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Jie Yang, Fengli Li, Zhongming Qiu, Yan Wang, Jun Luo, Youlin Wu, Guoyong Zeng, Yue Wan, Shuai Liu, Chengsong Yue, Jiaxing Song, Weidong Luo, Chang Liu, Linyu Li, Ruidi Sun, Jiacheng Huang, Hongfei Sang, Chenhao Zhao, Qingwu Yang, and Wenjie Zi

OBJECTIVE

The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of endovascular treatment (EVT) plus standard medical treatment (SMT) in patients with acute basilar artery occlusion (BAO) within 6 hours of the estimated occlusion time, based on a Chinese population.

METHODS

The authors selected patients from the Endovascular Treatment of Acute Basilar Artery Occlusion Study (BASILAR) registry, which was a nationwide prospective registry, within 6 hours after the estimated time of onset of a stroke in acute BAO. Patients were divided into the SMT-alone group or the EVT+SMT group according to treatment modalities. The primary outcome was a favorable functional outcome, defined as a modified Rankin Scale score between 0 and 3 at 90 days. Safety outcomes included death at 90 days and symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage.

RESULTS

The authors assessed 590 patients for eligibility. Of these patients, 127 received SMT alone and 463 were treated with EVT plus SMT. EVT was associated with a higher rate of a favorable functional outcome (adjusted OR 3.804, 95% CI 1.890–7.658; p < 0.001) and a lower proportion of deaths at 90 days (adjusted OR 0.364, 95% CI 0.223–0.594; p < 0.001). Lower age (adjusted OR 0.978, 95% CI 0.960–0.997; p = 0.022); lower baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score (adjusted OR 0.926, 95% CI 0.902–0.950; p < 0.001); higher baseline posterior circulation Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (adjusted OR 1.681, 95% CI 1.424–1.984; p < 0.001); absence of diabetes mellitus (adjusted OR 0.482, 95% CI 0.267–0.871; p = 0.016); and modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction scores 2b–3 (adjusted OR 5.117, 95% CI 2.304–11.367; p < 0.001) were independent factors for a favorable outcome in the EVT+SMT group.

CONCLUSIONS

Based on the study design, patients with acute BAO who received EVT within 6 hours were associated with improved favorable outcome and decreased deaths compared with patients who received SMT. Predictors of desirable outcome in patients undergoing EVT included lower age, lower baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, higher baseline posterior circulation Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score, absence of diabetes mellitus, and modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction scores 2b–3.

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Kelly B. Mahaney, Chandana Buddhala, Mounica Paturu, Diego M. Morales, Christopher D. Smyser, David D. Limbrick Jr., Santosh E. Gummidipundi, Summer S. Han, and Jennifer M. Strahle

OBJECTIVE

Posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH) following preterm intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is among the most severe sequelae of extreme prematurity and a significant contributor to preterm morbidity and mortality. The authors have previously shown hemoglobin and ferritin to be elevated in the lumbar puncture cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of neonates with PHH. Herein, they evaluated CSF from serial ventricular taps to determine whether neonates with PHH following severe initial ventriculomegaly had higher initial levels and prolonged clearance of CSF hemoglobin and hemoglobin degradation products compared to those in neonates with PHH following moderate initial ventriculomegaly.

METHODS

In this observational cohort study, CSF samples were obtained from serial ventricular taps in premature neonates with severe IVH and subsequent PHH. CSF hemoglobin, ferritin, total iron, total bilirubin, and total protein were quantified using ELISA. Ventriculomegaly on cranial imaging was assessed using the frontal occipital horn ratio (FOHR) and was categorized as severe (FOHR > 0.6) or moderate (FOHR ≤ 0.6).

RESULTS

Ventricular tap CSF hemoglobin (mean) and ferritin (initial and mean) were higher in neonates with severe versus moderate initial ventriculomegaly. CSF hemoglobin, ferritin, total iron, total bilirubin, and total protein decreased in a nonlinear fashion over the weeks following severe IVH. Significantly higher levels of CSF ferritin and total iron were observed in the early weeks following IVH in neonates with severe initial ventriculomegaly than in those with initial moderate ventriculomegaly.

CONCLUSIONS

Among preterm neonates with PHH following severe IVH, elevated CSF hemoglobin, ferritin, and iron were associated with more severe early ventricular enlargement (FOHR > 0.6 vs ≤ 0.6 at first ventricular tap).

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Shih-Shan Lang, Nankee K. Kumar, Chao Zhao, David Y. Zhang, Alexander M. Tucker, Phillip B. Storm, Gregory G. Heuer, Avi A. Gajjar, Chong Tae Kim, Ian Yuan, Susan Sotardi, Todd J. Kilbaugh, and Jimmy W. Huh

OBJECTIVE

Severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of disability and death in the pediatric population. While intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring is the gold standard in acute neurocritical care following pediatric severe TBI, brain tissue oxygen tension (PbtO2) monitoring may also help limit secondary brain injury and improve outcomes. The authors hypothesized that pediatric patients with severe TBI and ICP + PbtO2 monitoring and treatment would have better outcomes than those who underwent ICP-only monitoring and treatment.

METHODS

Patients ≤ 18 years of age with severe TBI who received ICP ± PbtO2 monitoring at a quaternary children’s hospital between 1998 and 2021 were retrospectively reviewed. The relationships between conventional measurements of TBI were evaluated, i.e., ICP, cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), and PbtO2. Differences were analyzed between patients with ICP + PbtO2 versus ICP-only monitoring on hospital and pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) length of stay (LOS), length of intubation, Pediatric Intensity Level of Therapy scale score, and functional outcome using the Glasgow Outcome Score–Extended (GOS-E) scale at 6 months postinjury.

RESULTS

Forty-nine patients, including 19 with ICP + PbtO2 and 30 with ICP only, were analyzed. There was a weak negative association between ICP and PbtO2 (β = −0.04). Conversely, there was a strong positive correlation between CPP ≥ 40 mm Hg and PbtO2 ≥ 15 and ≥ 20 mm Hg (β = 0.30 and β = 0.29, p < 0.001, respectively). An increased number of events of cerebral PbtO2 < 15 mm Hg or < 20 mm Hg were associated with longer hospital (p = 0.01 and p = 0.022, respectively) and PICU (p = 0.015 and p = 0.007, respectively) LOS, increased duration of mechanical ventilation (p = 0.015 when PbtO2 < 15 mm Hg), and an unfavorable 6-month GOS-E score (p = 0.045 and p = 0.022, respectively). An increased number of intracranial hypertension episodes (ICP ≥ 20 mm Hg) were associated with longer hospital (p = 0.007) and PICU (p < 0.001) LOS and longer duration of mechanical ventilation (p < 0.001). Lower minimum hourly and average daily ICP values predicted favorable GOS-E scores (p < 0.001 for both). Patients with ICP + PbtO2 monitoring experienced longer PICU LOS (p = 0.018) compared to patients with ICP-only monitoring, with no significant GOS-E score difference between groups (p = 0.733).

CONCLUSIONS

An increased number of cerebral hypoxic episodes and an increased number of intracranial hypertension episodes resulted in longer hospital LOS and longer duration of mechanical ventilator support. An increased number of cerebral hypoxic episodes also correlated with less favorable functional outcomes. In contrast, lower minimum hourly and average daily ICP values, but not the number of intracranial hypertension episodes, were associated with more favorable functional outcomes. There was a weak correlation between ICP and PbtO2, supporting the importance of multimodal invasive neuromonitoring in pediatric severe TBI.

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Zong-Yu Yu, Ming-Hsuan Chung, Peng-Wei Wang, Yi-Chieh Wu, Hsiang-Chih Liao, and Dueng-Yuan Hueng

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Nikita Lakomkin, Anthony L. Mikula, Zachariah W. Pinter, Elizabeth Wellings, Mohammed Ali Alvi, Kristen M. Scheitler, Zach Pennington, Nathan J. Lee, Brett A. Freedman, Arjun S. Sebastian, Jeremy L. Fogelson, Mohamad Bydon, Michelle J. Clarke, and Benjamin D. Elder

OBJECTIVE

Patients with ankylosing spinal disorders (ASDs), including ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH), have been shown to experience significantly increased rates of postoperative complications. Despite this, very few risk stratification tools have been validated for this population. As such, the purpose of this study was to identify predictors of adverse events and mortality in ASD patients undergoing surgery for 3-column fractures.

METHODS

All adult patients with a documented history of AS or DISH who underwent surgery for a traumatic 3-column fracture between 2000 and 2020 were identified. Perioperative variables, including comorbidities, time to diagnosis, and number of fused segments, were collected. Three instruments, including the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), modified frailty index (mFI), and Injury Severity Score (ISS), were computed for each patient. The primary outcomes of interest included 1-year mortality, as well as postoperative complications.

RESULTS

A total of 108 patients were included, with a mean ± SD age of 73 ± 11 years. Of these, 41 (38%) experienced at least 1 postoperative complication and 22 (20.4%) died within 12 months after surgery. When the authors controlled for potential known confounders, the CCI score was significantly associated with postoperative adverse events (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.00–1.42, p = 0.045) and trended toward significance for mortality (OR 1.19, 95% CI 0.97–1.45, p = 0.098). In contrast, mFI score and ISS were not significantly predictive of either outcome.

CONCLUSIONS

Complications in spine trauma patients with ASD may be driven by comorbidity burden rather than operative or injury-related factors. The CCI may be a valuable tool for the evaluation of this unique population.

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Hirotaka Hasegawa, Akitoshi Inoue, Ahmed Helal, Kosuke Kashiwabara, and Fredric B. Meyer

OBJECTIVE

Pineal cyst (PC) is a relatively common true cyst in the pineal gland. Its long-term natural course remains ill defined. This study aims to evaluate the long-term natural history of PC and examine MRI risk factors for cyst growth and shrinkage to help better define which patients might benefit from surgical intervention.

METHODS

The records and MRI of 409 consecutive patients with PC were retrospectively examined (nonsurgical cohort). Cyst growth and shrinkage were defined as a ≥ 2-mm increase and decrease in cyst diameter in any direction, respectively. In addition to size, MRI signal intensity ratios were analyzed.

RESULTS

The median radiological follow-up period was 10.7 years (interquartile range [IQR] 6.4–14.3 years). The median change in maximal diameter was −0.6 mm (IQR −1.5 to 1.3 mm). During the observation period, cyst growth was confirmed in 21 patients (5.1%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that only age (odds ratio [OR] 0.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.93–0.99, p < 0.01) was significantly associated with cyst growth. No patient required resection during the observation period. Cyst shrinkage was confirmed in 57 patients (13.9%). Multivariate analysis revealed that maximal diameter (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.12–1.35, p < 0.01) and cyst CSF T2 signal intensity ratio (OR 9.06, 95% CI 1.38–6.62 × 101, p = 0.02) were significantly associated with cyst shrinkage.

CONCLUSIONS

Only 5% of PCs, mainly in patients younger than 50 years of age, have the potential to grow, while cyst shrinkage is more likely to occur across all age groups. Younger age is associated with cyst growth, while larger diameter and higher signal intensity on T2-weighted imaging are associated with shrinkage. Surgery is rarely needed for PCs, despite the possibility of a certain degree of growth.

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Pedram Maleknia, Ashritha Reddy Chalamalla, Anastasia Arynchyna-Smith, Leon Dure, Donna Murdaugh, and Brandon G. Rocque

OBJECTIVE

Little is known about the prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with hydrocephalus. In this study, the authors assessed the prevalence of ADHD and its association with clinical and demographic factors, including intellectual disability (ID), a potential factor that can confound the diagnosis of ADHD.

METHODS

The authors conducted a cross-sectional study of children 6–12 years of age with hydrocephalus using parent telephone surveys. The Child and Adolescent Intellectual Disability Screening Questionnaire (CAIDS-Q) and the National Institute for Children’s Health Quality (NICHQ) Vanderbilt Assessment Scale were used to screen for ID and ADHD, respectively. Among children without ID, the authors identified those with ADHD and calculated a prevalence estimate and 95% confidence interval (Wald method). Logistic regression analysis was conducted to compare children with ADHD with those without ADHD based on demographics, family income, parental educational, etiology of hydrocephalus, and primary treatment. As a secondary analysis, the authors compared subjects with ID with those without using the same variables. Multivariable analysis was used to identify factors with independent association with ADHD and ID.

RESULTS

A total of 147 primary caregivers responded to the telephone questionnaire. Seventy-two children (49%) met the cutoff score for ID (CAIDS-Q). The presence of ID was significantly associated with lower family income (p < 0.001). Hydrocephalus etiology (p = 0.051) and initial treatment (p = 0.06) approached significance. Of children without ID (n = 75), 25 demonstrated a likely diagnosis of ADHD on the NICHQ, yielding a prevalence estimate of 0.33 (95% CI 0.22–0.44). No clinical or demographic variable showed significant association with ADHD.

CONCLUSIONS

These data indicate that the prevalence of ADHD among children with hydrocephalus (33%) is higher than among the general population (estimated prevalence in Alabama is 12.5%). ID is also common (49%). Routine screening for ADHD and ID in children with hydrocephalus may help to ensure that adequate resources are provided to optimize functional outcomes across development.

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Long Di, Ashish H. Shah, Anil Mahavadi, Daniel G. Eichberg, Raghuram Reddy, Alexander D. Sanjurjo, Alexis A. Morell, Victor M. Lu, Leonel Ampie, Evan M. Luther, Ricardo J. Komotar, and Michael E. Ivan

OBJECTIVE

Supramaximal resection (SMR) has arisen as a possible surrogate to gross-total resection (GTR) to improve survival in newly diagnosed glioblastoma (nGBM). However, SMR has traditionally been limited to noneloquent regions and its feasibility in eloquent nGBM remains unclear. The authors conducted a retrospective multivariate propensity-matched analysis comparing survival outcomes for patients with left-sided eloquent nGBM undergoing SMR versus GTR.

METHODS

A retrospective review was performed of all patients at our institution who underwent SMR or GTR of a left-sided eloquent nGBM during the period from 2011 to 2020. All patients underwent some form of preoperative or intraoperative functional mapping and underwent awake or asleep craniotomy (craniotomy under general anesthesia); however, awake craniotomy was performed in the majority of patients and the focus of the study was SMR achieved via awake craniotomy and functional mapping with lesionectomy and additional peritumoral fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) resection. Propensity scores were generated controlling for age, tumor location, and preoperative Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) score with the nearest-neighbor algorithm.

RESULTS

A total of 102 patients (48 SMR, 54 GTR) were included in this study. The median overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) for patients receiving SMR were 22.9 and 5.1 months, respectively. Propensity matching resulted in a final cohort of 27 SMR versus 27 GTR patients. SMR conferred improved OS (21.55 vs 15.49 months, p = 0.0098) and PFS (4.51 vs 3.59 months, p = 0.041) compared to GTR. There was no significant difference in postoperative complication rates or KPS score in SMR compared with GTR patients (p = 0.236 and p = 0.736, respectively). In patients receiving SMR, improved OS and PFS showed a dose-dependent relationship with extent of FLAIR resection (EOFR) on log-rank test for trend (p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

SMR by means of awake craniotomy with functional mapping for left-sided eloquent nGBM is safe and confers a survival benefit compared to GTR obtained with lesionectomy alone while preserving postoperative neurological integrity. When tolerated, greater EOFR with SMR may be associated with improved survival.

Open access

Daigo Kojima, Yosuke Akamatsu, Jun Yoshida, Kenya Miyoshi, Hiroshi Kashimura, and Kuniaki Ogasawara

BACKGROUND

The authors report a patient with sagittal sinus thrombosis that was resistant to reported endovascular treatments but successfully recanalized by dragging out the thrombus using a large balloon fixed with an aspiration catheter.

OBSERVATIONS

A 57-year-old man presented with the persistent headache and a simple partial seizure. Diagnostic study with computed tomography and angiography demonstrated the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) thrombosis. Due to the neurological worsening even after systemic heparinization, the patient underwent mechanical thrombectomy. Despite six passes of stent retrievers and a large-bore aspiration catheter, functional recanalization was not achieved. Therefore, the so-called dental floss technique was attempted using a large compliant balloon catheter (Transform 7 × 7 mm). However, the balloon catheter just wobbled along the lesion without recanalization. To restrict the movement of the balloon catheter, the distal shaft of the balloon catheter was fixed with the aspiration catheter, and both the balloon and the aspiration catheter were slowly pulled to drag the thrombus out, resulting in recanalization of cortical veins as well as the SSS.

LESSONS

Dragging the thrombus using a large balloon fixed with an aspiration catheter was a useful technique to retrieve sticky thrombus in the patients with the sinus thrombosis.

Open access

Sarah E. Blitz, J. Tanner McMahon, Joshua I. Chalif, Casey A. Jarvis, David J. Segar, Weston T. Northam, Jason A. Chen, Regan W. Bergmark, Jennifer M. Davis, Sigal Yawetz, and Omar Arnaout

BACKGROUND

Hypercoagulability with thrombosis and associated inflammation has been well-documented in COVID-19, and catastrophic cerebral venous sinus thromboses (CVSTs) have been described. Another COVID-19–related complication is bacterial superinfection, including sinusitis. Here, the authors reported three cases of COVID-19–associated sinusitis, meningitis, and CVST and summarized the literature about septic intracranial thrombotic events as a cause of headache and fever in COVID-19.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors described three adolescent patients with no pertinent past medical history and no prior COVID-19 vaccinations who presented with subacute headaches, photosensitivity, nausea, and vomiting after testing positive for COVID-19. Imaging showed subdural collections, CVST, cerebral edema, and severe sinus disease. Two patients had decline in mental status and progression of neurological symptoms. In all three, emergency cranial and sinonasal washouts uncovered pus that grew polymicrobial cultures. After receiving broad-spectrum antimicrobials and various additional treatments, including two of three patients receiving anticoagulation, all patients eventually became neurologically intact with varying ongoing sequelae.

LESSONS

These cases demonstrated similar original presentations among previously healthy adolescents with COVID-19 infections, concurrent sinusitis precipitating CVST, and subdural empyemas. Better recognition and understanding of the multisystem results of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and the complicated sequelae allows for proper treatment.