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Open access

Michael Müther and Walter Stummer

5-Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) is a useful and well-established adjunct for glioblastoma surgery. A growing body of evidence has revealed the potential utility of 5-ALA in grade II and grade III glioma patients as well. However, reliable means of identifying in whom fluorescence will occur have not been established. The authors report the case of such an indeterminate-grade glioma highlighting two pearls of 5-ALA fluorescence in this subgroup of patients. Firstly, 5-ALA–guided tissue sampling helps to ensure that the true grade of the lesion is not underestimated. Secondly, intraoperative fluorescence can serve as a prognostic marker.

The video can be found here: https://stream.cadmore.media/r10.3171/2021.10.FOCVID21196

Open access

Benjamin Yim, Andrew J. Gauden, and Gary K. Steinberg

The surgical treatment of moyamoya disease is heavily reliant upon a real-time understanding of cerebral hemodynamics. The application of FLOW 800 allows the surgeon to semiquantify the degree of perfusion to the cerebral cortex following extracranial-to-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass surgery. The authors present three illustrative cases demonstrating common intraoperative findings prior to and following anastomosis using FLOW 800. All patients were diagnosed by catheter angiogram with moyamoya disease and noninvasive imaging demonstrating hemispheric hypoperfusion. Superficial temporal artery (STA)–to–middle cerebral artery (MCA or M4) bypasses were performed to augment intracranial perfusion. The patients tolerated the procedures well and were discharged without event in stable neurological condition.

The video can be found here: https://stream.cadmore.media/r10.3171/2021.10.FOCVID21191

Open access

Walter C. Jean, Kenneth D. Sack, and Andrew R. Tsen

For “minimally invasive” approaches to a deep-lying skull base lesion, the bone opening must be precisely placed and adequately wide to accomplish the surgical goal. Surgical rehearsal in virtual reality (VR) can generate navigation-integrated augmented reality (AR) templates to ensure precise surgical openings.

In this video, the authors used AR templates for the transpalpebral, transorbital approach for intradural tumors. VR renderings of patient-specific anatomy were used in surgical rehearsal. The optimal openings were saved and, at surgery, projected into the eyepiece of the navigation-tracked microscope. The template enhanced the planning of the incision and soft-tissue exposure and guided the drill toward the target.

The video can be found here: https://stream.cadmore.media/r10.3171/2021.10.FOCVID21172

Open access

Christina Jackson, Derek Kai Kong, Zachary C. Gersey, Eric W. Wang, Georgios Zenonos, Carl H. Snyderman, and Paul A. Gardner

Intraoperative distinction of pituitary adenoma from normal gland is critical in maximizing tumor resection without compromising pituitary function. Contact endoscopy provides a noninvasive technique that allows for real-time in vivo visualization of differences in tissue vascularity. Two illustrative cases of endoscopic endonasal approaches (EEAs) for resection of pituitary adenoma illustrate the use of contact endoscopy in identifying tumor from gland and differentiating a thin section of normal gland draped over the underlying tumor, thereby allowing for safe extracapsular tumor resection. Contact endoscopy may be used as an adjunct for intraoperative, in vivo differentiation of pituitary gland and adenoma.

The video can be found here: https://stream.cadmore.media/r10.3171/2021.10.FOCVID21199

Open access

Alexander J. Schupper, Jorge A. Roa, and Constantinos G. Hadjipanayis

Maximal safe resection is the primary goal of glioma surgery. By incorporating improved intraoperative visualization with the 3D exoscope combined with 5-ALA fluorescence, in addition to neuronavigation and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) fiber tracking, the safety of resection of tumors in eloquent brain regions can be maximized. This video highlights some of the various intraoperative adjuncts used in brain tumor surgery for high-grade glioma.

In this case, the authors highlight the resection of a left posterior temporal lobe high-grade glioma in a 33-year-old patient, who initially presented with seizures, word-finding difficulty, and right-sided weakness. They demonstrate the multiple surgical adjuncts used both before and during surgical resection, and how multiple adjuncts can be effectively orchestrated to make surgery in eloquent brain areas safer for patients. Patient consent was obtained for publication.

The video can be found here: https://stream.cadmore.media/r10.3171/2021.10.FOCVID21174

Open access

Adam M. Olszewski, Bruce I. Tranmer, and Brandon D. Liebelt

Maximum safe resection remains a primary goal in the treatment of glioblastoma, with gross-total resection conveying additional survival benefit. Multiple intraoperative visualization techniques have been developed to improve the extent of resection. Herein, the authors describe the use of fluorescein and endoscopic assistance with a novel microinspection device in achieving a gross-total resection of a deep seated precuneal glioblastoma. An interhemispheric transfalcine approach was utilized and microsurgical resection was completed with fluorescein guidance. A 45° endoscope was then used to inspect the resection bed, and remaining areas of concern were then resected under endoscopic visualization.

The video can be found here: https://stream.cadmore.media/r10.3171/2021.10.FOCVID21195

Open access

Christopher S. Graffeo, Visish M. Srinivasan, Tyler S. Cole, and Michael T. Lawton

Mycotic brain aneurysms are rare and unusual cerebrovascular lesions arising from septic emboli that degrade the elastic lamina and vessel wall of intracranial arteries, which results in pathologic dilatation. Mycotic aneurysms are nonsaccular lesions that are not often suitable for clipping and instead require bypass, trapping, and flow reversal. This case demonstrates the use of indocyanine green “flash fluorescence” to identify the cortical distribution supplied by an aneurysm’s outflow, facilitating safe treatment with a double-barrel extracranial-intracranial bypass and partial trapping and conversion of a deep bypass to a superficial one.

The video can be found here: https://stream.cadmore.media/r10.3171/2021.10.FOCVID21163

Open access

Quan Zhou and Gordon Li

A contrast-enhancing lesion in the left temporal lobe of a 72-year-old woman was biopsied and diagnosed as glioblastoma. Near-infrared (NIR)–labeled epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibody, panitumumab-IRDye800, was infused 52 hours before craniotomy without pretreatment. Tumor fluorescence was detected through intact dura, and the visual contrast between disease and peritumoral healthy brain was enhanced after tumor exposure. Residual cancerous tissue was identified with strong fluorescence in resection cavity after en bloc tumor removal. Minimal fluorescence remained in the final wound bed, likely from nonenhancing tumor. Fluorescence was heterogeneously distributed at the infiltrative margin in resected tumor pieces imaged ex vivo. Postoperative MRI confirmed gross-total resection.

The video can be found here: https://stream.cadmore.media/r10.3171/2021.10.FOCVID21201

Open access

Carlos Candanedo, Kobi Goldstein, José E. Cohen, and Sergey Spektor

The authors present the case of an 18-year-old male with a deep-seated left fusiform dissecting M3 aneurysm for which endovascular treatment was not applicable. At the open surgery, they used the less commonly reported FLOW 800 fluorescent indocyanine green (ICG) videoangiography, before and after parental aneurysmal artery temporary clipping, to locate the distal outflow branch of the aneurysm and use it as the recipient artery for a superficial temporal artery–M4 bypass, excluding the aneurysm by clipping the parental artery. Repeated ICG FLOW 800 angiography confirmed bypass patency and adequate blood flow. The aneurysm’s exclusion from circulation was confirmed by digital subtraction angiography postoperatively.

The video can be found here: https://stream.cadmore.media/r10.3171/2021.10.FOCVID21183

Open access

Guilherme H. W. Ceccato, Júlia S. de Oliveira, Pedro H. dos Santos Neto, Nick D. Carvalho, Vinicius N. Coelho, Hugo A. Hasegawa, Sergio L. Sprengel, Marcio S. Rassi, and Luis A. B. Borba

Ischemia of the optic nerve (ON) is an important cause of visual field deficit provoked by tuberculum sellae (TS) meningiomas. Indocyanine green (ICG) videoangiography could provide prognostic information. Moreover, it allows new insight into the pathophysiology of visual disturbance. The authors present the case of a 48-year-old woman with visual field impairment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) depicted a lesion highly suggestive of a TS meningioma. Following microsurgical resection, ICG videoangiography demonstrated improvement of right ON pial blood supply. In this case, there was one lesion causing visual impairment through both direct compression over the left ON and ischemia to the right nerve.

The video can be found here: https://stream.cadmore.media/r10.3171/2021.10.FOCVID21155