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Open access

Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis detected using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging during maintenance temozolomide chemotherapy in a patient with glioblastoma: illustrative case

Youhei Takeuchi, 1, Ryuta Saito, Masayuki Kanamori, Kuniyasu Niizuma, Shunji Mugikura, and Hidenori Endo

BACKGROUND

Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) sometimes occurs in the background of hypercoagulopathic disorders, including malignancy, chemotherapy, etc. Glioblastoma (GBM) is a malignancy found in the central nervous system, and reports on cases of GBM complicated by CVST are sparse. The authors herein report a case of GBM complicated by CVST during maintenance temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy and describe the utility of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the detection of CVST.

OBSERVATIONS

A 65-year-old male was treated for left temporal GBM. After surgical removal of the lesion, the patient was treated with chemoradiation therapy, which included 60 Gy local radiation with concomitant TMZ chemotherapy. He was subsequently received TMZ maintenance therapy. Routine MRI performed 7 months after surgery revealed no evidence of tumor recurrence. However, diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) revealed a high-intensity signal at the posterior portion of the superior sagittal sinus, indicating the presence of a thrombus. In addition to the preexisting symptoms, the patient experienced some disorientation. Angiography revealed an obstruction in the superior sagittal sinus, right transverse sinus, right sigmoid sinus, and straight sinus. His symptoms improved with endovascular and anticoagulant therapy.

LESSONS

Performing DWI during routine follow-up can help in the early diagnosis of CVST in patients with malignant gliomas.

Open access

Delayed symptomatic cerebral vasospasm following vestibular schwannoma resection: illustrative case

Paurush Pasricha, Alay V Khandhar, and Basant K Misra

BACKGROUND

Symptomatic cerebral vasospasm following posterior fossa extraaxial tumor resection is a rare phenomenon, with only 13 cases previously reported in the literature. The condition appears similar to vasospasm following supratentorial tumor resection, intraaxial posterior fossa tumor resection, and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). The majority of patients were not evaluated for vasospasm prior to symptom onset, leading to a delay in diagnosis.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors present their experience in a 56-year-old female who developed delayed cerebral vasospasm after excision of a solid-cystic vestibular schwannoma. Routine postoperative brain computed tomography showed evidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage in the basal cisterns. She was discharged on the 9th postoperative day. On the 11th day after tumor excision, she developed left hemiparesis, dysarthria, and dysphagia and was readmitted. Angiography confirmed bilateral diffuse cerebral vasospasm. The patient responded to standard hyperdynamic therapy used for vasospasm secondary to aSAH.

LESSONS

Symptomatic distant cerebral vasospasm after posterior fossa extraaxial tumor excision is a rare but challenging complication with a very high morbidity rate in reported cases. A high index of suspicion is required for early diagnosis and prompt management for a favorable outcome.

Open access

Enlarged tumefactive perivascular, or Virchow-Robin, spaces and hydrocephalus: do we need to treat? Illustrative cases

Belal Neyazi, Vanessa Magdalena Swiatek, Klaus-Peter Stein, Karl Hartmann, Ali Rashidi, Seraphine Zubel, Amir Amini, and I. Erol Sandalcioglu

BACKGROUND

Perivascular spaces (PVSs) are spaces in brain parenchyma filled with interstitial fluid surrounding small cerebral vessels. Massive enlargements of PVSs are referred to as “giant tumefactive perivascular spaces” (GTPVSs), which can be classified into three types depending on their localization. These lesions are rare, predominantly asymptomatic, and often initially misinterpreted as cystic tumor formations. However, there are several reported cases in which GTPVSs have induced neurological symptoms because of their size, mass effect, and location, ultimately leading to obstructive hydrocephalus necessitating neurosurgical intervention. Presented here are three diverse clinical presentations of GTPVS.

OBSERVATIONS

Here, the authors observed an asymptomatic case of type 1 GTPVS and two symptomatic cases of type 3 GTPVS, one causing local mass effect and the other hydrocephalus.

LESSONS

GTPVSs are mostly asymptomatic lesions. Patients without symptoms should be closely monitored, and biopsy is discouraged. Hydrocephalus resulting from GTPVS necessitates surgical intervention. In these cases, third ventriculostomy, shunt implantation, or direct cyst fenestration are surgical options. For patients presenting with symptoms from localized mass effect, a thorough evaluation for potential neurosurgical intervention is imperative. Follow-up in type 3 GTPVS is recommended, particularly in untreated cases. Given the infrequency of GTPVS, definitive guidelines for neurosurgical treatment and subsequent follow-up remain elusive.

Open access

Fluorescence and immune-cell infiltration of nonneoplastic, postbrachytherapy brain tissue in 5-ALA–guided resection of recurrent anaplastic meningioma: illustrative case

Rishab Ramapriyan, Victoria E Clark, 1 PhD, Maria Martinez-Lage, Brian Hsueh, 1 PhD, Brian V Nahed, 1 MSc, William T Curry, Bryan D Choi, 1 PhD, Bob S Carter, and 1 PhD

BACKGROUND

5-Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) fluorescence-guided surgery is a well-established technique for resecting high-grade gliomas. However, its application in meningiomas, especially those previously treated with radiation therapy, remains under investigation.

OBSERVATIONS

A 48-year-old female with recurrent anaplastic meningioma, World Health Organization grade 3, underwent a right-sided craniotomy using off-label 5-ALA as a surgical adjunct. The patient had previously undergone brachytherapy seed implantation (20 × cesium 131) for tumor management. During the surgery, a large fluorescent tumor mass adjacent to the brachytherapy-treated area was resected, and the prior brachytherapy seeds were removed. Interestingly, the surrounding brain tissue in the irradiated area showed robust 5-ALA fluorescence. Pathological examination confirmed that the fluorescent brain tissue was nonneoplastic and associated with lymphocyte and macrophage infiltration.

LESSONS

This case report presents unique 5-ALA fluorescence in nonneoplastic tissue following brachytherapy, which was found during the resection of recurrent anaplastic meningioma. This phenomenon may reflect an intricate interplay among radiation therapy, immune cells, the tumor microenvironment, and 5-ALA metabolism. Given that false-positive findings in fluorescence-guided surgery can lead to unnecessary tissue resection and increased surgical morbidity, further research is warranted to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon and its implications for meningioma surgery.

Open access

“Open-window” craniectomy for the removal of frontal sinus mucosa to prevent a delayed mucocele: illustrative case

W. Caleb Rutledge, 1 2 MS, Ahmad Ozair, Javier E. Villanueva-Meyer, Brian Niehaus, and Michael W. McDermott

BACKGROUND

Frontal craniotomies for a medial subfrontal approach necessitate crossing the frontal sinus. Large superior extensions of the frontal sinus into frontal bone can result in mucosal retention in a free craniotomy bone flap, leading to a delayed mucocele with significant associated morbidity. The authors describe an “open-window” craniectomy technique that permits mucosal removal under direct vision and maintains the inner table on the bone flap’s inferior side, helping to seal off the sinus opening with a pericranial flap.

OBSERVATIONS

An illustrative case involving a medial right frontal craniotomy for a third ventricle mass in a patient with a large superior extension of the frontal sinus into frontal bone is presented. After creating a free frontal bone flap, the inner table was drilled out to the margins of the frontal sinus cavity and any remaining mucosa was cleared. A portion of the inner table above the bone flap’s inferior margin was left in place, resembling an open window when viewed from the inner table side. The remaining anterior and posterior wall of the flap inferiorly provided a matched surface for the opening into the remaining frontal sinus, which was covered by pericranium. Long-term follow-up indicated no major complications or delayed mucocele.

LESSONS

The open-window craniectomy technique can be considered for frontal sinus violations in patients with large superior frontal bone extension.

Open access

Brainstem anesthesia during awake craniotomy: illustrative case

Yun Chen, Mei Sun, Hongmin Bai, Ruixin Yang, and Huan He

BACKGROUND

Awake craniotomy (AC) is performed to remove the lesions near or in eloquent areas, during which the patients are alert and without any airway instrument. Apnea is a severe complication in AC. Here, the authors describe a case of sudden apnea induced by unexpected local anesthesia of the brainstem during AC.

OBSERVATIONS

A 42-year-old male underwent AC for a large, recurrent, bilateral frontal lobe mass and experienced transient apnea and loss of brainstem reflexes during the surgery. The patient recovered spontaneous breath rhythm just a few minutes after the removal of a lidocaine cotton pledget, which was found near the patient’s midbrain. Then the patient awoke and cooperated to finish the surgery.

LESSONS

The administration of a local anesthetic subdurally in AC is common but risky. The scouring action of cerebral spinal fluid can spread those agents and cause unexpected brainstem anesthesia. A lower concentration of the anesthetic and keeping away from the cistern can make it safer.

Open access

Intracranial solitary fibrous tumor in a 15-year-old girl: illustrative case

Kuan Lu, Xiaoqing Qu, Jingcheng Jiang, Quanjun Zheng, Yongsheng Ao, and Lihua Qiu

BACKGROUND

Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is an infrequent spindle cell tumor derived from mesenchymal tissue, which can manifest in diverse anatomical locations, primarily in the pleural cavity and infrequently in the central nervous system. SFT is predominantly observed in individuals aged between 40 and 50 years old, with a slightly higher occurrence in males than in females.

OBSERVATIONS

This case report describes a female, age 15, who had migraines for 2 months prior to the diagnosis of an intracranial tumor. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a mass located in the right parietooccipital region with surrounding edema and a compressed right lateral ventricle. Neurosurgery was utilized to successfully remove the mass, and single intracranial fibrous tumor (grade I) was identified by postoperative pathological analysis. During an 8-month follow-up period, the patient did not experience any recurrences.

LESSONS

SFT is often misdiagnosed as meningioma because of their similar imaging characteristics. However, identifying the distinctive features of SFT on magnetic resonance imaging can distinguish it from meningioma and help to select appropriate treatment. The complete preoperative imaging data for this case indicated a highly vascularized tumor. Preoperative vascular embolization treatment reduced any difficulties during the subsequent tumor resection and minimized intraoperative bleeding.

Open access

Operative planning for a functional precision medicine assay of recurrent high-grade glioma: illustrative case

Andrew P Mathews, William J Shelton, Erika Santos Horta, Prashanth Reddy Damalcheruvu, J. Stephen Nix, Murat Gokden, and Analiz Rodriguez

BACKGROUND

Functional precision medicine (FPM) represents a personalized and efficacious modality for treating malignant neoplasms. However, acquiring sufficient live tissue to perform FPM analyses is complicated by both difficult identification on imaging and radiation necrosis, particularly in cases of recurrence. The authors describe a case of planning biopsy trajectories for an FPM assay in a patient with recurrent high-grade glioma.

OBSERVATIONS

A 25-year-old male with a history of recurrent high-grade glioma was scheduled for laser ablation and biopsy with ChemoID assaying after regions of potential recurrence were identified on follow-up imaging. Preoperative magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy of the regions showed areas of high choline/creatine ratios within lesions of radiation necrosis, which helped in planning the biopsy trajectories to selectively target malignancies for FPM analysis. ChemoID results showed high tumor susceptibility to lomustine, which was implemented as adjuvant therapy.

LESSONS

FPM therapy in the setting of recurrence is complicated by radiation necrosis, which can present as malignancy on imaging and interfere with tissue acquisition during biopsy or resection. Thus, operative approaches should be carefully planned with the assistance of imaging modalities such as MR spectroscopy to better ensure effective tissue acquisition for accurate FPM analysis and to promote more definitive treatment of recurrence.

Open access

Spontaneous sphenoid sinus meningocele with associated amenorrhea and headache: illustrative case

Deveney Franklin, Ali S Yamani, Andre E Boyke, Simon A Menaker, Dennis Tang, and Adam N Mamelak

BACKGROUND

Developmental meningoceles of the sphenoid sinus are uncommon. When encountered, they are often associated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors present the case of a 27-year-old female with a large meningocele eroding through the sella turcica and sphenoid sinus into the nasopharynx. The patient presented with intractable headaches and amenorrhea without CSF rhinorrhea.

LESSONS

The patient underwent an endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal reduction of the meningocele with reelevation of the pituitary gland and skull base reconstruction with abdominal fat graft and nasoseptal flap.

Open access

Laser interstitial thermal therapy as a radiation-sparing approach for central nervous system tumors in children with cancer predisposition syndromes: report of a child with Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Illustrative case

Sergio W Guadix, Abhinav Pandey, Carson Gundlach, Michael Walsh, Nelson S Moss, and Mark M Souweidane

BACKGROUND

Ionizing radiation and alkylating chemotherapies increase secondary malignancy risk in patients with cancer predisposition syndromes (CPSs), such as Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) is a minimally invasive ablation technique that has not been associated with mutagenic risks. We describe the case of a child with LFS and a history of treated choroid plexus carcinoma (CPC) who developed a second primary glial tumor that was safely treated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)–guided LITT.

OBSERVATIONS

A 4-year-old male with left parietal World Health Organization grade III CPC associated with a TP53 germline mutation was evaluated. The patient underwent neoadjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy before near-total resection, followed by 131I-8H9 immunotherapy and 30 fractions of 54-Gy proton radiotherapy. He remained without evidence of disease for 2 years before developing a slow-growing mass adjacent to the left frontal ventricular horn. Stereotactic biopsy revealed a glial neoplasm. Given the nonsuperficial location and focality of the lesion, MRI-guided LITT was performed for ablative therapy. There were no complications, and 2 years of surveillance revealed continued retraction of the ablated tumor focus and no subsequent disease.

LESSONS

Alternatives to mutagenic therapies for brain tumors should be explored for patients with CPS. LITT paired with imaging surveillance is a logical strategy to ensure durable outcomes and mitigate treatment-related secondary neoplasms.