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Open access

Rapid contrast-induced encephalopathy after a small dose of contrast agent: illustrative case

Zhouyang Zhao, Lijin Huang, Jinhua Chen, and Hongshen Zhu

BACKGROUND

Contrast-induced encephalopathy is a rare complication of cerebral angiography with only few cases reported to date. This paper reports on contrast-induced encephalopathy mimicking meningoencephalitis following cerebral angiography with iopromide, a subhypertonic nonionic contrast agent.

OBSERVATIONS

A 50-year-old woman underwent cerebral angiography for assessment of recurrent nasopharyngeal carcinoma with invasion of internal carotid artery. The patient experienced symptoms including a disturbance of consciousness, seizures, frequent blinking, and stiffness in the extremities immediately after angiography of the left common carotid artery using iopromide (4 ml/s, total 6 ml). Computed tomography scans of the brain showed no obvious abnormalities, whereas brain magnetic resonance imaging showed swelling of the left cerebral cortex without signs of ischemia or hemorrhage. The patient was treated with intravenous rehydration, mannitol dehydration, and other supportive treatment. With this treatment, neurological status progressively improved, with complete resolution of symptoms at day 10.

LESSONS

This observation highlights that even a small dose of subhypertonic nonionic contrast agent can rapidly induce contrast encephalopathy.

Open access

High-resolution MRI of a peroneal intraneural ganglion cyst arising from the knee joint: illustrative case

Brandon W. Smith, Megan M. Jack, Garret M. Powell, Matthew A. Frick, Kimberly K. Amrami, and Robert J. Spinner

BACKGROUND

The advancement of high-resolution imaging and increased clinical experience have led to an increased understanding of the formation and treatment of intraneural ganglion cysts. Nearly all intraneural ganglion cysts in the common peroneal nerve have been reported to arise from a joint connection to the superior tibiofibular joint. The authors have identified four cases of intraneural ganglion cysts arising from the knee joint itself; however, none of these reported cases were well described, documented, or illustrated with high-resolution imaging.

OBSERVATIONS

Here the authors present the case of an intraneural ganglion cyst arising from the knee joint and causing intermittent weakness and pain. The articular branch to the knee joint was clearly demonstrated on high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging and confirmed at surgical exploration. The patient was treated with articular branch ligation and has had complete resolution of his symptoms without recurrence of the cyst on follow-up imaging.

LESSONS

This case adds to the mounting evidence that intraneural cyst pathology is dependent on a connection to a synovial joint as stated in the unifying theory of intraneural cyst development.