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Open access

Hidenori Matsuoka, Michihisa Narikiyo, So Ohashi, Ryo Nogami, Hirokazu Nagasaki, and Yoshifumi Tsuboi

BACKGROUND

Superficial hemosiderosis (SS) of the central nervous system is a rare condition that is caused by chronic, repeated hemorrhage into the subarachnoid space. The subsequent deposition of hemosiderin in the brain and spinal cord causes neurological deterioration. In this report, the authors describe a repair procedure for SS associated with a dural defect in the thoracic spine.

OBSERVATIONS

A 75-year-old man presented with tinnitus symptoms that began about 1 year prior. Subsequently, his hearing loss progressed, and he gradually became unsteady on walking. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head showed diffuse hemosiderin deposition on the surface of the cerebellum. Thoracic MRI showed ventral cerebrospinal fluid leakage of T2–7, and computed tomography myelography showed leakage of contrast medium that appeared to be a dural defect. Dural closure was successful, and MRI showed decreased fluid collection ventral to the dura. The patient’s symptoms of wobbliness on walking and tinnitus improved dramatically from the postoperative period.

LESSONS

Dural abnormalities of the spine must always be considered as one of the causes of SS. Early dural closure is an effective means of preventing the progression of symptoms.

Open access

Gabrielle W. Johnson, Ali Y. Mian, Sonika Dahiya, Keith M. Rich, Michael R. Chicoine, and David D. Limbrick Jr.

BACKGROUND

Choroid plexus papillomas are benign tumors of the choroid plexus. Although typically focal, they can metastasize. Rarely, patients may present with numerous cystic lesions throughout the craniospinal axis.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors present three cases of pathologically confirmed fourth ventricular World Health Organization (WHO) grade 1 choroid plexus papillomas presenting with numerous cystic lesions throughout the craniospinal axis. Two cases were treated with only resection of the fourth ventricular mass; one was treated with a partial cyst fenestration. During follow-up, there was only mild interval growth of the cystic lesions over time, and all patients remained asymptomatic from their cystic lesions. The authors summarize five additional cases of cystic dissemination in the published literature and discuss hypotheses for the pathophysiology of this rare presentation.

LESSONS

Choroid plexus papillomas may present with numerous, widely disseminated cystic lesions within the craniospinal axis. Thus, the authors recommend preoperative and routine imaging of the entire neuroaxis in patients with choroid plexus tumors, regardless of WHO grade. Although the role of adjuvant therapy and cyst fenestration in the treatment of these lesions remains unclear, watchful waiting may be indicated, especially in asymptomatic patients, because the lesions often demonstrate slow, if any, growth over time.

Open access

Tobias Rossmann, Michael Veldeman, Ville Nurminen, Rahul Raj, and Mika Niemelä

BACKGROUND

Dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVF) may induce imaging findings attributable to various disease entities including malignant neoplasms. In these cases, diagnosis and adequate treatment are often delayed and patients may be exposed to spurious treatments in addition to the risks inherent to an untreated dAVF with cortical venous drainage.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors report a case of a patient referred for surgical treatment of a supratentorial high-grade glioma. Thorough review of imaging data challenged the initial radiological diagnosis and led to proper angiographic workup. As a result, a high-grade dAVF was confirmed and successfully embolized. In addition to this case, we provide an extensive literature review on dAVF initially diagnosed as cerebral neoplasms, including clinical, imaging and follow-up data.

LESSONS

The literature provides diagnostic criteria for dAVF on magnetic resonance imaging; however, those criteria may be only partly applicable in many cases. Misdiagnosis of a neoplasm due to dAVF has been reported but remains rare, especially in supratentorial lesions. Digital subtraction angiography should be pursued to rule out an underlying vascular pathology if any doubt. This may prevent unnecessary interventions such as biopsies, pharmacological treatment and a delay in dAVF treatment, given its associated risk of hemorrhage and nonhemorrhagic neurological deficits.

Open access

Hassan Kadri, Ghiath Hamed, and Anas Anbari

BACKGROUND

Chiasmatic and optic track lymphoma as the primary lesion of the central nervous system (CNS) is extremely rare.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors report a case of a previously healthy 62-year-old woman who presented with quick and progressive visual impairment leading to bilateral blindness. Brain imaging studies suggested glioma or lymphoma of the chiasm and the posterior visual pathway. Postoperative examination revealed low-grade malignant B-cell lymphoma. No evidence of extracranial lymphoma was found, so a final diagnosis of primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) was made.

LESSONS

To the authors’ knowledge, PCNSL confined to the optic chiasm has rarely been reported in nonimmunocompromised patients. The present case of lymphoma affecting the optic chiasm and optic tract is extremely rare.

Open access

Lance M. Villeneuve, Murali Nagarajan, Benjamin O. Cornwell, Laura Propester, Xiaochun Zhao, Jami Valenzuela, Joanna Gernsback, Virendra Desai, and Andrew Jea

BACKGROUND

“Torcular pseudomass,” or redundant soft tissue in the torcular region, is not an infrequent incidental finding on advanced imaging of the brain in infants and young children. It was recently codified among pediatric neuroradiologists; however, its report in the pediatric neurosurgical community has not previously been elucidated.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors present a case of a 14-month-old child who presented with fever and a first-time seizure. Computed tomography of the head suggested an epidural abscess; however, magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of the lesion were consistent with torcular pseudomass, a normal variant. At the 3-month follow-up, the child was continuing to do well and had not had another seizure. There have been no indications for surgical intervention or additional radiographic surveillance.

LESSONS

The differential diagnosis for torcular pseudomass includes dural venous sinus thrombosis, dermoid cysts, occipital encephalocele, eosinophilic granuloma, and primary and metastatic tumors, such as neuroblastoma. The management of each of these disorders in the differential diagnosis may be much more invasive than continued observation in the case of torcular pseudomass. Therefore, it is important for pediatric neurosurgeons to become familiar with this developmental anomaly of the dura and occipital skull.

Restricted access

Ammoren E. Dohm, Joseph D. Tang, Matthew N. Mills, Casey L. Liveringhouse, Maria L. Sandoval, Bradford A. Perez, Timothy J. Robinson, Benjamin C. Creelan, Jhanelle E. Gray, Arnold B. Etame, Michael A. Vogelbaum, Peter Forsyth, Hsiang-Hsuan Michael Yu, Daniel E. Oliver, and Kamran A. Ahmed

OBJECTIVE

Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) and epidermal growth factor receptor–tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) are commonly used in the systemic management of non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) brain metastases (BMs). However, optimizing control of NSCLC BM with stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and various systemic therapies remains an area of investigation.

METHODS

Between 2016 and 2019, the authors identified 171 NSCLC BM patients with 646 BMs treated with single-fraction SRS within 3 months of receiving treatment with ICIs (n = 56; 33%), EGFR-TKI (n = 30; 18%), chemotherapy and ICIs (n = 23; 14%), or standard chemotherapy alone (n = 62; 36%). Time-to-event analysis was conducted, and outcomes included distant intracranial control (DIC), local control (LC), and overall survival from SRS.

RESULTS

The median follow-up from BM diagnosis was 8.9 months (range 0.3–127 months). The 12-month Kaplan-Meier DIC rates were 37%, 53%, 41%, and 21% (p = 0.047) for the ICI, EGFR-TKI, ICI and chemotherapy, and chemotherapy-alone groups, respectively. On multivariate analysis, DIC was improved with EGFR-TKI (HR 0.4, 95% CI 0.3–0.8, p = 0.005) compared with conventional chemotherapy and treatment with SRS before systemic therapy (HR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3–0.9, p = 0.03) compared with after; and LC was improved with SRS before (HR 0.4, 95% CI 0.2–0.9, p = 0.03) or concurrently (HR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1–0.6, p = 0.003) compared with after. No differences in radionecrosis were noted by timing or type of systemic therapy.

CONCLUSIONS

The authors’ analysis showed significant differences in DIC based on receipt of systemic therapy and treatment with SRS before systemic therapy improved DIC. Prospective evaluation of the potential synergism between systemic therapy and SRS in NSCLC BM management is warranted.

Restricted access

Syeda Tabassum, Alexander Ruesch, Deepshikha Acharya, Jason Yang, Filip A. J. Relander, Bradley Scammon, Michael S. Wolf, Jaskaran Rakkar, Robert S. B. Clark, Michael M. McDowell, and Jana M. Kainerstorfer

OBJECTIVE

Intracranial pressure (ICP) is an important therapeutic target in many critical neuropathologies. The current tools for ICP measurements are invasive; hence, these are only selectively applied in critical cases where the benefits surpass the risks. To address the need for low-risk ICP monitoring, the authors developed a noninvasive alternative.

METHODS

The authors recently demonstrated noninvasive quantification of ICP in an animal model by using morphological analysis of microvascular cerebral blood flow (CBF) measured with diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS). The current prospective observational study expanded on this preclinical study by translating the method to pediatric patients. Here, the CBF features, along with mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) data, were used to build a random decision forest, machine learning model for estimation of ICP; the results of this model were compared with those of invasive monitoring.

RESULTS

Fifteen patients (mean age ± SD [range] 9.8 ± 5.1 [0.3–17.5] years; median age [interquartile range] 11 [7.4] years; 10 males and 5 females) who underwent invasive neuromonitoring for any purpose were enrolled. Estimated ICP (ICPest) very closely matched invasive ICP (ICPinv), with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 1.01 mm Hg and 95% limit of agreement of ≤ 1.99 mm Hg for ICPinv 0.01–41.25 mm Hg. When the ICP range (ICPinv 0.01–29.05 mm Hg) was narrowed on the basis of the sample population, both RMSE and limit of agreement improved to 0.81 mm Hg and ≤ 1.6 mm Hg, respectively. In addition, 0.3% of the test samples for ICPinv ≤ 20 mm Hg and 5.4% of the test samples for ICPinv > 20 mm Hg had a limit of agreement > 5 mm Hg, which may be considered the acceptable limit of agreement for clinical validity of ICP sensing. For the narrower case, 0.1% of test samples for ICPinv ≤ 20 mm Hg and 1.1% of the test samples for ICPinv > 20 mm Hg had a limit of agreement > 5 mm Hg. Although the CBF features were crucial, the best prediction accuracy was achieved when these features were combined with MAP and HR data. Lastly, preliminary leave-one-out analysis showed model accuracy with an RMSE of 6 mm Hg and limit of agreement of ≤ 7 mm Hg.

CONCLUSIONS

The authors have shown that DCS may enable ICP monitoring with additional clinical validation. The lower risk of such monitoring would allow ICP to be estimated for a wide spectrum of indications, thereby both reducing the use of invasive monitors and increasing the types of patients who may benefit from ICP-directed therapies.

Restricted access

Nijia Zhang, Di Zhang, Jihang Sun, Hailang Sun, and Ming Ge

OBJECTIVE

Pediatric patients are at risk of persistent hydrocephalus after posterior fossa tumor resection. The relationship between surgery-related factors and postoperative symptomatic hydrocephalus has not been elucidated. The objective of this study was to analyze features influencing postoperative hydrocephalus in Chinese children.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively evaluated 197 patients younger than 15 years of age who underwent posterior fossa tumor resection at their institution from January 2015 to June 2021. The outcome was whether children underwent CSF diversion within 6 months of resection. Preoperative characteristics, surgery-related factors, and postoperative features were included to identify independent prognosticators. A new logistic model containing independent prognosticators was developed and compared with the modified Canadian Preoperative Prediction Rule for Hydrocephalus (mCPPRH).

RESULTS

In this study, 30 patients (15.2%) underwent CSF diversion within 6 months after tumor resection. Tumor location and consistency, intracranial or spinal tumor metastasis determined by perioperative cerebral and spinal MRI, intraoperative blood loss, ventricular blood as determined on postoperative CT, and pathology were statistically significant variables in the univariate analysis. The only two independent predictors of postoperative symptomatic hydrocephalus were tumor metastasis (OR 3.463, 95% CI 1.137–10.549; p = 0.029) and postoperative ventricular blood (OR 4.212, 95% CI 1.595–11.122; p = 0.004). The final logistic model comprising tumor metastasis and postoperative ventricular blood was found to have better discrimination than the mCPPRH.

CONCLUSIONS

Tumor characteristics and surgery-related features were associated with postoperative symptomatic hydrocephalus. Tumor metastasis and postoperative ventricular blood were found to be important prognosticators of persistent hydrocephalus.

Restricted access

Jacob Ruzevick, Tyler Cardinal, Dhiraj J. Pangal, Ilaria Bove, Ben Strickland, and Gabriel Zada

OBJECTIVE

Intraoperative use of the endoscope to assist in visualization of intracranial tumor pathology has expanded with increasing surgeon experience and improved instrumentation. The authors aimed to study how advancements in endoscopic technology have affected the evolution of endoscope use, with particular focus on blue light–filter modification allowing for discrimination of fluorescent tumor tissue following 5-ALA administration.

METHODS

A retrospective analysis of patients undergoing craniotomy for tumor resection at a single institution between February 2012 and July 2021 was performed. Patients were included if the endoscope was used for diagnostic tumor cavity inspection or therapeutic assistance with tumor resection following standard craniotomy and microsurgical tumor resection, with emphasis on those cases in which blue light endoscopy was used. Medical records were queried for patient demographics, operative reports describing the use of the endoscope and extent of resection, associations with tumor pathology, and postoperative outcomes. Preoperative and postoperative MR images were reviewed for radiographic extent of resection.

RESULTS

A total of 52 patients who underwent endoscope-assisted craniotomy for tumor were included. Thirty patients (57.7%) were men and the average age was 52.6 ± 16.1 years. Standard white light endoscopes were used for assistance with tumor resection in 28 cases (53.8%) for tumors primarily located in the ventricular system, parasellar region, and cerebellopontine angle. A blue light endoscope for detection of 5-ALA fluorescence was introduced into our practice in 2014 and subsequently used for assistance with tumor resection in 24 cases (46.2%) (intraaxial: n = 22, extraaxial: n = 2). Beyond the use of the surgical microscope as the primary visualization source, the blue light endoscope was used to directly perform additional tumor resection in 19/21 cases as a result of improved fluorescence detection as compared to the surgical microscope. No complications were associated with the use of the endoscope or with additional resection performed under white or blue light visualization.

CONCLUSIONS

Endoscopic assistance to visualize intracranial tumors had previously been limited to white light, assisting mostly in the visualization of extraaxial tumors confined to intraventricular and cisternal compartments. Blue light–equipped endoscopes provide improved versatility and visualization of 5-ALA fluorescing tissue beyond the capability of the surgical microscope, thereby expanding its use into the realm of intraaxial tumor resections.

Restricted access

Francis H. Shen, Gerald M. Hayward II, Jonathan A. Harris, Jorge Gonzalez, Evan Thai, Jon Raso, Margaret R. Van Horn, and Brandon S. Bucklen

OBJECTIVE

The two most common revision options available for the management of loose pedicle screws are larger-diameter screws and cement augmentation into the vertebral body for secondary fixation. An alternative revision method is impaction grafting (pedicoplasty) of the failed pedicle screw track. This technique uses the impaction of corticocancellous bone into the pedicle and vertebral body through a series of custom funnels to reconstitute a new pedicle wall and a neomedullary canal. The goal of this study was to compare the biomechanics of screws inserted after pedicoplasty (impaction grafting) of a pedicle defect to those of an upsized screw and a cement-augmented screw.

METHODS

For this biomechanical cadaveric study the investigators used 10 vertebral bodies (L1–5) that were free of metastatic disease or primary bone disease. Following initial screw insertion, each screw was subjected to a pullout force that was applied axially along the screw trajectory at 5 mm per minute until failure. Each specimen was instrumented with a pedicoplasty revision using the original screw diameter, and on the contralateral side either a fenestrated screw with cement augmentation or a screw upsized by 1 mm was inserted in a randomized fashion. These revisions were then pulled out using the previously mentioned methods.

RESULTS

Initial screw pullout values for the paired upsized screw and pedicoplasty were 717 ± 511 N and 774 ± 414 N, respectively (p = 0.747) (n = 14). Revised pullout values for the paired upsized screw and pedicoplasty were 775 ± 461 N and 762 ± 320 N, respectively (p = 0.932). Initial pullout values for the paired cement augmentation and pedicoplasty were 792 ± 434 N and 880 ± 558 N, respectively (p = 0.649). Revised pullout values for the paired cement augmentation and pedicoplasty were 1159 ± 300 N and 687 ± 213 N, respectively (p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

Pedicle defects are difficult to manage. Reconstitution of the pedicle and creation of a neomedullary canal appears to be possible through the use of pedicoplasty. Biomechanically, screws that have been used in pedicoplasty have equivalent pullout strength to an upsized screw, and have greater insertional torques than those with the same diameter that have not been used in pedicoplasty, yet they are not superior to cement augmentation. This study suggests that although cement augmentation appears to have superior pullout force, the novel pedicoplasty technique offers promise as a viable biological revision option for the management of failed pedicle screws compared with the option of standard upsized screws in a cadaveric model. These findings will ultimately need to be further assessed in a clinical setting.