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Yeong Jin Kim, Kyung-Sub Moon, Woo-Youl Jang, Tae-Young Jung, In-Young Kim, and Shin Jung

OBJECTIVE

Tuberculum sellae meningiomas (TSMs) present a burdensome surgical challenge because of their adjacency to vital neurovascular structures. The contralateral subfrontal approach provides an outstanding corridor for removing a TSM with an excellent visual outcome and limited complications. The authors present their long-term surgical experience in treating TSMs via the contralateral subfrontal approach and discuss patient selection, surgical techniques, and clinical outcomes.

METHODS

Between 2005 and 2021, the authors used the contralateral subfrontal approach in 74 consecutive patients presenting with TSMs. The surgical decision-making process and surgical techniques are described, and the clinical outcomes were retrospectively analyzed.

RESULTS

The mean patient age was 54.4 years, with a female predominance (n = 61, 82%). Preoperatively, 61 patients (82%) had vision symptoms and 73 (99%) had optic canal invasion by tumor. Gross-total resection was achieved in almost all patients (n = 70, 95%). The visual function improvement and stabilization rate was 91% (67/74). Eight patients (11%) showed a worsening of visual function on the less-compromised (approach-side) optic nerve. There was no occurrence of cerebrospinal fluid leakage. Four patients (5%) experienced recurrences after the initial operation (mean follow-up duration 63 months). There were no deaths in this study.

CONCLUSIONS

The contralateral subfrontal approach provides a high chance of complete tumor removal and visual improvement with limited complications and recurrences, especially when the tumor is in a unilateral or midline location causing unilateral visual symptoms or bilateral asymmetrical visual symptoms, regardless of tumor size or encasement of major vessels. With the appropriate patient selection, surgical technique, and familiarity with surrounding neurovascular structures, this approach is reliable for TSM surgery.

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Chongwon Pae, Myung Ji Kim, Won Seok Chang, Hyun Ho Jung, Kyung Won Chang, Jinseok Eo, Hae-Jeong Park, and Jin Woo Chang

OBJECTIVE

Thalamotomy at the nucleus ventralis intermedius using MR-guided focused ultrasound has been an effective treatment method for essential tremor (ET). However, this is not true for all cases, even for successful ablation. How the brain differs in patients with ET between those with long-term good and poor outcomes is not clear. To analyze the functional connectivity difference between patients in whom thalamotomy was effective and those in whom thalamotomy was ineffective and its prognostic role in ET treatment, the authors evaluated preoperative resting-state functional MRI in thalamotomy-treated patients.

METHODS

Preoperative resting-state functional MRI data in 85 patients with ET, who were experiencing tremor relief at the time of treatment and were followed up for a minimum of 6 months after the procedure, were collected for the study. The authors conducted a graph independent component analysis of the functional connectivity matrices of tremor-related networks. The patients were divided into thalamotomy-effective and thalamotomy-ineffective groups (thalamotomy-effective group, ≥ 50% motor symptom reduction; thalamotomy-ineffective group, < 50% motor symptom reduction at 6 months after treatment) and the authors compared network components between groups.

RESULTS

Seventy-two (84.7%) of the 85 patients showed ≥ 50% tremor reduction from baseline at 6 months after thalamotomy. The network analysis shows significant suppression of functional network components with connections between the areas of the cerebellum and the basal ganglia and thalamus, but enhancement of those between the premotor cortex and supplementary motor area in the noneffective group compared to the effective group.

CONCLUSIONS

The present study demonstrates that patients in the noneffective group have suppressed functional subnetworks in the cerebellum and subcortex regions and have enhanced functional subnetworks among motor-sensory cortical networks compared to the thalamotomy-effective group. Therefore, the authors suggest that the functional connectivity pattern might be a possible predictive factor for outcomes of MR-guided focused ultrasound thalamotomy.

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Nikita G. Alexiades, Belinda Shao, Edward S. Ahn, Jeffrey P. Blount, Douglas L. Brockmeyer, Todd C. Hankinson, Cody L. Nesvick, David I. Sandberg, Gregory G. Heuer, Lisa Saiman, Neil A. Feldstein, and Richard C. E. Anderson

OBJECTIVE

Complex tethered spinal cord (cTSC) release in children is often complicated by surgical site infection (SSI). Children undergoing this surgery share many similarities with patients undergoing correction for neuromuscular scoliosis, where high rates of gram-negative and polymicrobial infections have been reported. Similar organisms isolated from SSIs after cTSC release were recently demonstrated in a single-center pilot study. The purpose of this investigation was to determine if these findings are reproducible across a larger, multicenter study.

METHODS

A multicenter, retrospective chart review including 7 centers was conducted to identify all cases of SSI following cTSC release during a 10-year study period from 2007 to 2017. Demographic information along with specific microbial culture data and antibiotic sensitivities for each cultured organism were collected.

RESULTS

A total of 44 SSIs were identified from a total of 655 cases, with 78 individual organisms isolated. There was an overall SSI rate of 6.7%, with 43% polymicrobial and 66% containing at least one gram-negative organism. Half of SSIs included an organism that was resistant to cefazolin, whereas only 32% of SSIs were completely susceptible to cefazolin.

CONCLUSIONS

In this study, gram-negative and polymicrobial infections were responsible for the majority of SSIs following cTSC surgery, with approximately half resistant to cefazolin. Broader gram-negative antibiotic prophylaxis should be considered for this patient population.

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Marshall T. Holland, Jocelyn Jiao, Alessandra Mantovani, Shannon Anderson, Katherine A. Mitchell, Delaram Safarpour, and Kim J. Burchiel

OBJECTIVE

The globus pallidus internus (GPI) has been demonstrated to be an effective surgical target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) treatment in patients with medication-refractory Parkinson’s disease (PD). The ability of neurosurgeons to define the area of greatest therapeutic benefit within the globus pallidus (GP) may improve clinical outcomes in these patients. The objective of this study was to determine the best DBS therapeutic implantation site within the GP for effective treatment in PD patients.

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective review of 56 patients who underwent bilateral GP DBS implantation at their institution during the period from January 2015 to January 2020. Each implanted contact was anatomically localized. Patients were followed for stimulation programming for at least 6 months. The authors reviewed preoperative and 6-month postsurgery clinical outcomes based on data from the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale Part III (UPDRS III), dyskinesia scores, and levodopa equivalent daily dose (LEDD).

RESULTS

Of the 112 leads implanted, the therapeutic cathode was most frequently located in the lamina between the GPI external segment (GPIe) and the GP externus (GPE) (n = 40). Other common locations included the GPE (n = 24), the GPIe (n = 15), and the lamina between the GPI internal segment (GPIi) and the GPIe (n = 14). In the majority of patients (73%) a monopolar programming configuration was used. At 6 months postsurgery, UPDRS III off medications (OFF) and on stimulation (ON) scores significantly improved (z = −4.02, p < 0.001), as did postsurgery dyskinesia ON scores (z = −4.08, p < 0.001) and postsurgery LEDD (z = −4.7, p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

Though the ventral GP (pallidotomy target) has been a commonly used target for GP DBS, a more dorsolateral target may be more effective for neuromodulation strategies. The assessment of therapeutic contact locations performed in this study showed that the lamina between GPI and GPE used in most patients is the optimal central stimulation target. This information should improve preoperative GP targeting.

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Ulrich-Wilhelm Thomale, Astrid K. Gnekow, Daniela Kandels, Brigitte Bison, Pablo Hernáiz Driever, Olaf Witt, Torsten Pietsch, Arend Koch, David Capper, Rolf-Dieter Kortmann, Beate Timmermann, Semi Harrabi, Michèle Simon, Ahmed El Damaty, Juergen Krauss, Martin U. Schuhmann, and Annette Aigner

OBJECTIVE

Neurosurgical treatment is an integral part of the treatment algorithms for pediatric low-grade glioma (LGG), yet patterns of surgical procedures are rarely challenged. The objective of this study was to evaluate surgical treatment patterns in pediatric LGG.

METHODS

The German Societé Internationale d’Oncologie Pédiatrique (SIOP)–LGG 2004 cohort was analyzed to identify relevant patient and tumor characteristics associated with time to death, next surgery, number of resections, and radiological outcome.

RESULTS

A total of 1271 patients underwent 1713 neurosurgical interventions (1 intervention in 947, 2 in 230, 3 in 70, and 4–6 in 24). The median age of the study population was 8.57 years at first surgery, and 46.1% were female. Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) was found in 4.4%, and 5.4% had tumor dissemination. Three hundred fifty-four patients (27.9%) had chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. The cumulative incidence of second surgery at 10 years was 26%, and was higher for infants, those with spinal and supratentorial midline (SML) tumors, and those with pilomyxoid astrocytomas. The hazard ratio for subsequent surgery was higher given dissemination and noncomplete initial resection, and lower for caudal brainstem and SML tumors. Among 1225 patients with fully documented surgical records and radiological outcome, 613 reached complete remission during the observation period, and 50 patients died. Patients with pilocytic astrocytoma had higher chances for a final complete remission, whereas patients with initial partial or subtotal tumor resection, dissemination, NF1, or primary tumor sites in the spinal cord and SML had lower chances.

CONCLUSIONS

Neurosurgery is a key element of pediatric LGG treatment. In almost 50% of the patients, however, at least some tumor burden will remain during long-term follow-up. This study found that most of these patients reached a stable disease status without further surgeries. Multidisciplinary team decisions must balance the goal of complete resection, risk factors, repeated surgeries, and possible treatment alternatives in a wide range of heterogeneous entities. Procedural details and neurological outcome should be recorded to better assess their impact on long-term outcome.

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David Pitskhelauri, Rinat Sufianov, Alexander Konovalov, Igor Pronin, and Alexander Sanikidze

Minimally invasive approaches are becoming increasingly popular and contributing to improving the results of the surgical treatment of a wide variety of intracranial pathologies. Fifteen patients with posterior cranial fossa tumors underwent microsurgery through the atlanto-occipital membrane without resection of any bone structures. Tumors were localized in the brainstem in 8 patients and in the fourth ventricle in 7 patients. According to preoperative MRI and CT scans, the distance between the posterior arch of the atlas and the opisthion ranged from 9.9 to 16.5 mm (median 13 mm). The surgery was performed with the patient in the prone position and the head flexed. The trajectory of the surgical approach was directed from the skin incision located above the C2 spinous process 3.5–4 cm rostral along the midline. Total tumor resection was performed in 10 patients, subtotal resection in 2 patients, partial resection in 1 patient, and open biopsy in 2 patients. Surgical complications occurred in only 1 patient (meningoencephalitis). This minimally invasive trans–atlanto-occipital membrane approach for posterior cranial fossa tumors provides adequate visualization of the caudal part of the fourth ventricle and brainstem when the anthropometric parameters of the patient are suitable.

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Anthony T. Lee, Noah M. Nichols, Benjamin A. Speidel, Joline M. Fan, Iahn Cajigas, Robert C. Knowlton, and Edward F. Chang

OBJECTIVE

Recent trends have moved from subdural grid electrocorticography (ECoG) recordings toward stereo-electroencephalography (SEEG) depth electrodes for intracranial localization of seizures, in part because of perceived morbidity from subdural grid and strip electrodes. For invasive epilepsy monitoring, the authors describe the outcomes of a hybrid approach, whereby patients receive a combination of subdural grids, strips, and frameless stereotactic depth electrode implantations through a craniotomy. Evolution of surgical techniques was employed to reduce complications. In this study, the authors review the surgical hemorrhage and functional outcomes of this hybrid approach.

METHODS

A retrospective review was performed of consecutive patients who underwent hybrid implantation from July 2012 to May 2022 at an academic epilepsy center by a single surgeon. Outcomes included hemorrhagic and nonhemorrhagic complications, neurological deficits, length of monitoring, and number of electrodes.

RESULTS

A total of 137 consecutive procedures were performed; 113 procedures included both subdural and depth electrodes. The number of depth electrodes and electrode contacts did not increase the risk of hemorrhage. A mean of 1.9 ± 0.8 grid, 4.9 ± 2.1 strip, and 3.0 ± 1.9 depth electrodes were implanted, for a mean of 125.1 ± 32 electrode contacts per patient. The overall incidence of hematomas over the study period was 5.1% (7 patients) and decreased significantly with experience and the introduction of new surgical techniques. The incidence of hematomas in the last 4 years of the study period was 0% (55 patients). Symptomatic hematomas were all delayed and extra-axial. These patients required surgical evacuation, and there were no cases of hematoma recurrence. All neurological deficits related to hematomas were temporary and were resolved at hospital discharge. There were 2 nonhemorrhagic complications. The mean duration of monitoring was 7.3 ± 3.2 days. Seizures were localized in 95% of patients, with 77% of patients eventually undergoing resection and 17% undergoing responsive neurostimulation device implantation.

CONCLUSIONS

In the authors’ institutional experience, craniotomy-based subdural and depth electrode implantation was associated with low hemorrhage rates and no permanent morbidity. The rate of hemorrhage can be nearly eliminated with surgical experience and specific techniques. The decision to use subdural electrodes or SEEG should be tailored to the patient’s unique pathology and surgeon experience.

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Nisha Gadgil, Samuel G. McClugage III, Guillermo Aldave, David F. Bauer, Howard L. Weiner, Thierry A. G. M. Huisman, Magdalena Sanz-Cortes, Michael A. Belfort, Lisa Emrick, Gary Clark, Luc Joyeux, and William E. Whitehead

OBJECTIVE

In utero repair of fetal posterior cephaloceles (meningocele and encephalocele) is being performed based on the premise that fetal surgery prevents progressive herniation of neural tissue and brain damage during pregnancy. However, the extent to which progressive herniation occurs during pregnancy, specifically from prenatal diagnosis to after delivery, is not well known. The objective of this study was to describe the natural history of patients with fetal cephaloceles focusing on the incidence of progressive herniation.

METHODS

The authors conducted a retrospective cohort study of all patients referred to their center for posterior fetal cephalocele between 2006 and 2021. All patients underwent prenatal and postnatal MRI. Progressive herniation (primary outcome) was defined as an increase in the absolute volume of neural tissue within the cephalocele of > 5% or new herniation of a critical structure into the cephalocele. Total brain and cephalocele volumes were calculated to determine herniation progression from prenatal to postnatal MRI. Information on the presence of hydrocephalus, epilepsy, and developmental delay (secondary outcomes) was collected at 1 year of age.

RESULTS

Twenty patients met all study criteria. Ten patients (50%; 95% CI 0.27–0.73) demonstrated progressive herniation from prenatal to postnatal MRI. Three patients with progressive herniation were diagnosed with a meningocele prenatally and had an encephalocele postnatally. Two patients without progression had meningocele identified prenatally that regressed and became atretic by birth. Both prenatal hindbrain herniation (p = 0.03) and prenatal microcephaly (p = 0.05) were predictive of progressive herniation. The rates of hydrocephalus (44%), epilepsy (44%), and developmental delay (63%) were not associated with the occurrence of progressive herniation in this study.

CONCLUSIONS

In this study, progressive herniation was not a rare event (50%). Fetal hindbrain herniation and fetal microcephaly were associated with the occurrence of progressive herniation. These results support further investigations into why progressive herniation occurs in utero and if progressive cerebral herniation in utero plays a significant role in determining clinical outcome.

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Han Yan, Nathan A. Shlobin, Youngkyung Jung, Kristina K. Zhang, Nebras Warsi, Abhaya V. Kulkarni, and George M. Ibrahim

OBJECTIVE

The nucleus accumbens (NAcc) of the ventral striatum is critically involved in goal- and reward-based behavior. Structural and functional abnormalities of the NAcc or its associated neural systems are involved in neurological and psychiatric disorders. Studies of neural circuitry have shed light on the subtleties of the structural and functional derangements of the NAcc across various diseases. In this systematic review, the authors sought to identify human studies involving the NAcc and provide a synthesis of the literature on the known circuity of the NAcc in healthy and diseased states, as well as the clinical outcomes following neuromodulation.

METHODS

A systematic review was conducted using the PubMed, Embase, and Scopus databases. Neuroimaging studies that reported on neural circuitry related to the human NAcc with sample sizes greater than 5 patients were included. Demographic data, aim, design and duration, participants, and clinical and neurocircuitry details and outcomes of the studies were extracted.

RESULTS

Of 3591 resultant articles, 123 were included. The NAcc and its corticolimbic connections to other brain regions, such as the prefrontal cortex, are largely involved in reward and pain processes, with distinct functional circuitry between the shell and core in healthy patients. There is heterogeneity between clinical studies with regard to the NAcc indirect targeting coordinates, methods for postoperative confirmation, and blinded trial design. Neuromodulation studies provided promising clinical results in the context of addiction and substance misuse, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and mood disorders. The most common complications were impaired memory or concentration, and a notable serious complication was hypomania.

CONCLUSIONS

The functional diversity of the NAcc highlights the importance of studying the NAcc in healthy and pathological states. The results of this review suggest that NAcc neuromodulation has been attempted in the management of diverse psychiatric indications. There is promising, emerging evidence that the NAcc may be an effective target for specific reward- or pain-based pathologies with a reasonable risk profile.

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Elias Elias, Shay Bess, Breton G. Line, Virginie Lafage, Renaud Lafage, Eric Klineberg, Han Jo Kim, Peter Passias, Zeina Nasser, Jeffrey L. Gum, Khaled Kebaish, Robert Eastlack, Alan H. Daniels, Gregory Mundis Jr., Richard Hostin, Themistocles S. Protopsaltis, Alex Soroceanu, D. Kojo Hamilton, Michael P. Kelly, Munish Gupta, Robert Hart, Frank J. Schwab, Douglas Burton, Christopher P. Ames, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Justin S. Smith, and

OBJECTIVE

Adult cervical deformity (ACD) has high complication rates due to surgical complexity and patient frailty. Very few studies have focused on longer-term outcomes of operative ACD treatment. The objective of this study was to assess minimum 2-year outcomes and complications of ACD surgery.

METHODS

A multicenter, prospective observational study was performed at 13 centers across the United States to evaluate surgical outcomes for ACD. Demographics, complications, radiographic parameters, and patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs; Neck Disability Index, modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association, EuroQol-5D [EQ-5D], and numeric rating scale [NRS] for neck and back pain) were evaluated, and analyses focused on patients with ≥ 2-year follow-up.

RESULTS

Of 169 patients with ACD who were eligible for the study, 102 (60.4%) had a minimum 2-year follow-up (mean 3.4 years, range 2–8.1 years). The mean age at surgery was 62 years (SD 11 years). Surgical approaches included anterior-only (22.8%), posterior-only (39.6%), and combined (37.6%). PROMs significantly improved from baseline to last follow-up, including Neck Disability Index (from 47.3 to 33.0) and modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association score (from 12.0 to 12.8; for patients with baseline score ≤ 14), neck pain NRS (from 6.8 to 3.8), back pain NRS (from 5.5 to 4.8), EQ-5D score (from 0.74 to 0.78), and EQ-5D visual analog scale score (from 59.5 to 66.6) (all p ≤ 0.04). More than half of the patients (n = 58, 56.9%) had at least one complication, with the most common complications including dysphagia, distal junctional kyphosis, instrumentation failure, and cardiopulmonary events. The patients who did not achieve 2-year follow-up (n = 67) were similar to study patients based on baseline demographics, comorbidities, and PROMs. Over the course of follow-up, 23 of the total 169 enrolled patients were reported to have died. Notably, these represent all-cause mortalities during the course of follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS

This multicenter, prospective analysis demonstrates that operative treatment for ACD provides significant improvement of health-related quality of life at a mean 3.4-year follow-up, despite high complication rates and a high rate of all-cause mortality that is reflective of the overall frailty of this patient population. To the authors’ knowledge, this study represents the largest and most comprehensive prospective effort to date designed to assess the intermediate-term outcomes and complications of operative treatment for ACD.