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Open access

Severe hyperglycorrhachia and status epilepticus after endoscopic aqueductoplasty: illustrative case

Anand A. Dharia, Ahmad Masri, Jay F. Rilinger, and Christian B. Kaufman

BACKGROUND

While hypoglycorrhachia is observed and managed frequently, there are few reports in the literature of clinically significant hyperglycorrhachia after neurosurgery. Understanding the effects and management of severe hyperglycorrhachia is important to the neurosurgeon and neurocritical care teams who care for patients in these rare scenarios.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors present the case of a 3-month-old male with congenital hydrocephalus who faced profound hyperglycorrhachia and status epilepticus after an endoscopic aqueductoplasty using an irrigant composed of lactated Ringer’s solution with dextrose 5% in water. A multidisciplinary approach was developed to monitor and treat the patient’s seizures and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) osmolytes.

LESSONS

This case provides several learning opportunities for understanding CSF physiology, pathogenesis of common brain injuries related to osmotic shifts and inflammatory states, as well as clinical management of hyperglycorrhachia. It also reiterates the significance of meticulous intraoperative assessment to avoid preventable medical errors.

Open access

Low-field magnetic resonance imaging in a boy with intracranial bolt after severe traumatic brain injury: illustrative case

Awais Abbas, Kiran Hilal, Aniqa Abdul Rasool, Ume-Farwah Zahidi, Muhammad Shahzad Shamim, and Qalab Abbas

BACKGROUND

Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (cMRI) is sensitive to motion and ferromagnetic material, leading to suboptimal images and image artifacts. In many patients with neurological injuries, an intracranial bolt (ICB) is placed for monitoring intracranial pressure (ICP). Repeated imaging (computed tomography [CT] or cMRI) is frequently required to guide management. A low-field (0.064-T) portable magnetic resonance imaging (pMRI) machine may provide images in situations that were previously considered contraindications for cMRI.

OBSERVATIONS

A 10-year-old boy with severe traumatic brain injury was admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit, and an ICB was placed. Initial head CT showed a left-sided intraparenchymal hemorrhage with intraventricular dissection and cerebral edema with mass effect. Repeated imaging was required to assess the brain structure because of continually fluctuating ICP. Transferring the patient to the radiology suite was risky because of his critical condition and the presence of an ICB; hence, pMRI was performed at the bedside. Images obtained were of excellent quality without any ICB artifact, guiding the decision to continue to manage the patient conservatively. The child later improved and was discharged from the hospital.

LESSONS

pMRI can be used to obtain excellent images at the bedside in patients with an ICB, providing useful information for better management of patients with neurological injuries.

Open access

Enlarging traumatic superficial temporal artery pseudoaneurysm from a lacrosse ball injury: illustrative case

Kristina F. Terrani, Anthony M. Avellino, and M. Michael Bercu

BACKGROUND

The development of a mobile, growing, pulsatile mass after blunt head trauma to the forehead area, resulting in a superficial temporal artery pseudoaneurysm, is a very rare outcome. Most pseudoaneurysms are diagnosed with ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), and/or magnetic resonance imaging and treated via resection or, occasionally, embolization.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors describe a case of a young male lacrosse player who presented with a bulging, partially pulsatile mass in the right forehead region 2 months after trauma from a high-velocity ball striking his head while helmeted. The authors reviewed 12 patients in the literature and describe each patient’s epidemiological features, nature of the trauma, and onset of the lesion after the trauma, as well as the diagnostic methods and treatments for each case.

LESSONS

Overall, CT and ultrasound appear to be the easiest and most used methods of diagnosis, and resection under general anesthesia is the most common treatment method.