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Open access

Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome with scoliosis treated with single-stage posterior spinal fusion: illustrative case

Takeshi Imai, Daisuke Sakai, Jordy Schol, Toshihiro Nagai, Akihiko Hiyama, Hiroyuki Katoh, Masato Sato, and Masahiko Watanabe

BACKGROUND

Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RTS) is a rare disorder with a range of congenital anomalies. Although 40% to 60% of patients with RTS have scoliotic deformities, few reports discuss the outcomes of correctional surgery and postoperative care. To raise awareness of the clinical features of RTS and surgical considerations, the authors report on the surgical treatment of a pediatric patient with RTS accompanied by scoliosis.

OBSERVATIONS

A 14-year-old girl with RTS presented with low back pain associated with progressive scoliosis. Because of jaw hypoplasia, videolaryngoscopy-mediated intubation was chosen. A single-stage T4–L3 posterior corrective fusion with instrumentation was successfully performed. Physical and imaging findings were analyzed up to 2 years after correction. The main thoracic Cobb angle was corrected from 73° to 12° and maintained for 2 years after surgery. The patient’s low back pain resolved.

LESSONS

Careful consideration of RTS-associated complications and preoperative planning, including the use of videolaryngoscopy-mediated intubation, anesthesia selection, and postoperative care, proved crucial. Scoliosis may appear in many variations in rare diseases such as RTS. Publication of case reports such as this one is needed to provide detailed information about strategies and considerations for correcting scoliotic deformities in patients with RTS.

Open access

Evaluation of tortuous vertebral arteries before cervical spine surgery: illustrative case

J. Manuel Sarmiento, Justin D. Cohen, Robin M. Babadjouni, Miguel D. Quintero-Consuegra, Nestor R. Gonzalez, and Tiffany G. Perry

BACKGROUND

Cervical spine surgery sometimes necessitates complex ventral/dorsal approaches or osteotomies that place the vertebral artery (VA) at risk of inadvertent injury. Tortuosity of the VA poses increased risk of vessel injury during anterior decompression or placement of posterior instrumentation.

OBSERVATIONS

In this report, the authors describe a patient with degenerative cervical spondylotic myelopathy and focal kyphotic deformity requiring corrective surgery via a combined ventral/dorsal approach. Computed tomography (CT) and CT angiography (CTA) of the spine identified a left medially enlarged C4 transverse foramen and tortuous VA V2 segment forming a potentially dangerous medial loop into the vertebral body, respectively. The patient’s presentation and management are described.

LESSONS

The course of the VA is variable, and a tortuous VA with significant medial or lateral displacement may be dangerous during ventral and dorsal approaches to the cervical spine. CTA of the cervical spine is warranted in cases in which atlantoaxial fixation is needed or suspicious transverse foramen morphology is identified to understand the course of the VA and identify anatomical variations that would put the VA at risk during cervical spine surgery.

Open access

Short lever arm, bipedicular handlebar construct for correction of acute angular kyphosis in spondylodiscitis-induced kyphotic deformity: illustrative case

Meng Huang, Iahn Cajigas, and Steven Vanni

BACKGROUND

Pyogenic spondylodiscitis diminishes spinal structural integrity via disruption of the anterior and middle column, sometimes further compounded by iatrogenic violation of the posterior tension band during initial posterior decompressive surgeries. Although medical management is typically sufficient, refractory infection or progressive deformity may require aggressive debridement and reconstructive arthrodesis. Although anterior debridement plus reconstruction with posterior stabilization is an effective treatment option, existing techniques have limited efficacy for correcting focal deformity, leaving patients at risk for long-term sagittal imbalance, pain, and disability.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors present a case of chronic lumbar pyogenic spondylodiscitis in a patient in whom initial surgical debridement failed and pronounced angular kyphosis and intractable low back pain developed. A novel bipedicular handlebar construct was used to achieve angular correction of the kyphosis through simultaneous anterior interbody grafting and posterior instrumentation with the patient in the lateral position.

LESSONS

Leveraging both pedicle screws at the same level to transmit controlled corrective distraction forces through the segment allows for kyphosis correction without relying on long posterior constructs for cantilever reduction. Simultaneous anterior reconstruction with a posterior short lever arm, bipedicular handlebar construct is an effective technique for achieving high angular correction during circumferential reconstructive approaches to postinfectious focal kyphotic deformities.

Open access

Remaining spine deformity after revision surgery for pelvic reconstruction and spinopelvic fixation: illustrative case

Takayuki Ito, Shunsuke Fujibayashi, Bungo Otsuki, Shimei Tanida, Takeshi Okamoto, and Shuichi Matsuda

BACKGROUND

Pelvic deformity after resection of malignant pelvic tumors causes scoliosis. Although the central sacral vertical line (CSVL) is often used to evaluate the coronal alignment and determine the treatment strategy for scoliosis, it is not clear whether the CSVL is a suitable coronal reference axis in cases with pelvic deformity. This report proposes a new coronal reference axis for use in cases with pelvic deformity and discusses the pathologies of spinal deformity remaining after revision surgery.

OBSERVATIONS

A 14-year-old boy who had undergone internal hemipelvectomy and pelvic ring reconstruction 2 years prior was referred to our hospital with severe back pain. His physical and radiographic examinations revealed severe scoliosis with pelvic deformity. The authors planned a surgical strategy based on the CSVL and performed pelvic ring reconstruction using free vascularized fibula graft and spinopelvic fixation from L5 to the pelvis. After the procedure, although the patient’s back pain was relieved, his scoliosis persisted. At the latest follow-up, his spinal deformity correction was acceptable with corset bracing. Therefore, the authors did not perform additional surgeries.

LESSONS

The CSVL may not be appropriate for evaluating coronal alignment in cases with pelvic deformity. Accurate preoperative planning is required to correct spinal deformities with pelvic deformity.

Open access

Utilization of anterior lumbar interbody fusion for severe kyphotic deformity secondary to Pott’s disease: illustrative case

Gabrielle Luiselli, Rrita Daci, Peter Cruz-Gordillo, Ashwin Panda, Omar Sorour, and Justin Slavin

BACKGROUND

Spinal tuberculosis may result in severe kyphotic deformity. Effective restoration of lordosis and correction of sagittal balance often requires invasive osteotomies associated with significant morbidity. The advantages of focusing on symptomatic management and staging in the initial treatment of these deformities have not been well reported to date.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors reported the case of a 64-year-old Vietnamese woman with a history of spinal tuberculosis who underwent anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) for symptomatic treatment of L5–S1 radiculopathy resulting from fixed kyphotic deformity. Postoperatively, the patient experienced near immediate symptom improvement, and radiographic evidence at 1-year follow-up showed continued lordotic correction of 30° as well as stable sagittal balance.

LESSONS

In this case, an L5–S1 ALIF was sufficient to treat the patient’s acute symptoms and provided satisfactory correction of a tuberculosis-associated fixed kyphotic deformity while effectively delaying more invasive measures, such as a vertebral column resection. Patients with adult spinal deformity may benefit from less invasive staging procedures before treating these deformities with larger surgeries.

Open access

Extended tulip cervical reduction screws to restore alignment in traumatic atlantoaxial dislocation after type 3 odontoid fracture: illustrative case

Christopher F. Dibble, Saad Javeed, Justin K. Zhang, Brenton Pennicooke, Wilson Z. Ray, and Camilo Molina

BACKGROUND

Traumatic atlantoaxial rotatory subluxation after type 3 odontoid fracture is an uncommon presentation that may require complex intraoperative reduction maneuvers and presents challenges to successful instrumentation and fusion.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors report a case of a 39-year-old female patient who sustained a type 3 odontoid fracture. She was neurologically intact and managed in a rigid collar. Four months later, she presented again after a second trauma with acute torticollis and type 2 atlantoaxial subluxation, again neurologically intact. Serial cervical traction was placed with minimal radiographic reduction. Ultimately, she underwent intraoperative reduction, instrumentation, and fusion. Freehand C1 lateral mass reduction screws were placed, then C2 translaminar screws, and finally lateral mass screws at C3 and C4. The C2–4 instrumentation was used as bilateral rod anchors to reduce the C1 lateral mass reduction screws engaged onto the subluxated atlantodental complex. As a final step, cortical allograft spacers were inserted at C1–2 under compression to facilitate long-term stability and fusion.

LESSONS

This is the first description of a technique using extended tulip cervical reduction screws to correct traction-irreducible atlantoaxial subluxation. This case is a demonstration of using intraoperative tools available for the spine surgeon managing complex cervical injuries requiring intraoperative reduction that is resistant to traction reduction.

Open access

Premature spinal fusion after insertion of magnetically controlled growing rods for treatment of early-onset scoliosis: illustrative case

Anna H. Green, Andrzej Brzezinski, Terrence Ishmael, Stephen Adolfsen, and J. Andrew Bowe

BACKGROUND

Magnetically controlled growing rod (MCGR) systems have gained attention for their use in the treatment of early-onset scoliosis. Although traditional growing rods require frequent operations to lengthen the construct, MCGR allows for fewer open procedures and more frequent distractions by externally controlling rod elongation. Despite its appealing advantages, MCGR is not without limitations.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors describe a case of premature spinal autofusion before growing rod removal and termination of rod distraction.

LESSONS

This case highlights the limitations of MCGR systems, including length of use, body habitus restrictions, and risk of autofusion.

Open access

Syrinx regression after correction of iatrogenic kyphotic deformity: illustrative case

Robert Y. North, Timothy J. Yee, Michael J. Strong, Yamaan S. Saadeh, Hugh J. L. Garton, and Paul Park

BACKGROUND

Syringomyelia has a long-established association with pediatric scoliosis, but few data exist on the relationship of syringomyelia to pediatric kyphotic deformities.

OBSERVATIONS

This report reviewed a unique case of rapid and sustained regression of syringomyelia in a 13-year-old girl after surgical correction of iatrogenic kyphotic deformity.

LESSONS

In cases of syringomyelia associated with acquired spinal deformity, treatment of deformity to resolve an associated subarachnoid block should be considered because it may obviate the need for direct treatment of syrinx.

Open access

A 540° posterior-anterior-posterior approach for 360° fused rigid severe cervical kyphosis: patient series

Qiang Jian, Zhenlei Liu, Wanru Duan, Jian Guan, Fengzeng Jian, and Zan Chen

BACKGROUND

Treatment of severe rigid 360° fused cervical kyphosis (CK) is challenging and often requires a combined approach for ankylosis release, establishment of sagittal balance, and fixation with fusion.

OBSERVATIONS

Four patients with iatrogenic 360° fused severe rigid CK (Cobb angle ≥40°) were enrolled for this retrospective analysis. All patients in the case series were female, with an average age of 27 years. All patients previously underwent posterior laminectomy/laminoplasty and cervical tumor resection when they were children (13–17 years). They underwent correction surgery with a 540° posterior-anterior-posterior approach. Preoperative and final follow-up radiography and computed tomography (CT) were used to evaluate kyphosis correction, internal fixation implants, and bone fusion. The preoperative and final follow-up average C2–7 Cobb angles were −32.4° ± 12.0° and 5.3° ± 7.1°, respectively. Preoperative and final follow-up CK angles averaged −47.2° ± 7.4° and −0.9° ± 16.1°, respectively. The mean correction angle was 46.3° ± 9.6°. At final follow-up, CT showed stable fixation and solid bone fusion.

LESSONS

The rare iatrogenic severe kyphosis with 360° ankylosis requires a combined approach. The 540° posterior-anterior-posterior approach can completely release the bony fusion, and the CK can be corrected using an anterior plate. This technique can achieve good results and is an effective strategy.

Open access

Utilization of lateral anterior lumbar interbody fusion for revision of failed prior TLIF: illustrative case

Ghani Haider, Katherine E. Wagner, Venita Chandra, Ivan Cheng, Martin N. Stienen, and Anand Veeravagu

BACKGROUND

The use of the lateral decubitus approach for L5–S1 anterior lumbar interbody fusion (LALIF) is a recent advancement capable of facilitating single-position surgery, revision operations, and anterior column reconstruction. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first description of the use of LALIF at L5–S1 for failed prior transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) and anterior column reconstruction. Using an illustrative case, the authors discuss their experience using LALIF at L5–S1 for the revision of pseudoarthrosis and TLIF failure.

OBSERVATIONS

The patient had prior attempted L2 to S1 fusion with TLIF but suffered from hardware failure and pseudoarthrosis at the L5–S1 level. LALIF was used to facilitate same-position revision at L5–S1 in addition to further anterior column revision and reconstruction by lateral lumbar interbody fusion at the L1–2 level. Robotic posterior T10–S2 fusion was then added to provide stability to the construct and address the patient’s scoliotic deformity. No complications were noted, and the patient was followed until 1 year after the operation with a favorable clinical and radiological result.

LESSONS

Revision of a prior failed L5–S1 TLIF with an LALIF approach has technical challenges but may be advantageous for single position anterior column reconstruction under certain conditions.