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Open access

Pituitary stone resulting in visual dysfunction and spontaneous rhinorrhea in nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma: illustrative case

Takuya Kanemitsu, Naokado Ikeda, Masao Fukumura, Satoshi Sakai, Hidehiro Oku, Motomasa Furuse, Naosuke Nonoguchi, Ryo Hiramatsu, Shinji Kawabata, Akihisa Imagawa, Tsunehiko Ikeda, and Masahiko Wanibuchi

BACKGROUND

Calcifications in pituitary adenomas are rare, being found in only 5.4%–25% of reported cases. These are divided into eggshell-like calcifications around the tumor and nodular calcifications at the center of the tumor, the latter of which are called “pituitary stones” (PSs).

OBSERVATIONS

The authors report the case of a 60-year-old male with a nonfunctional pituitary adenoma with PSs and asymptomatic ventricular dilatation who presented with spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea and rapid visual aggravation without an increase in tumor size over the course of 4 years. After endoscopic transnasal surgery, his visual acuity immediately improved temporarily. It was believed that the increased intracranial pressure due to secondary hydrocephalus resulted in visual aggravation; thus, a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt was created. After creation of the VP shunt, the patient’s visual acuity improved gradually and completely. Histological findings showed that adenoma cells were observed among the lamellar bone trabeculae. To the best of the authors knowledge, this is the first report of osteoid metaplasia–type PSs in nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma.

LESSONS

PSs formed near the sellar floor and caused spontaneous CSF rhinorrhea due to direct mechanical stress on the dura mater and optic nerves, which may have caused meningitis and secondary hydrocephalus that resulted in visual impairment independent of tumor size.

Open access

Papillary craniopharyngioma in a patient following resection of nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma: illustrative case

David J. Park, Akash Mishra, Danielle Golub, Jian Y. Li, Karen S. Black, and Michael Schulder

BACKGROUND

Although craniopharyngioma and pituitary adenoma are common tumors of the sellar or suprasellar region, the development of papillary craniopharyngioma in the same sellar region after resection of a nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma has not been reported.

OBSERVATIONS

Here the authors report the first case of craniopharyngioma that developed long after resection of a pituitary adenoma. A 66-year-old male patient underwent endoscopic transsphenoidal resection for a large sellar mass, which histopathologically confirmed the diagnosis of a pituitary adenoma. He had an excellent recovery after surgery. For several years, he had no clinical or imaging evidence of tumor recurrence and then was lost to follow-up. Seven years after the initial surgery, the patient returned with a one-month history of visual field defects, and imaging confirmed a heterogeneous, cystic suprasellar mass. Endoscopic transsphenoidal resection of the tumor was performed, and histological examination showed it to be a papillary craniopharyngioma.

LESSONS

Neurosurgeons should be aware that after pituitary adenoma resection, a recurrent mass could be a craniopharyngioma, with implications for very different management recommendations.

Open access

Repair of internal carotid artery injury with aneurysm clip during endoscopic endonasal surgery: illustrative case

David Fustero de Miguel, Laura Beatriz López López, Amanda Avedillo Ruidíaz, Javier Orduna Martínez, Juan Casado Pellejero, and Jesús Adrián Moles Herbera

BACKGROUND

One of the most feared and dangerous scenarios that can appear during an endoscopic endonasal surgery (EES) is the iatrogenic injury of the internal carotid artery (ICA). Several methods, along with a variety of outcomes, have been described to deal with this complication. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report on the use of a Yasargil-type aneurysm clip to solve an ICA injury, preserving the artery’s patency and having a long-term follow-up. The authors discuss the advantages and disadvantages of other vessel preservation techniques compared with clipping.

OBSERVATIONS

A visually impaired 56-year-old woman was diagnosed with a giant nonfunctional pituitary tumor that invaded the sphenoidal sinus, anterior and posterior ethmoidal cells, and both cavernous sinuses, with suprasellar extension and optochiasmatic compression. The patient underwent EES, and during the final resection phase her left ICA was injured, with massive hemorrhage.

LESSONS

ICA injury during endoscopic skull base surgery carries high mortality and morbidity; it is essential to maintain carotid flow when possible to avoid short-term and long-term consequences. There are several techniques depicted in the literature to deal with this situation. The authors report the use of a Yasargil mini-clip to deal with the injury for a positive outcome: primary hemostasis, vessel preservation, and no postoperative complications.

Open access

Giant pituitary macroadenoma of stem cell origin: illustrative case

David T. Asuzu, Rebecca M. Burke, Jeffrey Hakim, Dylan Coss, Min S. Park, Spencer C. Payne, and John A. Jane Jr.

BACKGROUND

Giant pituitary macroadenomas with a diameter >4 cm are rare tumors, accounting for only about 5% of pituitary adenomas. They are more difficult to maximally resect safely owing to limited access as well as encasement of adjacent structures. Acidophil stem cell adenomas are rare immature neoplasms proposed to derive from common progenitor cells of somatotroph and lactotroph cells. These adenomas comprise about 4.3% of surgically removed pituitary adenomas. No previous reports have described acidophil stem cell adenomas that grow to the size of giant macroadenomas. This rare entity poses special challenges given the need for maximal safe resection in an immature neoplasm.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors report a 21-year-old female who presented with 3 years of progressive visual decline and a giant macroadenoma. She underwent endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery for decompression. Given the tumor size and involvement of adjacent critical structures, gross-total resection was not achieved. The authors review the literature on giant pituitary adenomas and provide a discussion on clinical management for this rare entity.

LESSONS

The authors present a very rare case of a giant pituitary adenoma of acidophil stem cell origin and discuss the technical and management challenges in this rare entity.

Open access

Nonabsorbable intrasellar stent placement for recurrent Rathke cleft cyst: illustrative case

Nathaniel R. Ellens, Matthew C. Miller, Ismat Shafiq, Zoe R. Williams, and G. Edward Vates

BACKGROUND

Rathke cleft cyst (RCC) has a recurrence rate of 10% to 22%, and preventing recurrence is challenging. For patients who experience persistent recurrence of RCC, placement of steroid-eluting bioabsorbable intrasellar stents has been rarely described. However, recurrences are often delayed, suggesting that dissolvable stents may not be successful long-term. The release of steroids in close proximity to the pituitary gland may also unintentionally influence the hypothalamic-adrenal-pituitary axis.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors present a case of a 66-year-old woman with a persistently recurrent RCC who underwent drainage of her cyst with placement of a nonabsorbable intrasellar stent in the form of a tympanostomy tube. After repeat transsphenoidal drainage of her cyst, a tympanostomy T-tube was placed to stent open the dural aperture. Postoperatively, the patient’s condition showed improvement clinically and radiographically.

LESSONS

Placement of an intrasellar stent for recurrent RCC has rarely been described. Steroid-eluting bioabsorbable stents may dissolve before RCC recurrence and may have an unintentional effect on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The authors present the first case of nonabsorbable stent placement in the form of a tympanostomy tube for recurrence of RCC. Additional studies and longer follow-up are necessary to evaluate the long-term efficacy of both absorbable and nonabsorbable stent placement.

Open access

An algorithm to improve lateralization accuracy of inferior petrosal sinus sampling: procedural nuances for complex patterns of venous drainage. Patient series

Abhijith V. Matur, Alaina M. Body, Mark D. Johnson, Matthew S. Smith, Ruchi Bhabhra, Emily J. Lester, Trisha L. Stahl, Aaron W. Grossman, Peyman Shirani, Jonathan A. Forbes, and Charles J. Prestigiacomo

BACKGROUND

Inferior petrosal sinus sampling (IPSS) is a useful technique in the diagnosis of Cushing’s disease (CD) when the imaging finding is negative or equivocal. Different authors have reported considerable variability in the ability to determine tumor laterality with IPSS. Here the authors present a retrospective case series of 7 patients who underwent IPSS using a systematic algorithm to improve lateralization accuracy by identifying optimal sampling sites on the basis of individual cavernous sinus drainage patterns in each patient.

OBSERVATIONS

Of the 7 patients identified, 6 were determined to have CD and subsequently underwent surgery. IPSS was accurate in all patients from whom laterality was predicted. Arterial and venous angiography were used to define cavernous sinus drainage patterns and determine optimal sampling sites. All patients who underwent surgery achieved hormonal cure.

LESSONS

All IPSS predictions of lateralization were correct when available, and all patients who underwent surgery achieved hormonal cure. Advances in angiographic techniques for identification of the site of primary drainage from the cavernous sinus and subsequent optimization of microcatheter placement may improve the ability to predict tumor laterality.

Open access

Embolization after internal carotid artery injury secondary to transsphenoidal pituitary surgery and delayed intranasal coil protrusion: illustrative case

Abdurrahim Tas, Nazim Bozan, Ramazan Akin, and Abdurrahman Aycan

BACKGROUND

The authors presented a case of spontaneous nasopharyngeal coil migration that occurred 3 years after a patient had undergone transsphenoidal resection due to pituitary macroadenoma and was treated with coil application because of internal carotid artery injury secondary to transsphenoidal resection of the pituitary macroadenoma.

OBSERVATIONS

In the literature, eight cases of coil migration that occurred between 2 and 120 months after coil application have been reported, most of which were treated with surgical removal of the coil in a same-day surgery setting.

LESSONS

The case presented emphasized that coil protrusion and migration may lead to destruction in the skull base, thereby leading to serious consequences if left untreated, even in the absence of history of trauma. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first case in the literature that required additional invasive procedures due to recurrent bleeding that occurred several months after surgical removal of coils. Also, this report underlined the need for careful and long-term follow-up of coil materials used for the treatment of pseudoaneurysms caused by vascular injuries secondary to skull base injury during surgery.

Open access

Nocardia farcinica pituitary abscess in an immunocompetent patient: illustrative case

Kristen M. Scheitler, Megan M. J. Bauman, Lucas P. Carlstrom, Christopher S. Graffeo, and Fredric B. Meyer

BACKGROUND

Pituitary abscess is a rare clinical entity, typically precipitated by Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, or Aspergillus infection. Although Nocardia species–associated central nervous system abscesses have been documented in immunocompromised patients, no case of Nocardia pituitary abscesses has been previously reported.

OBSERVATIONS

A 44-year-old man presented with hemoptysis and was found to have a cavitary right lung nodule, which was presumed histoplasmosis, prompting antifungal treatment. Several months later, he developed panhypopituitarism. Magnetic resonance imaging identified a pituitary mass, which subsequently underwent transsphenoidal endoscopic biopsy. Infectious workup was negative, and the patient was discharged on intravenous ertapenem therapy. Over several months, he developed progressive headaches, and updated imaging confirmed interval enlargement of the mass with new cavernous sinus invasion. He underwent repeat endoscopic biopsy, which yielded positive cultures for Nocardia farcinica and prompted successful treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and linezolid.

LESSONS

The current study highlights a previously unreported clinical entity, the first pituitary abscess attributable to Nocardia sp. or N. farcinica, which arose in a young, immunocompetent individual. Although rare, atypical infections represent an important component in the differential diagnosis for sellar mass lesions.

Open access

Pituitary macroadenoma causing vision loss in Wyburn-Mason syndrome: illustrative case

Nicholas F. Hug, David A. Purger, Heather E. Moss, and Robert L. Dodd

BACKGROUND

Wyburn-Mason syndrome (WMS) is a neurocutaneous disorder consisting of vascular malformations of the brain, eye, and skin. These include characteristically high-flow intracranial and intraorbital arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) that present commonly with visual deterioration, headache, and hemiplegia. Complete removal of these lesions is challenging. Most patients are followed closely, and intervention occurs only in the setting of worsening symptoms secondary to AVM growth or hemorrhage. Here the authors present the first known case of a patient with WMS and a pituitary macroadenoma.

OBSERVATIONS

A 62-year-old man with a 30-year history of WMS with right basal ganglia and orbital AVMs and right eye blindness presented for new-onset left-sided vision loss. A pituitary adenoma was identified compressing the optic chiasm and left optic nerve. Magnetic resonance imaging and digital subtraction angiography studies were obtained for surgical planning, and the patient underwent an endoscopic transnasal transsphenoidal resection, with significant postoperative vision improvement.

LESSONS

Given the variable presentation and poor characterization of this rare syndrome, patients with WMS presenting with new symptoms must undergo evaluation for growth and hemorrhage of known AVMs, as well as new lesions. Further, in patients undergoing intracranial surgery, extensive preoperative imaging and planning are crucial for safe and successful procedures.

Open access

Natural history of pituitary carcinoma with metastasis to the cervical spine: illustrative case

Nicholas T. Gamboa, Christopher Wilkerson, Bornali Kundu, Brandon A. Sherrod, Andrew T. Dailey, and William T. Couldwell

BACKGROUND

Pituitary carcinoma is a rare tumor of the adenohypophysis with noncontiguous craniospinal dissemination and/or systemic metastases. Given the rarity of this malignancy, there is limited knowledge and consensus regarding its natural history, prognosis, and optimal treatment.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors present the case of a 46-year-old woman initially treated with invasive prolactin-secreting pituitary macroadenoma who developed metastatic disease of the cervical spine 6 years later. The patient presented with acutely worsening compressive cervical myelopathy and required posterior cervical decompression, tumor resection, and instrumented arthrodesis for posterolateral fusion.

LESSONS

This case underscores the importance of long-term monitoring of hormone levels and having a high clinical suspicion for metastatic disease to the spine in patients presenting with acute myelopathy or radiculopathy in the setting of previously treated invasive secreting pituitary adenoma.