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Open access

Taha M. Taka, Chen Yi Yang, Joshua N. Limbo, Alvin Y. Chan, Jordan Davies, Edward C. Kuan, Scott G. Turner, and Frank P. K. Hsu

BACKGROUND

Spindle cell oncocytoma (SCO) of the pituitary gland is an extremely rare nonfunctional World Health Organization grade I tumor. SCOs are often misdiagnosed as nonfunctional pituitary adenomas on the basis of preoperative imaging. They are often hypervascular and locally adherent, which increases hemorrhage risk and limits resection, leading to increased risk of recurrence. The authors report a case of SCO treated at their institution and provide a review of the current literature.

OBSERVATIONS

SCO of the pituitary gland can be a rare cause of progressively growing pituitary tumors that presents similarly to nonfunctional pituitary adenoma. Endoscopic transsphenoidal resection of the tumor by a multidisciplinary team allowed total resection despite local adherence of the tumor. Postoperatively, the patient’s visual symptoms improved with persistence of secondary adrenal insufficiency and secondary hypothyroidism.

LESSONS

Careful resection is needed due to SCO’s characteristic hypervascularity and strong adherence to minimize local structure damage. Long-term follow-up is recommended due to the tendency for recurrence.

Open access

Savannah K. Gibbs, Stephen Fulton, Basanagoud Mudigoudar, Frederick A. Boop, and Shalini Narayana

BACKGROUND

Presurgical mapping of eloquent cortex in young patients undergoing neurosurgery is critical but presents challenges unique to the pediatric population, including motion artifact, noncompliance, and sedation requirements. Furthermore, as bilingualism in children increases, functional mapping of more than one language is becoming increasingly critical. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), a noninvasive brain stimulation technique, is well suited to evaluate language areas in children since it does not require the patient to remain still during mapping.

OBSERVATIONS

A 13-year-old bilingual male with glioblastoma multiforme involving the left parietal lobe and deep occipital white matter underwent preoperative language mapping using magnetic resonance imaging-guided TMS. Language-specific cortices were successfully identified in both hemispheres. TMS findings aided in discussing with the family the risks of postsurgical deficits of tumor resection; postoperatively, the patient had intact bilingual speech and was referred for chemotherapy and radiation.

LESSONS

The authors’ findings add to the evolving case for preoperative dual language mapping in bilingual neurosurgical candidates. The authors illustrate the feasibility and utility of TMS as a noninvasive functional mapping tool in this child. TMS is safe, effective, and can be used for preoperative mapping of language cortex in bilingual children to aid in surgical planning and discussion with families.

Open access

Yiming Li, Jiahe Guo, Huijie Wei, Cuiyun Sun, Yan Chai, Xiuwei Fu, Kai Zhang, Shengping Yu, and Xuejun Yang

BACKGROUND

Dysplastic gangliocytoma of the cerebellum (Lhermitte-Duclos disease) is an extremely rare, slow-growing hereditary mass lesion that is mainly characterized by both specific neuroradiological features and secondary hydrocephalus. Patients may present with symptoms of cerebellar mass lesion and increased intracranial pressure. As an important part of Cowden syndrome, Lhermitte-Duclos disease in adults is typically marked by PTEN gene mutation.

OBSERVATIONS

The clinical management of a 31-year-old woman who suffered Lhermitte-Duclos disease was introduced in this case report. Subtotal resection was performed with the assistance of intraoperative sonography to relieve obstructive hydrocephalus, and prophylactic C1 laminectomy was performed to prevent possible postoperative progression of the residual lesion. Perioperative care and surgical process were clearly revealed in an accompanying video. Intraoperative sonography of Lhermitte-Duclos disease presents hyperechoic distorted thickening cortices surrounded by hypoechoic edema belt. The patient did not report any significant neurological complications or sequelae after the lesion resection.

LESSONS

The authors first reported the use of intraoperative sonography in resection of adult-onset Lhermitte-Duclos disease. Hopefully, the educative case report can provide a feasible experience in the diagnosis and treatment of Lhermitte-Duclos disease.

Open access

Yasufumi Ohtake, Makoto Senoo, Mamoru Fukuda, Yuuki Ishida, Ryunosuke Yoshihara, Kohei Ishikawa, Tomoki Fuchizaki, Tomoaki Ishizuka, Naoyasu Okamura, and Hirohiko Nakamura

BACKGROUND

Idiopathic spinal cord herniation (ISCH) is very rare. Some reports have described postoperative ventral cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collections in patients with ISCH; however, such collections are asymptomatic in most patients, and there is no consensus regarding whether they are part of the natural history or a complication.

OBSERVATIONS

A 30-year-old man with ISCH underwent direct closure of a duplicated dura mater. Eight months postoperatively, he developed reworsening of right lower limb paresis and new severe right arm pain and paresis. Three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging revealed ventral CSF collections, which the authors judged as the responsible lesions. The authors initially considered these collections to be present in the epidural space, extradurally compressing the dural sac and resulting in myelopathy. An epidural blood patch failed; however, a CSF drainage test resulted in dramatic improvement. The authors therefore determined that the CSF collections were located in the interdural space, not the epidural space. A lumboperitoneal (LP) shunt was performed to reduce the CSF pressure. The patient’s symptoms improved immediately postoperatively. He had developed no recurrence of symptoms 6 months after surgery.

LESSONS

Ventral interdural CSF collections after ISCH surgery can cause reworsening of myelopathy and may be cured by a LP shunt to control CSF pressure.

Restricted access

Satoshi Inami, Hiroshi Moridaira, Daisaku Takeuchi, Tsuyoshi Sorimachi, Haruki Ueda, Hiromichi Aoki, Takuya Iimura, Yutaka Nohara, and Hiroshi Taneichi

OBJECTIVE

Previous studies have demonstrated that Lenke lumbar modifier A contains 2 distinct types (AR and AL), and the AR curve pattern is likely to develop adding-on (i.e., a progressive increase in the number of vertebrae included within the primary curve distally after posterior surgery). However, the results of anterior surgery are unknown. The purpose of this study was to present the surgical results in a cohort of patients undergoing scoliosis treatment for type 1AR curves and to compare anterior and posterior surgeries to consider the ideal indications and advantages of anterior surgery for type 1AR curves.

METHODS

Patients with a Lenke type 1 or 2 and lumbar modifier AR (L4 vertebral tilt to the right) and a minimum 2-year postoperative follow-up were included. The incidence of adding-on and radiographic data were compared between the anterior and posterior surgery groups. The numbers of levels between the end, stable, neutral, and last touching vertebra to the lower instrumented vertebra (LIV) were also evaluated.

RESULTS

Forty-four patients with a mean follow-up of 57 months were included. There were 14 patients in the anterior group and 30 patients in the posterior group. The main thoracic Cobb angle was not significantly different between the groups preoperatively and at final follow-up. At final follow-up, the anterior group had significantly less tilting of the LIV than the posterior group (−0.8° ± 4.5° vs 3° ± 4°). Distal adding-on was observed in no patient in the anterior group and in 6 patients in the posterior group at final follow-up (p = 0.025). In the anterior group, no LIV was set below the end vertebra, and all LIVs were set above last touching vertebra. The LIV was significantly more proximal in the anterior group than in the posterior surgery patients without adding-on for all reference vertebrae (p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

This is the first study to investigate the surgical results of anterior surgery for Lenke type 1AR curve patterns, and it showed that anterior surgery for the curves could minimize the distal extent of the instrumented fusion without adding-on. This would leave more mobile disc space below the fusion.

Restricted access

Shih-Shan Lang, Alexander M. Tucker, Craig Schreiber, Phillip B. Storm, Hongyan Liu, Yimei Li, Rebecca Ichord, Lauren A. Beslow, Neda I. Sedora-Roman, Mougnyan Cox, Hussein Nasser, Arastoo Vossough, Michael J. Fisher, Todd J. Kilbaugh, and Jimmy W. Huh

OBJECTIVE

Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is commonly performed after pial synangiosis surgery for pediatric moyamoya disease to assess the degree of neovascularization. However, angiography is invasive, and the risk of ionizing radiation is a concern in children. In this study, the authors aimed to identify whether arterial spin labeling (ASL) can predict postoperative angiogram grading. In addition, they sought to determine whether patients who underwent ASL imaging without DSA had similar postoperative outcomes when compared with patients who received ASL imaging and postoperative DSA.

METHODS

The medical records of pediatric patients who underwent pial synangiosis for moyamoya disease at a quaternary children’s hospital were reviewed during a 10-year period. ASL-only and ASL+DSA cohorts were analyzed. The frequency of preoperative and postoperative symptoms was analyzed within each cohort. Three neuroradiologists assigned a visual ASL grade for each patient indicating the change from the preoperative to postoperative ASL perfusion sequences. A postoperative neovascularization grade was also assigned for patients who underwent DSA.

RESULTS

Overall, 21 hemispheres of 14 patients with ASL only and 14 hemispheres of 8 patients with ASL+DSA were analyzed. The groups had similar rates of MRI evidence of acute or chronic stroke preoperatively (61.9% in the ASL-only group and 64.3% in the ASL+DSA group). In the entire cohort, transient ischemic attack (TIA) (p = 0.027), TIA composite (TIA or unexplained neurological symptoms; p = 0.0006), chronic headaches (p = 0.035), aphasia (p = 0.019), and weakness (p = 0.001) all had decreased frequency after intervention. The authors found a positive association between revascularization observed on DSA and the visual ASL grading (p = 0.048). The visual ASL grades in patients with an angiogram indicating robust neovascularization demonstrated improved perfusion when compared with the ASL grades of patients with a poor neovascularization.

CONCLUSIONS

Noninvasive ASL perfusion imaging had an association with postoperative DSA neoangiogenesis following pial synangiosis surgery in children. There were no significant postoperative stroke differences between the ASL-only and ASL+DSA cohorts. Both cohorts demonstrated significant improvement in preoperative symptoms after surgery. Further study in larger cohorts is necessary to determine whether the results of this study are validated in order to circumvent the invasive catheter angiogram.

Restricted access

Franz E. Babl, Vanessa C. Rausa, Meredith L. Borland, Amit Kochar, Mark D. Lyttle, Natalie Phillips, Yuri Gilhotra, Sarah Dalton, John A. Cheek, Jeremy Furyk, Jocelyn Neutze, Silvia Bressan, Gavin A. Davis, Vicki Anderson, Amanda Williams, Ed Oakley, Stuart R. Dalziel, Louise M. Crowe, and Stephen J. C. Hearps

OBJECTIVE

Children with concussion frequently present to emergency departments (EDs). There is limited understanding of the differences in signs, symptoms, and epidemiology of concussion based on patient age. Here, the authors set out to assess the association between age and acute concussion presentations.

METHODS

The authors conducted a multicenter prospective observational study of head injuries at 10 EDs in Australia and New Zealand. They identified children aged 5 to < 18 years, presenting with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 13–15, presenting < 24 hours postinjury, with no abnormalities on CT if performed, and one or more signs or symptoms of concussion. They extracted demographic, injury-related, and signs and symptoms information and stratified it by age group (5–8, 9–12, 13 to < 18 years).

RESULTS

Of 8857 children aged 5 to < 18 years, 4709 patients met the defined concussion criteria (5–8 years, n = 1546; 9–12 years, n = 1617; 13 to < 18 years, n = 1546). The mean age of the cohort was 10.9 years, and approximately 70% of the patients were male. Sport-related concussion accounted for 43.7% of concussions overall, increasing from 19.1% to 48.9% to 63.0% in the 5–8, 9–12, and 13 to < 18 years age groups. The most common acute symptoms postinjury were headache (64.6%), disorientation (36.2%), amnesia (30.0%), and vomiting (27.2%). Vomiting decreased with increasing age and was observed in 41.7% of the 5–8 years group, 24.7% of the 9–12 years group, and 15.4% of the 13 to < 18 years group, whereas reported loss of consciousness (LOC) increased with increasing age, occurring in 9.6% in the 5–8 years group, 21.0% in the 9–12 years group, 36.7% in the 13 to < 18 years group, and 22.4% in the entire study cohort. Headache, amnesia, and disorientation followed the latter trajectory. Symptom profiles were broadly similar between males and females.

CONCLUSIONS

Concussions presenting to EDs were more sports-related as age increased. Signs and symptoms differed markedly across age groups, with vomiting decreasing and headache, LOC, amnesia, and disorientation increasing with increasing age.

Restricted access

Sarfraz Akmal, Fareed Jumah, Elizabeth E. Ginalis, Bharath Raju, and Anil Nanda

Charles Jacques Bouchard was a distinguished French physician and scientist of the early 19th century. Despite his humble beginnings, Bouchard was able to achieve meteoric success within the scientific and medical fields, establishing himself as one of the most influential physician-scientists of his time. This was in part due to his superb commitment, as well as the prosperity engendered by the strong influence of his teachers, which can be seen as a testament to the importance of mentorship in medicine. Besides his myriad contributions, Bouchard is most well known for describing the Charcot-Bouchard aneurysm in 1866 alongside his mentor Jean-Martin Charcot, linking them for the first time to intracranial hemorrhage. Bouchard’s thesis entitled “A Study of Some Points in the Pathology of Cerebral Hemorrhage” was regarded by some as the most original and important of all recent works on the subject of cerebral hemorrhage at the time of publication. Sadly, the great relationship Bouchard shared with his mentor Charcot would later deteriorate into perhaps one of the most well-known student-mentor quarrels in the history of medicine. Herein, the authors present a historical recollection of Bouchard’s life, career, and contributions to medicine, as well as the famous controversy with Jean-Martin Charcot.

Open access

Usman A. Khan, Jillian H. Plonsker, Rick A. Friedman, and Marc S. Schwartz

The natural history of neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is profound bilateral hearing loss. The decision to pursue microsurgery may be more complicated in NF2 than with sporadic tumors. Schwannomas in NF2 often occur with other skull base tumors. Treatment should be tailored to preserve auditory perception for as long as possible. The authors present the case of a man with NF2 and a vestibular schwannoma who has poor hearing on the same side as a large petrous apex meningioma, both opposite to a well-hearing ear. This case highlights surgical decision-making and technical nuances during resection of collision tumors in NF2.

The video can be found here: https://stream.cadmore.media/r10.3171/2021.7.FOCVID21130

Restricted access

Norimasa Ikeda, Shunsuke Fujibayashi, Bungo Otsuki, Kazutaka Masamoto, Takayoshi Shimizu, Yu Shimizu, Koichi Murata, and Shuichi Matsuda

OBJECTIVE

The goal of this study was to investigate clinical outcomes and risk factors for the progression of sacroiliac joint (SIJ) degeneration and bone formation after S2 alar-iliac screw (S2AIS) insertion.

METHODS

Using preoperative and follow-up CT scan findings (median follow-up 26 months, range 16–43 months), the authors retrospectively studied 100 SIJs in 50 patients who underwent S2AIS placement. The authors measured the progression of SIJ degeneration and bone formation after S2AIS insertion, postoperative new-onset SIJ pain, S2AIS-related reoperation, and instrumentation failures. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression modeling was performed to clarify the risk factors associated with the progression of SIJ degeneration.

RESULTS

Significant progression of SIJ degeneration was observed in 10% of the group with preoperative SIJ degeneration (p = 0.01). Bone formation was observed in 6.9% of joints. None of the patients with these radiographic changes had new-onset SIJ pain or underwent reoperation related to instrumentation failures. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that preoperative SIJ degeneration (p < 0.01) and a young age at surgery (p = 0.03) significantly affected the progression of SIJ degeneration.

CONCLUSIONS

The progression of SIJ degeneration and bone formation neither led to major screw-related complications nor affected the postoperative clinical course during the median follow-up period of 26 months. Although S2AIS insertion is a safe procedure for most patients, the results of this study suggested that preoperative degeneration and younger age at surgery affected SIJ degeneration after S2AIS insertion. Further long-term observation may reveal other effects of S2AIS insertion on SIJ degeneration.