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Open access

Infraclavicular de novo placement of a responsive neurostimulator for a patient with eloquent glioma-associated epilepsy: illustrative case

Ahmad R. Masri, Bailey R. Yekzaman, Bradley J. Estes, Christopher S. Park, Patrick Landazuri, and Michael Kinsman

BACKGROUND

The authors present a 50-year-old female with high-grade glioma involving the motor cortex as the cause of her drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE). Responsive neurostimulation (RNS) was chosen for epilepsy treatment. Due to concerns regarding the generator impeding the regular imaging surveillance required for treatment and monitoring of her glioma, surgeons placed the internal pulse generator (IPG) within an infraclavicular chest pocket.

OBSERVATIONS

Implantation of the RNS device and IPG within the infraclavicular pocket was uneventful. However, both subdural and depth electrodes were used and connected to the IPG, and subdural electrodes are considerably shorter than depth electrodes (37 vs 44 cm). The shorter strip leads presumably generated significant tension, leading to fracture of the leads. Therefore, surgery was repeated using only depth electrodes for more length and less tension. The device has good-quality electrocorticography signals that continue to be used for device programming. The seizure burden was reduced, and quality of life improved for the patient.

LESSONS

The RNS system with infraclavicular IPG placement reduced the seizure burden and improved the quality of life of a patient with glioma-associated epilepsy. Surgeons may consider the infraclavicular location as an alternative site for implantation for RNS candidates who require recurrent intracranial magnetic resonance imaging.

Open access

Presurgical language mapping in bilingual children using transcranial magnetic stimulation: illustrative case

Savannah K. Gibbs, Stephen Fulton, Basanagoud Mudigoudar, Frederick A. Boop, and Shalini Narayana

BACKGROUND

Presurgical mapping of eloquent cortex in young patients undergoing neurosurgery is critical but presents challenges unique to the pediatric population, including motion artifact, noncompliance, and sedation requirements. Furthermore, as bilingualism in children increases, functional mapping of more than one language is becoming increasingly critical. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), a noninvasive brain stimulation technique, is well suited to evaluate language areas in children since it does not require the patient to remain still during mapping.

OBSERVATIONS

A 13-year-old bilingual male with glioblastoma multiforme involving the left parietal lobe and deep occipital white matter underwent preoperative language mapping using magnetic resonance imaging-guided TMS. Language-specific cortices were successfully identified in both hemispheres. TMS findings aided in discussing with the family the risks of postsurgical deficits of tumor resection; postoperatively, the patient had intact bilingual speech and was referred for chemotherapy and radiation.

LESSONS

The authors’ findings add to the evolving case for preoperative dual language mapping in bilingual neurosurgical candidates. The authors illustrate the feasibility and utility of TMS as a noninvasive functional mapping tool in this child. TMS is safe, effective, and can be used for preoperative mapping of language cortex in bilingual children to aid in surgical planning and discussion with families.