The advantages of the surgical view provided by the exoscope have been described before, although reports of its application to brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM) surgery are lacking. The ampler field of view and magnification up to ×24 allow for enhanced visualization during microsurgical procedures. Furthermore, the live visualization provided by indocyanine green video angiography (ICG-VA) helps emphasize the hemodynamics of AVMs, even allowing the detection of possible residual vein arterialization as an indirect expression of nidal remnants. With this illustrative video showing the resection of a hemorrhagic right frontoinsular Spetzler-Martin grade III AVM, the authors describe the technical implications of exoscope brain AVM surgery using the Olympus ORBEYE 4K-3D, with a final focus on ICG-VA as an asset.
The video can be found here: https://stream.cadmore.media/r10.3171/2023.10.FOCVID23114