Browse

You are looking at 81 - 90 of 3,492 items for :

  • Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics x
  • Refine by Access: all x
Clear All
Restricted access

Predictive factors of hydrocephalus development in pediatric patients undergoing hemispherectomy for intractable epilepsy

Akshay Sharma, Michael Mann, Alan Gordillo, Ansh Desai, Robert Winkleman, Demitre Serletis, Ahsan N. Moosa, Richard Rammo, and William Bingaman

OBJECTIVE

Hemispherectomy surgery is an effective procedure for pediatric patients with intractable hemispheric epilepsy. Hydrocephalus is a well-documented complication of hemispherectomy contributing substantially to patient morbidity. Despite some clinical and operative factors demonstrating an association with hydrocephalus development, the true mechanism of disease is incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to investigate a range of clinical and surgical factors that may contribute to hydrocephalus to enhance understanding of the development of this complication and to aid the clinician in optimizing peri- and postoperative surgical management.

METHODS

A retrospective chart review was conducted on all pediatric patients younger than 21 years who underwent hemispherectomy surgery at the Cleveland Clinic between 2002 and 2016. Data collected for each patient included general demographic information, neurological and surgical history, surgical technique, pathological analysis, presence and duration of perioperative CSF diversion, CSF laboratory values obtained while an external ventricular drain (EVD) was in place, length of hospital stay, postoperative aseptic meningitis, and in-hospital surgical complications (including perioperative stroke, hematoma formation, wound breakdown, and/or infection). Outcomes data included hemispherectomy revision and Engel grade at last follow-up (based on the Engel Epilepsy Surgery Outcome Scale).

RESULTS

Data were collected for 204 pediatric patients who underwent hemispherectomy at the authors’ institution. Twenty-eight patients (14%) developed hydrocephalus requiring CSF diversion. Of these 28 patients, 13 patients (46%) presented with hydrocephalus during the postoperative period (within 90 days), while the remaining 15 patients (54%) presented later (beyond 90 days after surgery). Multivariate analysis revealed postoperative aseptic meningitis (OR 7.0, p = 0.001), anatomical hemispherectomy surgical technique (OR 16.3 for functional/disconnective hemispherectomy and OR 7.6 for modified anatomical, p = 0.004), male sex (OR 4.2, p = 0.012), and surgical complications (OR 3.8, p = 0.031) were associated with an increased risk of hydrocephalus development, while seizure freedom (OR 0.3, p = 0.038) was associated with a decreased risk of hydrocephalus.

CONCLUSIONS

Hydrocephalus remains a prominent complication following hemispherectomy, presenting both in the postoperative period and months to years after surgery. Aseptic meningitis, anatomical hemispherectomy surgical technique, male sex, and surgical complications show an association with an increased rate of hydrocephalus development while seizure freedom postsurgery is associated with a decreased risk of subsequent hydrocephalus. These findings speak to the multifactorial nature of hydrocephalus development and should be considered in the management of pediatric patients undergoing hemispherectomy for medically intractable epilepsy.

Restricted access

Association between hospital volume and in-hospital mortality in pediatric severe traumatic brain injury: a nationwide retrospective observational study in Japan

Shu Utsumi, Shingo Ohki, Takeshi Ueda, Shunsuke Amagasa, Mitsuaki Nishikimi, and Nobuaki Shime

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this study was to investigate the association between hospital volume and in-hospital mortality in pediatric patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI).

METHODS

This retrospective cohort study used data from the Japan Trauma Data Bank between 2010 and 2018, specifically those of pediatric patients with severe TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale [GCS] score < 9 and head Abbreviated Injury Scale score > 2). Hospital volume was defined as the number of pediatric patients with severe TBI throughout the study period. Hospital volume was categorized as low (reference category: 1–9 patients), middle (10–17 patients), or high (> 18 patients) volume. Multivariate mixed-effects logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the association between hospital volume categories and in-hospital mortality. Subgroup analyses were performed using data on craniotomy and the presence of severe torso injuries. In the sensitivity analyses, patients with a GCS score of 3, interhospital transfer, and major intensive care unit complications were excluded.

RESULTS

A total of 1148 pediatric patients with severe TBI, with a median age of 12 years (IQR 7–16 years), treated at 141 hospitals were included. In total, 236 patients (20.6%) died in the hospital. Multivariate analysis showed no significant association between hospital volume and in-hospital mortality (high volume: OR 1.15, 95% CI 0.80–1.64; middle volume: OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.62–1.26). Subgroup and sensitivity analyses showed similar results.

CONCLUSIONS

Hospital volume may not be associated with in-hospital mortality in pediatric patients with severe TBI.

Restricted access

Neurosurgery trainee well-being in a pediatric neurosurgery hospital: baseline data to motivate toward implementing change

Maryam N. Shahin, V. Jane Horak, Hanna Kemeny, Mark W. Youngblood, Sandi K. Lam, and Jeffrey S. Raskin

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this study was to obtain aggregated baseline pediatric neurosurgery well-being data at a tertiary care institution.

METHODS

An institutional grant funded the completion of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) by 100% (n = 13) of the trainees during a 1-year period, including 1 pediatric neurosurgery fellow and 12 residents from 4 regional neurosurgery training programs. Aggregated and anonymized group results included frequency scores ranging from 0 (never) to 6 (every day). The mean ± SD group scores were compared to the general population of > 11,000 people in the human services professions. Burnout profiles were calculated on the basis of MBI scale scores by using established comparisons to standardized normal values. Burnout profile types include engaged, ineffective, overextended, disengaged, and burnout.

RESULTS

The mean ± SD score for emotional exhaustion was 2.6 ± 1.1 for trainees compared with 2.3 ± 1.2 in the comparison population. The mean ± SD score for depersonalization was 1.6 ± 1 compared with 1.7 ± 1.2 in the comparison population. The mean ± SD score for personal accomplishment was 4.9 ± 0.7 compared with 4.3 ± 0.9 in the comparison population. Profiles were classified as engaged (n = 6), ineffective (n = 3), overextended (n = 3), and burnout (n = 1).

CONCLUSIONS

Problematic profiles were present for more than half (7 [53.8%]) of pediatric neurosurgery trainees who cited higher emotional exhaustion than the general population of healthcare providers. Trainees scored lower in depersonalization and higher in personal accomplishment compared with the general population, which are both protective against burnout. Targeting factors that contribute to emotional exhaustion may have an impact on improving the overall well-being of pediatric neurosurgery trainees.

Restricted access

Nomogram for preoperative estimation of symptomatic subdural hygroma risk in pediatric intracranial arachnoid cysts

Heng Zhao, Yufan Chen, Shuaiwei Tian, Baocheng Wang, Yang Zhao, and Jie Ma

OBJECTIVE

The occurrence and predictors of symptomatic subdural hygroma (SSH) subsequent to the fenestration of pediatric intracranial arachnoid cysts (IACs) are unclear. In this study, the authors aimed to investigate the likelihood of an SSH following IAC fenestration and the impact on operative efficacy with the ultimate goal of constructing a nomogram.

METHODS

The medical records of 1782 consecutive patients who underwent surgical treatment at the Xin Hua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine were reviewed. Among these patients, a training cohort (n = 1214) underwent surgery during an earlier period and was used for the development of a nomogram. The remaining patients formed the validation cohort (n = 568) and were used to confirm the performance of the developed model. The development of the nomogram involved the use of potential predictors, while internal validation was conducted using a bootstrap-resampling approach.

RESULTS

SSH was detected in 13.2% (160 of 1214) of patients in the training cohort and in 11.1% (63 of 568) of patients in the validation cohort. Through multivariate analysis, several factors including Galassi type, IAC distance to the basal cisterns, temporal bulge, midline shift, IAC shape in the coronal view, area of the stoma, and artery location near the stoma were identified as independent predictors of SSH. These 7 predictors were used to construct a nomogram, which exhibited a concordance statistic (C-statistic) of 0.826 and demonstrated good calibration. Following internal validation, the nomogram maintained good calibration and discrimination with a C-statistic of 0.799 (95% CI 0.665–0.841). Patients who had nomogram scores < 30 or ≥ 30 were considered to be at low and high risk of SSH occurrence, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS

The predictive model and derived nomogram achieved satisfactory preoperative prediction of SSH. Using this nomogram, the risk for an individual patient can be estimated, and the appropriate surgery can be performed in high-risk patients.

Open access

Safety and efficacy of intrathecal baclofen trials for the treatment of hypertonia: a retrospective cohort study

Sunny Abdelmageed, Victoria Jane Horak, James Mossner, Ryan Wang, Timothy Krater, and Jeffrey S. Raskin

OBJECTIVE

Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) is an effective treatment for refractory hypertonia in children. ITB has long been effective for the treatment of spasticity, and indications have naturally evolved to include dystonia and mixed pediatric movement disorders (PMDs). The established uses for ITB trials are insurance prerequisite, mixed tone, and family request. Despite agreement for ITB therapy by a multidisciplinary group of subspecialists in a complex PMD program, insurance companies often require an ITB trial be performed. A longitudinal cohort was identified to determine the safety and efficacy of ITB trials and to determine the utility of test dosing in this population.

METHODS

Retrospective data analysis was performed for patients with hypertonia who underwent ITB bolus trials at the authors’ institution between 2021 and 2023. Nonmodifiable risk factors and clinical variables were collected.

RESULTS

Thirty-one patients (11 female) underwent 32 ITB trials. Of these patients, 67.7% had a diagnosis of mixed hypertonia, 32.3% pure spasticity, and 9.1% secondary dystonia. The mean age at test dose was 12.8 years, and 58.1% of patients were born premature. The mode Gross Motor Function Classification System score was 5. The mean difference in Barry-Albright Dystonia Scale (BADS) scores was −7.33 points (p = 0.01) at 2.5 hours postoperatively. The mean difference in upper-extremity modified Ashworth Scale (mAS) scores was −5.36 points (p = 0.003), and that for lower-extremity mAS scores was −6.61 (p < 0.001). In total, 21.9% of patients developed a post–dural puncture headache. Conversion to a permanent baclofen pump was performed in 22/32 (68.8%) patients. Of those who did not pursue pump placement, 1 patient had high surgical risk, 1 had an ineffective response, 1 had a bad reaction to the test dose and cited both regression and increased discomfort, and 2 declined despite an effective trial owing to family preferences.

CONCLUSIONS

ITB trials require hospitalization in some form and carry risks of procedural complications. The decision to pursue a trial should be made on a case-by-case basis by clinicians and should not be determined by insurance companies. The complication rate of ITB trials is high, and a test dose is unnecessary in this fragile population.

Restricted access

Management and outcomes of pediatric traumatic brain injury in Africa: a systematic review

Nithin Gupta, Varun Kasula, Romaric Waguia Kouam, Andreas Seas, Ignatius Esene, Adefolarin O. Malomo, Matthew T. Shokunbi, Michael M. Haglund, Anthony T. Fuller, and Alvan-Emeka K. Ukachukwu

OBJECTIVE

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) carries a major global burden of disease; however, it is well established that patients in low- and middle-income countries, such as those in Africa, have higher mortality rates. Pediatric TBI, specifically, is a documented cause for concern as injuries to the developing brain have been shown to lead to cognitive, psychosocial, and motor problems in adulthood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the reported demographics, causes, management, and outcomes of pediatric TBI in Africa.

METHODS

A literature search was conducted using PubMed, Global Index Medicus, Embase, Scopus, Google Scholar, African Journals Online, and Web of Science. Various combinations of "traumatic brain injury," "head injury," "p(a)ediatric," "Africa," and country names were used. Relevant primary data published in the English language were included and subjected to a risk of bias analysis. Variables included age, sex, TBI severity, TBI cause, imaging findings, treatment, complications, and outcome.

RESULTS

After screening, 45 articles comprising 11,635 patients were included. The mean patient age was 6.48 ± 2.13 years, and 66.3% of patients were male. Of patients with reported data, mild, moderate, and severe TBIs were reported in 57.6%, 14.5%, and 27.9% of patients, respectively. Road traffic accidents were the most reported cause of pediatric TBI (50.53%) followed by falls (25.18%). Skull fractures and intracerebral contusions were the most reported imaging findings (28.32% and 16.77%, respectively). The most reported symptoms included loss of consciousness (24.4%) and motor deficits (17.1%). Surgical management was reported in 28.66% of patients, with craniotomy being the most commonly reported procedure (15.04%). Good recovery (Glasgow Outcome Scale score 5, Glasgow Outcome Scale–Extended score 7–8) was reported in 47.17% of patients. Examination of the period post-2015 demonstrated increased spread in the literature regarding pediatric TBI in Africa.

CONCLUSIONS

This study provides a comprehensive overview of the literature regarding pediatric TBI in Africa and how it has evolved alongside global neurosurgical efforts. Although there has been increased involvement from various African countries in the neurosurgical literature, there remains a relative paucity of data on this subject. Standardized reporting protocols for patient care may aid in future studies seeking to synthesize data. Finally, further studies should seek to correlate the trends seen in this study, with primary epidemiological data to gain deeper insight into the disease burden of pediatric TBI in Africa.

Restricted access

Pediatric shunt failure: finding predictability in the sea of uncertainty

Mohammed Nadeem, Vishal Jirankali, Souvik Singha, Gaurav Tyagi, Alok Mohan Uppar, Manish Beniwal, Subhas Kanti Konar, Gyani Jail Singh Birua, Lingaraju Thyagatura, Dhaval Shukla, and Dwarakanath Srinivas

OBJECTIVE

Shunt malfunction is a complication that can have devastating implications. In this study, the authors aimed to evaluate the rate of shunt revision in a single institution over 5 years and to determine the factors associated with shunt revision in the pediatric population.

METHODS

This retrospective report assimilated data from all patients ≤ 18 years old who underwent shunt surgery between January 2015 and April 2021 at the authors’ institute with a minimum of 3 months of follow-up. Patient data regarding demographic characteristics, indications, clinical status, point of entry, operative and CSF findings, revision interval, and cause of failure were collected.

RESULTS

Between January 2015 and April 2021, 1112 pediatric patients underwent initial shunt surgery at the authors’ institute, among whom 934 patients met the inclusion criteria. Ninety-five patients underwent revision (shunt revision rate 10.2%). The cohort comprised 562 male and 368 female patients (no sex was recorded in 4 cases), with infratentorial tumors (37.8%) being the most common indication for the shunt. Multivariate analyses revealed that younger patient age, right-sided shunt, single surgeon, and shunt placement done in the evening and night were significantly associated with shunt failure. Among all the factors analyzed, female sex had the greatest risk of early shunt failure (OR 2.90 [95% CI 1.09–8.16], p = 0.037). The presence of prior external ventricular drainage was associated with an increased risk of multiple revisions (OR 6.67 [95% CI 1.60–32.52], p = 0.012). The most common cause of failure was obstruction, usually at the cranial end. The most common cause of distal failure was malposition of the abdominal end.

CONCLUSIONS

This study identifies various factors associated with shunt failure. Various goal-directed strategies toward modifiable risk factors can significantly improve shunt survival.

Restricted access

Subdural hematoma, retinal hemorrhage, and fracture triad as a clinical predictor for the diagnosis of child abuse

James C. Mamaril-Davis, Katherine Riordan, Hasan Sumdani, Paul Bowlby, Maryam Emami Neyestanak, Lauren Simpson, Anthony M. Avellino, Andrew Tang, and Martin E. Weinand

OBJECTIVE

Nonaccidental trauma (NAT) is a major cause of traumatic death during infancy and early childhood. Several findings are known to raise the index of clinical suspicion: subdural hematoma (SDH), retinal hemorrhage (RH), fracture, and external trauma. Combinations of certain injury types, determined via statistical frequency associations, may assist clinical diagnostic tools when child abuse is suspected. The present study sought to assess the statistical validity of the clinical triad (SDH + RH + fracture) in the diagnosis of child abuse and by extension pediatric NAT.

METHODS

A retrospective review of The University of Arizona Trauma Database was performed. All patients were evaluated for the presence or absence of the components of the clinical triad according to specific International Classification of Diseases (ICD)–10 codes. Injury type combinations included some variation of SDH, RH, all fractures, noncranial fracture, and cranial fracture. Each injury type was then correlated with the ICD-10 codes for child abuse or injury comment keywords. Statistical analysis via contingency tables was then conducted for test characteristics such as sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value.

RESULTS

There were 3149 patients younger than 18 years of age included in the quantitative analysis, all of whom had at least one component of the clinical triad. From these, 372 patients (11.8%) had a diagnosis of child abuse. When compared to a single diagnosis of either SDH, RH, all fractures, noncranial fracture, or cranial fracture, the clinical triad had a significantly greater correlation with the diagnosis of child abuse (100% of cases) (p < 0.0001). The dyad of SDH + RH also had a significantly greater correlation with a child abuse diagnosis compared to single diagnoses (88.9%) (p < 0.0001). The clinical triad of SDH + RH + fracture had a sensitivity of 88.8% (95% CI 87.6%–89.9%), specificity of 100% (95% CI 83.9%–100%), and positive predictive value of 100% (95% CI 99.9%–100%). The dyad of SDH + RH had a sensitivity of 89.1% (95% CI 87.9%–90.1%), specificity of 88.9% (95% CI 74.7%–95.6%), and positive predictive value of 99.9% (95% CI 99.6%–100%). All patients with the clinical triad were younger than 3 years of age.

CONCLUSIONS

When SDH, RH, and fracture were present together, child abuse and by extension pediatric NAT were highly likely to have occurred.

Restricted access

Application of the Rotterdam postoperative cerebellar mutism syndrome prediction model in patients undergoing surgery for medulloblastoma in a single institution

Savannah Bush, Paul Klimo Jr., Arzu Onar-Thomas, Jie Huang, Frederick A. Boop, Amar Gajjar, Giles W. Robinson, and Raja B. Khan

OBJECTIVE

Postoperative cerebellar mutism syndrome (CMS) develops in up to 40% of children with medulloblastoma. The Rotterdam model (RM) has been reported to predict a 66% risk of CMS in patients with a score of ≥ 100. The aim of this study was to retrospectively apply the RM to an independent cohort of patients with newly diagnosed medulloblastoma and study the applicability of the RM in predicting postoperative CMS.

METHODS

Participants had to have their first tumor resection at the authors’ institution and be enrolled in the SJMB12 protocol (NCT01878617). All participants underwent structured serial neurological evaluations before and then periodically after completing radiation therapy. Imaging was reviewed by the study neurologist who was blinded to CMS status when reviewing the scans and retrospectively applied RM score to each participant.

RESULTS

Forty participants were included (14 females and 26 males). Four (10%) patients had CMS. The median age at tumor resection was 11.7 years (range 3.5–17.8 years). Tumor location was midline in 30 (75%), right lateral in 6 (15%), and left lateral in 4 (10%). The median Evans index was 0.3 (range 0.2–0.4), and 34 (85%) patients had an Evans index ≥ 0.3. Five participants required a ventricular shunt. The median tumor volume was 51.97 cm3 (range 20.13–180.58 cm3). Gross-total resection was achieved in 35 (87.5%) patients, near-total resection in 4 (10%), and subtotal in 1. The median RM score was 90 (range 25–145). Eighteen participants had an RM score of ≥ 100, and of these 16.7% (n = 3) had CMS. Of the 22 patients with an RM score < 100, 1 child developed CMS (4.5%, CI 0.1%–22.8%); 3 of the 18 patients with an RM score ≥ 100 developed CMS (16.7%, CI 3.6%–41.4%). The observed rate of CMS in the cohort of children with an RM score ≥ 100 was significantly lower than the observed rate in the original RM cohort (66.7%, CI 51%–80.0%, p < 0.001). A greater risk of CMS in patients with an RM score ≥ 100 could not be confirmed (p = 0.31).

CONCLUSIONS

At the authors’ institution, the incidence of CMS in patients who had an RM ≥ 100 was significantly lower than the RM cohort. These findings raise questions regarding generalizability of RM; however, fewer cases of CMS and a relatively small cohort limit this conclusion.

Restricted access

Letter to the Editor. Intracranial invasive group A streptococcus: importance of culture-independent diagnostics

Louise Kelly, Binu Dinesh, Karina O’Connell, Ciara O’Connor, and Sinead O’Donnell