, linear size was not found to portend worse outcomes for all measures.

CONCLUSIONS

The probability of incurring less optimal microsurgical outcomes begins to significantly increase at 14–20 mm of CPA extension. Although many factors ultimately influence decision-making, when considering timing of microsurgical resection, using a size threshold range as depicted in this study offers an evidence-based approach that moves beyond reflexively recommending treatment for all tumors after detecting ≥ 2 mm of tumor growth on serial MRI studies.

Free access

Chih-Ying Huang, Syu-Jyun Peng, Hsiu-Mei Wu, Huai-Che Yang, Ching-Jen Chen, Mao-Che Wang, Yong-Sin Hu, Yu-Wei Chen, Chung-Jung Lin, Wan-Yuo Guo, David Hung-Chi Pan, Wen-Yuh Chung, and Cheng-Chia Lee

OBJECTIVE

Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) is a common treatment modality for vestibular schwannoma (VS). The ability to predict treatment response is important in patient counseling and decision-making. The authors developed an algorithm that can automatically segment and differentiate cystic and solid tumor components of VS. They also investigated associations between the quantified radiological features of each component and tumor response after GKRS.

METHODS

This is a retrospective study comprising 323 patients with VS treated with GKRS. After preprocessing and generation of pretreatment T2-weighted (T2W)/T1-weighted with contrast (T1WC) images, the authors segmented VSs into cystic and solid components by using fuzzy C-means clustering. Quantitative radiological features of the entire tumor and its cystic and solid components were extracted. Linear regression models were implemented to correlate clinical variables and radiological features with the specific growth rate (SGR) of VS after GKRS.

RESULTS

A multivariable linear regression model of radiological features of the entire tumor demonstrated that a higher tumor mean signal intensity (SI) on T2W/T1WC images (p < 0.001) was associated with a lower SGR after GKRS. Similarly, a multivariable linear regression model using radiological features of cystic and solid tumor components demonstrated that a higher solid component mean SI (p = 0.039) and a higher cystic component mean SI (p = 0.004) on T2W/T1WC images were associated with a lower SGR after GKRS. A larger cystic component proportion (p = 0.085) was associated with a trend toward a lower SGR after GKRS.

CONCLUSIONS

Radiological features of VSs on pretreatment MRI that were quantified using fuzzy C-means were associated with tumor response after GKRS. Tumors with a higher tumor mean SI, a higher solid component mean SI, and a higher cystic component mean SI on T2W/T1WC images were more likely to regress in volume after GKRS. Those with a larger cystic component proportion also trended toward regression after GKRS. Further refinement of the algorithm may allow direct prediction of tumor response.

Free access

Robert C. Osorio, Matheus P. Pereira, Rushikesh S. Joshi, Kevin C. Donohue, Patricia Sneed, Steve Braunstein, Philip V. Theodosopoulos, Ivan H. El-Sayed, José Gurrola II, Sandeep Kunwar, Lewis S. Blevins Jr., and Manish K. Aghi

OBJECTIVE

Clinical presentations and outcomes of nonfunctional pituitary adenoma (NFPA) resections can vary widely, and very little prior research has analyzed this variance through a socioeconomic lens. This study sought to determine whether socioeconomic status (SES) influences NFPA presentations and postoperative outcomes, as these associations could aid physicians in understanding case prognoses and complications.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively analyzed 225 NFPA resections from 2012 to 2019 at their institution. Race, ethnicity, insurance status, estimated income, and having a primary care provider (PCP) were collected as 5 markers of SES. These markers were correlated with presenting tumor burden, presenting symptoms, surgical outcomes, and long-term clinical outcomes.

RESULTS

All 5 examined SES markers influenced variance in patient presentation or outcome. Insurance status’s effects on patient presentations disappeared when examining only patients with PCPs. Having a PCP was associated with significantly smaller tumor size at diagnosis (effect size = 0.404, p < 0.0001). After surgery, patients with PCPs had shorter postoperative hospital lengths of stay (p = 0.043) and lower rates of readmission within 30 days of discharge (OR 0.256, p = 0.047). Despite continuing follow-up for longer durations (p = 0.0004), patients with PCPs also had lower rates of tumor recurrence (p < 0.0001). Higher estimated income was similarly associated with longer follow-up (p = 0.002) and lower rates of tumor recurrence (p = 0.013). Among patients with PCPs, income was not associated with recurrence.

CONCLUSIONS

This study found that while all 5 variables (race, ethnicity, insurance, PCP status, and estimated income) affected NFPA presentations and outcomes, having a PCP was the single most important of these socioeconomic factors, impacting hospital lengths of stay, readmission rates, follow-up adherence, and tumor recurrence. Having a PCP even protected low-income patients from experiencing increased rates of tumor recurrence. These protective findings suggest that addressing socioeconomic disparities may lead to better NFPA presentations and outcomes.

Free access

Joseph A. Carnevale, Christopher S. Babu, Jacob L. Goldberg, Reginald Fong, and Theodore H. Schwartz

OBJECTIVE

Visual deterioration after endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery (EETS) for sellar and parasellar masses is a rare but serious complication caused by either compressive or ischemic mechanisms. Timely diagnosis and intervention may restore vision if instituted appropriately. The associated risk factors and their relation to the success of intervention are not well understood.

METHODS

The authors examined a series of 1200 consecutive EETS cases performed by the senior author at Weill Cornell/NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital from 2010 to 2020. Cases with postoperative visual deterioration were identified. Pre- and postoperative clinical data, mechanism of visual decline, latency to intervention, and long-term visual outcome were retrospectively collected and analyzed with appropriate statistical methods.

RESULTS

Twenty-one patients (1.75%) complained of early postoperative visual deterioration. The most common pathology associated with postoperative visual loss was craniopharyngioma (7.69%), followed by meningioma (5.43%) and then pituitary adenoma (1.94%). Timely intervention restored vision in 81% of patients for a 0.33% rate of permanent visual deterioration. Average time to visual deterioration was 28.8 hours, and over 70% of patients experienced vision loss within the first 13 hours. Compressive etiology (n = 11), consisting of either hematoma (n = 8) or graft displacement (n = 3), occurred 7.3 hours and 70.3 hours after surgery, respectively, and was more common in adenomas. Acute postoperative visual deterioration was more common in firm closures (4.78%) compared with soft closures (1.03%; p = 0.0006). Ischemic etiology (n = 10) occurred 10.3 hours after surgery and was more common with craniopharyngiomas and meningiomas (p = 0.08). Sixteen patients (76.2%) underwent early reoperation to explore and decompress the optic apparatus. Vision was restored to baseline after reoperation in all 11 compressive cases, whereas 6/10 ischemic cases improved with supplemental oxygen and hypervolemic hypertensive therapy (p = 0.02). Fluid expansion from 8 to 16 hours (p = 0.034) and systolic blood pressure elevation from 32 to 48 hours (p = 0.05) after surgery were significantly higher in those ischemic patients who recovered some vision compared with those with persistent visual deficits.

CONCLUSIONS

Visual deterioration after EETS is a rare event but can be effectively treated if acted upon appropriately and in a timely fashion. Compressive etiology is reversible with early reoperation. Ischemic etiology can be successfully treated in roughly half of cases with supplemental oxygen and hypertensive hypervolemic therapy but may result in permanent visual deterioration if not instituted appropriately or if delayed with unnecessary exploratory surgery.

Free access

René van den Berg, Lung Jeung, René Post, Bert A. Coert, Jantien Hoogmoed, Jonathan M. Coutinho, Charles B. Majoie, Dagmar Verbaan, Bart J. Emmer, and William P. Vandertop

OBJECTIVE

In patients presenting within 6 hours after signs and symptoms of suspected subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), CSF examination is judged to be no longer necessary if a noncontrast CT (NCCT) scan rules out SAH. In this study, the authors evaluated the performance of NCCT to rule out SAH in patients with positive CSF findings.

METHODS

Between January 2006 and April 2018, 1657 patients were admitted with a nontraumatic SAH. Of these patients, 1546 had positive SAH findings on the initial NCCT and 111 patients had an NCCT scan that was reported as negative in the acute setting, but with positive CSF examination for subarachnoid blood. Demographic data, World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies grade, and SAH time points (ictus, time of NCCT, and time of lumbar puncture) were collected. All 111 NCCT scans were reevaluated by an experienced neuroradiologist.

RESULTS

Of the 111 patients with positive CSF findings, SAH was initially missed on NCCT in 25 patients (23%). Reevaluation of 21 patients presenting within 6 hours of symptom onset confirmed NCCT negative findings in 12 (5 aneurysms), an aneurysmal SAH (aSAH) pattern in 8 (7 aneurysms), and a perimesencephalic pattern in 1 patient. Reevaluation of 90 patients presenting after 6 hours confirmed negative NCCT findings in 74 patients (37 aneurysms), aSAH pattern in 10 (4 aneurysms), and a perimesencephalic pattern in 6 (2 aneurysms).

CONCLUSIONS

CSF examination is still mandatory to rule out SAH as NCCT can fail to show blood, even within 6 hours after symptom onset. In addition, the diagnosis SAH was frequently missed during initial reporting.

Free access

Eric K. Oermann and Howard A. Riina

Free access

Ariana Alejandra Chacón-Aponte, Erika Andrea Durán-Vargas, Ivan David Lozada-Martínez, Yelson Alejandro Picón-Jaimes, Tariq Janjua, and Luis Rafael Moscote-Salazar