The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of endovascular treatment (EVT) plus standard medical treatment (SMT) in patients with acute basilar artery occlusion (BAO) within 6 hours of the estimated occlusion time, based on a Chinese population.
The authors selected patients from the Endovascular Treatment of Acute Basilar Artery Occlusion Study (BASILAR) registry, which was a nationwide prospective registry, within 6 hours after the estimated time of onset of a stroke in acute BAO. Patients were divided into the SMT-alone group or the EVT+SMT group according to treatment modalities. The primary outcome was a favorable functional outcome, defined as a modified Rankin Scale score between 0 and 3 at 90 days. Safety outcomes included death at 90 days and symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage.
The authors assessed 590 patients for eligibility. Of these patients, 127 received SMT alone and 463 were treated with EVT plus SMT. EVT was associated with a higher rate of a favorable functional outcome (adjusted OR 3.804, 95% CI 1.890–7.658; p < 0.001) and a lower proportion of deaths at 90 days (adjusted OR 0.364, 95% CI 0.223–0.594; p < 0.001). Lower age (adjusted OR 0.978, 95% CI 0.960–0.997; p = 0.022); lower baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score (adjusted OR 0.926, 95% CI 0.902–0.950; p < 0.001); higher baseline posterior circulation Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (adjusted OR 1.681, 95% CI 1.424–1.984; p < 0.001); absence of diabetes mellitus (adjusted OR 0.482, 95% CI 0.267–0.871; p = 0.016); and modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction scores 2b–3 (adjusted OR 5.117, 95% CI 2.304–11.367; p < 0.001) were independent factors for a favorable outcome in the EVT+SMT group.
Based on the study design, patients with acute BAO who received EVT within 6 hours were associated with improved favorable outcome and decreased deaths compared with patients who received SMT. Predictors of desirable outcome in patients undergoing EVT included lower age, lower baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, higher baseline posterior circulation Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score, absence of diabetes mellitus, and modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction scores 2b–3.