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Open access

Repair of internal carotid artery injury with aneurysm clip during endoscopic endonasal surgery: illustrative case

David Fustero de Miguel, Laura Beatriz López López, Amanda Avedillo Ruidíaz, Javier Orduna Martínez, Juan Casado Pellejero, and Jesús Adrián Moles Herbera

BACKGROUND

One of the most feared and dangerous scenarios that can appear during an endoscopic endonasal surgery (EES) is the iatrogenic injury of the internal carotid artery (ICA). Several methods, along with a variety of outcomes, have been described to deal with this complication. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report on the use of a Yasargil-type aneurysm clip to solve an ICA injury, preserving the artery’s patency and having a long-term follow-up. The authors discuss the advantages and disadvantages of other vessel preservation techniques compared with clipping.

OBSERVATIONS

A visually impaired 56-year-old woman was diagnosed with a giant nonfunctional pituitary tumor that invaded the sphenoidal sinus, anterior and posterior ethmoidal cells, and both cavernous sinuses, with suprasellar extension and optochiasmatic compression. The patient underwent EES, and during the final resection phase her left ICA was injured, with massive hemorrhage.

LESSONS

ICA injury during endoscopic skull base surgery carries high mortality and morbidity; it is essential to maintain carotid flow when possible to avoid short-term and long-term consequences. There are several techniques depicted in the literature to deal with this situation. The authors report the use of a Yasargil mini-clip to deal with the injury for a positive outcome: primary hemostasis, vessel preservation, and no postoperative complications.

Open access

Chronic allergic fungal sinusitis invading the skull base in an immunocompetent male: illustrative case

Anant Naik, Darrion Bo-Yun Yang, Frank J. Bellafiore, Muhamad A. Amine, and Wael Hassaneen

BACKGROUND

Allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) is an immunoglobulin E–mediated reaction to fungal organisms in the sinonasal region and can be categorized as acute or chronic. Acute infection is typical in immunocompromised patients, while chronic infection is classically seen in immunocompetent patients. Spread of infection to the skull base is a rare and potentially lethal complication of prolonged infection. Surgical management is frequently augmented with steroid therapy to prevent recurrence.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors present a case of a 20-year-old African American male with prolonged headaches and blurred vision who was diagnosed with chronic invasive fungal sinusitis resulting in invasion of fungal burden into the anterior skull base and the posterior aspect of the clivus, in addition to complete obliteration of the maxillary sinus. The patient was managed surgically without complication and with gradual improvement in vision.

LESSONS

Early management and detection of AFS should be a focus to prevent erosion of the fungal burden into the skull base. Neurosurgery and ear, nose, and throat surgery have a multidisciplinary role in the management of advanced AFS cases.

Open access

Pediatric multicompartmental trigeminal schwannoma: illustrative case

Alexander P. Landry, Vincent C. Ye, Kerry A. Vaughan, James M. Drake, Peter B. Dirks, and Michael D. Cusimano

BACKGROUND

Trigeminal schwannoma (TS) is an uncommon and histologically benign intracranial lesion that can involve any segment of the fifth cranial nerve. Given its often impressive size at diagnosis and frequent involvement of critical neurovascular structures of the skull base, it represents a challenging entity to treat. Pediatric TS is particularly rare and presents unique challenges. Similarly, tumors with extension into multiple compartments (e.g., middle cranial fossa, posterior cranial fossa, extracranial spaces) are notoriously difficult to treat surgically. Combined or staged surgical approaches are typically required to address them, with radiosurgical treatment as an adjunct.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors presented the unusual case of a 9-year-old boy with a large, recurrent multicompartmental TS involving Meckel’s cave, the cerebellopontine angle, and the infratemporal fossa. Near-total resection was achieved using a frontotemporal-orbitozygomatic craniotomy with a combined interdural and extradural approach.

LESSONS

The case report adds to the current literature on multicompartmental TSs in children and their management. The authors also provided a simplified classification of TS that can be generalized to other skull base tumors. Given a lack of precedent, the authors intended to add to the discussion regarding surgical management of these rare and challenging skull base lesions.

Open access

Pial brainstem artery arteriovenous malformation with flow-related intracanalicular aneurysm masquerading as vestibular schwannoma: illustrative case

David D. Liu, David B. Kurland, Aryan Ali, John G. Golfinos, Erez Nossek, and Howard A. Riina

BACKGROUND

Lesions of the internal auditory canal presenting with partial hearing loss are almost always vestibular schwannomas (VSs). Intracanalicular anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) aneurysms are extremely rare but can mimic VS based on symptoms and imaging. The authors report the case of a flow-related intracanalicular AICA aneurysm from a pial brainstem arteriovenous malformation (AVM) masquerading as VS.

OBSERVATIONS

A 57-year-old male with partial left-sided hearing loss and an intracanalicular enhancing lesion was initially diagnosed with VS and managed conservatively at an outside institution with surveillance imaging over 3 years. When he was referred for VS follow-up, new imaging raised radiological suspicion for vascular pathology. Cerebral angiography revealed a small pial AVM located at the trigeminal root entry zone with an associated flow-related intracanalicular AICA aneurysm. The AVM was obliterated with open surgery, during which intraoperative angiography confirmed no AVM filling, preservation of the AICA, and no further aneurysm filling.

LESSONS

Intracanalicular AICA aneurysms and other lesions, including cavernous malformations, can mimic radiographic features of VS and present with hearing loss or facial weakness. Modern vascular neurosurgical techniques such as endovascular intervention and open surgery in a hybrid operating room allowed definitive management of both lesions without untoward morbidity.

Open access

Primary isolated skull base eosinophilic granuloma confined to the anterior clinoid process: illustrative case

Ahmad Pour-Rashidi, Payam Asem, Kazem Abbasioun, and Abbas Amirjamshidi

BACKGROUND

Solitary eosinophilic granuloma (EG) occurs anecdotally in the skull base region, and it has been described in only three previous publications. The authors report the first case of EG of the anterior clinoid process (ACP), which was confined to the ACP and presented with decreased vision.

OBSERVATIONS

A 38-year-old woman presented with decreased vision of the left eye of 5 months’ duration. Her visual acuity was 3/10, other neurological examinations were intact, and there were no other osseous or soft tissue lesions. The lesion was excised using a left-sided craniotomy and transdural clinoidectomy, decompressing the optic nerve both intra- and extradurally. The lesion was characteristic for EG, and no recurrence was detected after 2 years.

LESSONS

EG can be confined to the ACP and impair vision. Imaging studies are sensitive but not specific, and surgical decompression is both diagnostic and treatment oriented. Close observation and even adjuvant therapy may be indicated in similar cases.

Open access

Simultaneous microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia and hemifacial spasm involving a dolichoectatic vertebral artery in an elderly patient: illustrative case

Neelan J. Marianayagam, Hanya M. Qureshi, Sagar Vasandani, Shaurey Vetsa, Muhammad Jalal, Kun Wu, and Jennifer Moliterno

BACKGROUND

Hyperactive cranial neuropathies refractory to medical management can often be debilitating to patients. While microvascular decompression (MVD) surgery can provide relief to such patients when an aberrant vessel is compressing the root entry zone (REZ) of the nerve, the arteries of elderly patients over 65 years of age can be less amenable to manipulation because of calcifications and other morphological changes. A dolichoectatic vertebral artery (DVA), in fact, can lead to multiple cranial neuropathies; therefore, a strategy for MVDs in elderly patients is useful.

OBSERVATIONS

A 76-year-old man presented with medically refractory trigeminal neuralgia (TN) and hemifacial spasm (HFS). A DVA was the conflicting vessel at the left REZs of the trigeminal and facial nerves. The authors performed a retrosigmoid craniotomy for MVD of the DVA with Teflon padding at both REZs in approximately 1 hour of operative time. The patient was free of facial pain and spasm immediately after surgery and at follow-up.

LESSONS

The authors described the case of an elderly patient with both TN and HFS caused by compression of a DVA. Simultaneous MVD with Teflon padding at both REZs provided symptomatic relief with limited surgical time. This can be a particularly useful and straightforward surgical strategy in the elderly population.

Open access

Gross-total resection of a suprasellar with recurrent cerebellopontine angle region craniopharyngioma by endoscopic far-lateral supracerebellar infratentorial approach: illustrative case

Tao Xie and Xiaobiao Zhang

BACKGROUND

Craniopharyngiomas that rarely extend into the posterior fossa are treated with staged operations or combined approaches. The authors reported a patient undergoing gross-total resection of a suprasellar with recurrent cerebellopontine angle (CPA) craniopharyngioma using an endoscopic far-lateral supracerebellar infratentorial approach (EFL-SCITA).

OBSERVATIONS

The patient was a 15-year-old boy who presented with headache and decreased vision that lasted for half a year. He previously received three surgeries related to CPA craniopharyngioma. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging revealed a suprasellar with recurrent CPA craniopharyngioma. Gross-total resection of this suprasellar and CPA tumor was achieved through EFL-SCITA. All symptoms and signs were improved. There were no postsurgical complications except for mild facial paralysis.

LESSONS

EFL-SCITA can be used not only for tumors in the posterolateral pontomesencephalon and ptero-clival-tentorial area but also for tumors in the suprasellar region with posterior fossa extension.

Open access

Solitary fibrous tumor with aneurysmal bone cyst–like change in the middle cranial fossa: illustrative case

Ako Matsuhashi, Taichiro Yoshimoto, and Gakushi Yoshikawa

BACKGROUND

Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare mesenchymal tumor known for its propensity for recurrence and metastasis. Furthermore, aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC) is a benign osteolytic lesion. ABC-like areas can be seen in bone tumors that have undergone hemorrhagic cystic change. They are formed by disruptions in the osseous circulation caused by the associated lesion. The most common associated lesions are giant cell tumor, chondroblastoma, osteoblastoma, osteosarcoma, chondromyxoid fibroma, and fibrous dysplasia. There has been no reported case of SFT being the associated lesion.

OBSERVATIONS

A 42-year-old woman presented with a 6-month history of headache and impaired memory. Radiological examinations revealed a 50-mm cystic lesion with multiple fluid levels arising from the left temporal bone. Total resection of the tumor was conducted, and postoperative course was uneventful. Histopathological examination was consistent with SFT with ABC-like change.

LESSONS

This is the first documented case of SFT with ABC-like change in the cranial fossa. This should be considered a differential diagnosis when treating a lesion in the cranial fossa, such as in this case, to achieve complete resection of the tumor and have close follow-up postoperatively.

Open access

Endoscope-assisted far lateral craniotomy for resection of posterior fossa neurocysticercosis: illustrative case

Jerrell Fang, Christopher Banerjee, Amanda Barrett, Bruce C. Gilbert, and Martin J. Rutkowski

BACKGROUND

Neurocysticercosis is a parasitic infection that commonly affects the ventricles, subarachnoid spaces, and spinal cord of the central nervous system. The authors report an unusual manifestation of purely posterior fossa neurocysticercosis treated with endoscope-assisted open craniotomy for resection.

OBSERVATIONS

A 67-year-old male presented with 2 months of progressive dizziness, gait ataxia, headaches, decreased hearing, and memory impairment. Imaging revealed an extra-axial cystic lesion occupying the foramen magnum and left cerebellopontine angle with significant mass effect and evidence of early hydrocephalus. Gross-total resection was accomplished via a left far lateral craniotomy with open endoscopic assistance, and pathological findings were consistent with neurocysticercosis. Postoperatively, he was noted to have a sixth nerve palsy, and adjuvant therapy included albendazole. By 9 months postoperatively, he exhibited complete resolution of an immediate postoperative sixth nerve palsy in addition to all preoperative symptoms. His hydrocephalus resolved and did not require permanent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion.

LESSONS

When combined with traditional skull base approaches, open endoscopic techniques allow for enhanced visualization and resection of complex lesions otherwise inaccessible under the microscope alone. Recognition and obliteration of central nervous system neurocysticercosis can facilitate excellent neurological recovery without the need for CSF diversion.

Open access

Primary intracranial extraosseous Ewing’s sarcoma of the skull base in an elderly adult: illustrative case

Kristine Ravina, Sonora A. Windermere, Qing Zhao, Adam Lerner, Michael Dyer, Urvashi Upadhyay, and R. Tushar Jha

BACKGROUND

Primary extraosseous intracranial Ewing’s sarcoma, also known as a peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor or “small round blue cell tumor,” is an extremely rare entity with limited representation in the literature beyond the pediatric population.

OBSERVATIONS

A 67-year-old male suffering occipital headache, nausea, and gait disturbance was found to have a large, avidly contrast-enhancing cerebellopontine angle mass extending into the cervical spinal canal with associated mass effect on medulla, cerebellum, fourth ventricle, and cervical spinal cord. This mass was not present on the imaging from 8 years prior. He underwent surgical debulking and pathology results demonstrated a malignant small round cell tumor showing diffuse immunopositivity for cytokeratins, CD99 and NKX2.2 with EWRS1-FLI1 rearrangement in 84% of the nuclei confirmatory of Ewing’s sarcoma. After 14 cycles of chemotherapy and 6 weeks of radiotherapy, 22 months after discovery, the patient remains in clinical and radiographic remission with complete return to his baseline functioning.

LESSONS

Primary skull base extraosseous Ewing’s sarcoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis even in the elderly population when imaging studies demonstrate aggressive tumor growth patterns. Tumor debulking to establish a diagnosis followed by adjuvant chemoradiation therapy can result in clinical improvement with remission.