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Open access

Joao Paulo Almeida, Dennis Tang, Varun R. Kshettry, Raj Sindwani, and Pablo F. Recinos

This is the case of a 25-year-old woman who had had a previous rupture of a dermoid cyst and now presented with recent MRI scans suggesting further growth of her dermoid cyst. Her lesion was located in the suprasellar space and extended into the interpeduncular fossa and prepontine cistern. Considering the location of the tumor, an endoscopic pituitary hemitransposition was selected for its resection. In this video we present the technical nuances and illustrate the anatomy used for an endoscopic endonasal pituitary hemitransposition for resection of a suprasellar dermoid cyst with extension into the interpeduncular fossa. In this case, a near-total resection was achieved, with no complications and no additional hormonal deficit after surgery.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/BHtNf5invUI.

Open access

Mostafa Shahein, Thiago Albonette-Felicio, Giuliano Silveira-Bertazzo, Rafael Martinez-Perez, Marcus Zachariah, Ricardo L. Carrau, and Daniel M. Prevedello

Chordomas are rare tumors that occur at an incidence rate of 0.8 per 100,000. Thirty-five percent of chordomas occur in the spheno-occipital region. We present a case of a clival chordoma that had severe brainstem compression. The patient had a 1-year history of slurred speech and left facial weakness (House-Brackmann 3). The endoscopic endonasal transclival approach gave a panoramic view of the region without the necessity of brain retraction or manipulation of the surrounding cranial nerves. Gross-total resection was achieved and no CSF leak was encountered postoperatively. The left facial weakness improved to House-Brackmann 1.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/DzW9Q6ckTHw.

Open access

Ahmed Mohyeldin, Jayakar V. Nayak, and Juan C. Fernandez-Miranda

Over the past three decades, endoscopic endonasal surgery has unlocked new corridors to treat a wide spectrum of ventral skull base lesions. Tuberculum sella meningiomas represent one of the most ideal pathologies for ventral skull base access. Traditionally, these lesions were approached primarily through various subfrontal and frontal-lateral transcranial approaches that have unfortunately been shown to be associated with worsening visual decline postoperatively. The endoscopic endonasal approach is now being attempted by more surgeons and leverages an infrachiasmatic trajectory that provides direct access to the tuberculum sella where most of the vascular supply for these lesions can be taken early, facilitating more efficient surgical resection and mitigating the risk of optic nerve injury. Here we review a challenging case of a large (∼3 cm) tuberculum sella meningioma, encasing critical vessels off the circle of Willis and resected via an endoscopic endonasal approach. We discuss the technical nuances and relevant surgical anatomy of this approach and highlight important considerations in the safe and successful removal of these meningiomas. We show that certain tumors that appear to encase the supraclinoidal carotid artery can be fully resected via an endonasal approach with precise surgical technique and adequate exposure. Furthermore, this case illustrates the risk of injuring a key perforating vessel from the anterior communicating artery complex, called the subcallosal artery. Injury to this vessel is highly associated with tumors like the one presented here that extend into the suprachiasmatic space between the optic chiasm and the anterior communicating complex. Meticulous surgical dissection is required to preserve this perforating vessel as well as branches from the superior hypophyseal artery. Finally, we review our current closure techniques for these challenging approaches and discuss the use of a lumbar drain for 3 days to lower CSF leak rates.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/mafyXi5B0MA.

Open access

Mina M. Gerges, Brett Youngerman, Vijay K. Anand, Jeffrey P. Greenfield, and Theodore H. Schwartz

An 8-year-old child presented with fatigue, weight loss, and visual deterioration. MRI demonstrated a craniopharyngioma with compression of the optic chiasm and extensive edema on the hypothalamus and optic radiations. The tumor was completely removed via an endoscopic endonasal approach. Postoperatively, vision improved and hypothalamic edema completely resolved within 5 days. This video demonstrates the technical nuances of the surgery and discusses the impact of surgery on the hypothalamic nuclei in pediatric patients.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/wxkBmhTPi6c.

Open access

Ahmed Mohyeldin, Peter Hwang, Gerald A. Grant, and Juan C. Fernandez-Miranda

Pediatric craniopharyngiomas that were once thought to be inoperable or considered only for salvage medical therapy are now being reconsidered for aggressive surgical resection via endoscopic endonasal approaches. Here we review the operative video case of an 11-year-old with a giant complex craniopharyngioma that was resected via an endoscopic endonasal approach. Due to the extent of tumor burden near the basilar apex, a transclival approach was necessary. To accomplish this, a wide sphenoidotomy, posterior ethmoidectomy, and resection of the middle turbinate were necessary to create enough working space for the resection. We also highlight several key innovations in pediatric endoscopic endonasal surgery management and underscore a multidisciplinary approach that allows for the safe and successful treatment of these lesions. Our multidisciplinary team involves an experienced fellowship-trained endoscopic skull base surgeon and otolaryngologist, as well as a pediatric neurosurgeon, pediatric endocrinologist, pediatric anesthesiologist, and pediatric intensivists who play important roles in the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative phases of care of the patient. Finally, we discuss critical surgical decision points including pituitary transposition, which has a lot of conceptual appeal when it is anatomically feasible but unfortunately, in our experience, has low functional preservation rates. Initially, we always aim to utilize pituitary transposition for tuberoinfundibular craniopharyngiomas, and once the relationship between the tumor and the stalk is determined, a decision on whether to preserve or sacrifice the stalk and pituitary gland is made. In this particular case, there was a salvageable stalk and the transposition was performed knowing that the chances for functional preservation were low.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/ClL73FU5QIU.

Open access

Ming-Ying Lan and Wei-Hsin Wang

This is a 37-year-old woman who presented with weight gain, a moon-shaped face, and muscle weakness for 4 months. Cushing’s disease was confirmed after a series of diagnostic tests. MRI demonstrated a pituitary macroadenoma with right cavernous sinus invasion and encasement of the right ICA. An endoscopic endonasal approach was performed, and gross-total resection could be achieved without injury of the cranial nerves. The Cushing’s syndrome improved gradually after the surgery. Histopathology revealed a corticotroph adenoma. In this surgical video, we demonstrate the strategies of tumor resection according to a surgical anatomy-based classification of the cavernous sinus from an endonasal perspective.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/aNXFRdGfjpI.

Open access

Joao Paulo Almeida, Zachary Cappello, Hamid Borghei-Razavi, Pablo F. Recinos, Raj Sindwani, and Varun R. Kshettry

Petroclival chondrosarcomas are a formidable surgical challenge given the close relationship to critical neurovascular structures. The endoscopic endonasal approach can be utilized for many petroclival chondrosarcomas. However, tumors that extend to the inferior petrous apex require working behind the internal carotid artery (ICA). We present a case of a 33-year-old with a 1-year history of complete abducens palsy, with imaging showing an enhancing mass centered at the left petroclival fissure and inferior petrous apex behind the paraclival carotid artery and extending down into the nasopharynx abutting the cervical ICA. In this video, we describe the surgical steps of the endoscopic endonasal translacerum approach with ICA skeletonization and mobilization. We also highlight the relevant surgical anatomy with anatomical dissections to supplement the surgical video. The patient did well without complications. Postoperative MRI demonstrated complete resection and pathology revealed grade II chondrosarcoma. He underwent adjuvant proton beam radiotherapy.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/80QXALJW9ME.

Open access

Satoshi Kiyofuji, Masahiro Shin, Kenji Kondo, Tsukasa Koike, Taichi Kin, and Nobuhito Saito

Cerebellopontine (CP) angle tumors are often resected via retrosigmoid craniotomy; however, sometimes cranial nerves (CNs) make their resection more complex. In such cases, the endoscopic transnasal approach can avoid such manipulations as delivering surgical instruments over CNs or peeling off CNs from the tumor, minimizing the risk of postoperative deficits. A 35-year-old man presented with a 37-mm cystic tumor in the right CP angle, and preoperative 3D fusion images revealed that multiple CNs (VII, VIII, and lower CNs) were running on the tumor posteriorly. The endoscopic transnasal approach enabled safe subtotal resection without causing neurological deficits, and the patient underwent stereotactic radiosurgery for the residual schwannoma.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/xKLwdDsLpWA.

Open access

Rafael Martínez-Pérez, Marcus Zachariah, Ruychen Li, Giuliano Silveira-Bertazzo, Ricardo L. Carrau, and Daniel M. Prevedello

Atypical trigeminal schwannomas (ATSs) are notorious for their ability to invade the skull base. An expanded endoscopic endonasal approach (eEEA) provides direct access to the tumor with no need for cerebral retraction or manipulation of neurovascular structures. Herein, we present a case of a large temporal fossa extradural lesion with secondary invasion of the sella, clivus, and temporal and infratemporal fossae in a 49-year-old male with severe vision loss. A transpterygoid transmaxillary approach was performed. Gross-total removal was achieved and pathology revealed the diagnosis of ATS. Visual function fully recovered in the right side and the patient has been uneventfully followed since surgery.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/6pSwdYsN9hk.

Open access

Giulia Cossu, Tyler Atkins, Steven D. Hajdu, Francesco Puccinelli, Roy T. Daniel, and Mahmoud Messerer

Carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) is a rare complication after transsphenoidal surgery with only 10 cases published (Ahuja et al., 1992; Cinar et al., 2013; Cossu et al., 2020; Dolenc et al., 1999; Kalia et al., 2009; Karaman et al., 2009; Kocer et al., 2002; Koitschev et al., 2006; Pigott et al., 1989; Takahashi et al., 1969). Intraoperative findings vary from unrecognized events to life-threatening hemorrhages.

We provide a description of the management of an acute CCF occurring during sphenoidotomy in a patient with pituitary apoplexy. Osteotomy performed in the rostrum resulted in a fracture, which extended toward the intracavernous carotid artery.

Bleeding was managed with mechanical compression. Endovascular treatment allowed closure of the fistula through transarterial coiling and glue. Arterial patency was preserved and the patient had no new neurological deficit.

Drilling should be considered over osteotomy for the anterior sphenoidotomy.

The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/0Me23xIVeNI.