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Open access

Fully endoscopic posterior fossa decompression for Chiari malformation type I: illustrative case

Daniel Staribacher, Guenther C Feigl, Gavin Britz, and Dzmitry Kuzmin

BACKGROUND

Surgery for symptomatic Arnold-Chiari malformation type I involves posterior fossa decompression. There are various approaches, including endoscope-assisted ones. New possibilities and fields of application of fully endoscopic techniques are currently being developed since new and advanced endoscopic equipment and instrumentation are available.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors describe the case of a fully endoscopic microsurgical procedure in a 30-year-old female patient with progressive vertigo who was diagnosed with Chiari malformation type I. Neuronavigation and neuromonitoring were used during the surgery.

LESSONS

Fully endoscopic surgery can be successfully performed in patients with Chiari malformation I. Intraoperative neuromonitoring and neuronavigation increase safety during this procedure.

Open access

Symptomatic radionecrosis after postoperative but not preoperative stereotactic radiosurgery in a single patient: illustrative case

Bryce J Laurin, Michael Straza, George Noid, Jennifer M Connelly, Wade M Mueller, Joseph Bovi, and Max O Krucoff

BACKGROUND

Standard of care for brain metastases involves stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). For cases that also require surgery because of lesion size, edema, or neurological symptoms, whether to provide pre- or postoperative SRS has become a prevalent debate.

OBSERVATIONS

Herein, the unique case of a patient with brain metastases of the same pathology and similar size in two different brain locations at two different times is described. The patient underwent surgery with preoperative SRS for the first lesion and surgery with postoperative SRS for the second lesion. Although both treatments resulted in successful local control, the location that received postoperative SRS developed symptomatic and rapidly progressive radiation necrosis (RN) requiring a third craniotomy.

LESSONS

Large randomized controlled trials are ongoing to compare pre- versus postoperative SRS for the treatment of symptomatic brain metastases (e.g., study NRG-BN012). Recent interest in preoperative SRS has emerged from its theoretical potential to decrease rates of postoperative RN and leptomeningeal disease. This valuable case in which both therapies were applied in a single patient with a single pathology and similar lesions provides evidence supportive of preoperative SRS.

Open access

Microsurgical intraluminal obliteration of type IV perimedullary arteriovenous fistula with an in situ hemostatic agent: illustrative case

Jacques Lara-Reyna, Jonathan R Garst, Nolan Winslow, and Jeffrey D Klopfenstein

BACKGROUND

Spinal arteriovenous fistulas (SAVFs) are underdiagnosed entities that can lead to severe morbidity from spinal cord dysfunction or hemorrhage. Treatment options include endovascular embolization or direct surgical obliteration at the level of the arteriovenous shunt. The authors present a case of intraluminal microsurgical access for occlusion with a hemostatic agent of a type IV SAVF near the conus medullaris as an alternative to clip occlusion to avoid nerve root compromise.

OBSERVATIONS

Temporary microsurgical clipping of the SAVF led to nerve root compromise detected via intraoperative monitoring. Instead, the authors advanced elongated pieces of a hemostatic agent directly into the arterial lumen via arteriotomy to create direct obliteration of the fistula without intraoperative monitoring changes.

LESSONS

In patients unable to tolerate clipping of the SAVF because of nerve root involvement and neurophysiological signal decline, open access of the vessels and direct intraluminal obliteration using a hemostatic agent should be considered as an alternative method of fistula occlusion.

Open access

Microsurgical resection of a ruptured intraventricular arteriovenous malformation in a neonate: considerations in management. Illustrative case

Lauren Stone, Reid Colliander, Melissa A LoPresti, Ali Shaibani, and Sandi Lam

BACKGROUND

Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are the most common cause of intracranial hemorrhage in children, although they are rarer in neonates. Age, location, lesion architecture, and rupture status define treatment options. Sparse literature exists to guide the management of clinically symptomatic intraventricular AVM rupture in neonates. We highlight the case of a neonate with a ruptured intraventricular AVM to showcase considerations in treatment, discuss surgical technique, and help guide management.

OBSERVATIONS

An 18-day-old female presented with lethargy in extremis and was found to have new intraventricular hemorrhage. Angiogram revealed a Spetzler-Martin grade 2 AVM with a right posterior choroidal feeder and deep venous drainage within the ventricle. Her age limited radiosurgical and endovascular interventions. She underwent an interhemispheric, transcollosal, intraventricular approach for complete AVM resection. Perioperative care was managed by a multidisciplinary team, successfully mitigating the patient’s high risk of hemovascular collapse.

LESSONS

Stereotactic radiosurgery, endovascular embolization, and microsurgery are options for AVM obliteration, and multimodal therapy must be tailored to the lesion and patient. Conservative management can also be considered. Each intervention carries risks and varying likelihoods of success. Balancing these outcomes is challenging without definitive, high-quality, evidence-based guidance. The best treatment maximizes the chance of AVM obliteration while minimizing morbidity.

Open access

Novel use of an image-guided supraorbital craniotomy via an eyebrow approach for the repair of a delayed traumatic orbital encephalocele: illustrative cases

Joseph Ifrach, Nathaniel B Neavling, Iris B Charcos, Linda Zhang, and Corey M Mossop

BACKGROUND

Traumatic orbital encephaloceles are rare but severe complications of orbital fractures. These encephaloceles can present months to years after the initial injury.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors present two cases of traumatic orbital encephalocele in young males struck by motor vehicles.

LESSONS

The exact traumatic mechanism of these encephaloceles is unknown, and diagnosis can be confounded by concomitant injuries. The use of a minimally invasive supraorbital keyhole craniotomy has the potential to change how this disease process is managed and has not been previously documented in this setting.

Open access

Surgical management of metastatic Hürthle cell carcinoma to the skull base, cortex, and spine: illustrative case

N. U. Farrukh Hameed, Meagan M Hoppe, Ahmed Habib, Jeffrey Head, Regan Shanahan, Bradley A Gross, Sandra Narayanan, Georgios Zenonos, and Pascal Zinn

BACKGROUND

Hürthle cell carcinoma (HCC) is an unusual and aggressive variant of the follicular type of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), accounting for less than 3% of DTCs but posing the highest risk of metastasis. Brain metastases are uncommonly reported in the literature but pose a poor prognosis. The low rate of brain metastases from HCC coupled with ambiguous treatment protocols for the extracranial disease complicate successful disease management and definitive treatment strategy. The authors present the case of a patient with HCC metastasis to the skull base, cortex, and spine with recent tibial metastasis.

OBSERVATIONS

Despite the presence of metastasis to the cortex, skull base, and spine, the patient responded very well to radiation therapy, sellar mass resection, and cervical spine decompression and fixation and has made a remarkable recovery.

LESSONS

The authors’ multidisciplinary approach to the patient’s care, including a diverse team of specialists from oncology, neurosurgery, orthopedic surgery, radiology, endocrinology, and collaboration with clinical trial researchers, was fundamental to her successful outcome, demonstrating the utility of intersecting specialties in successful outcomes in neuro-oncological patient care.

Open access

Two-year results of single-level fixation with lateral mass screws for cervical degenerative spondylolisthesis: patient series

Hiroyasu Kodama, Naohiro Kawamura, Junichi Ohya, Yuki Onishi, Chiaki Horii, Mitsuhiro Nishizawa, Masaya Sekimizu, Yuji Ishino, and Junichi Kunogi

BACKGROUND

In surgery for cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM) with spondylolisthesis, there is no consensus on the correction and fixation for spondylolisthesis. The authors retrospectively studied whether the correction of single-level fixation with lateral mass screws (LMSs) could be maintained.

OBSERVATIONS

The records of patients with CSM with spondylolisthesis who had been treated with posterior decompression and single-level fusion with LMSs from 2017 to 2021 were retrospectively reviewed. Radiographic measurements included cervical parameters such as C2–7 lordosis, T1 slope, and the degree of spondylolisthesis (percent slippage) before surgery, immediately after surgery, and at the final observation.

Ten cases (mean age 72.8 ± 7.8 years) were included in the final analysis, and four cases (40%) were on hemodialysis. The median observation period was 26.5 months (interquartile range, 12–35.75). The mean percent slippage was 16.8% ± 4.7% before surgery, 5.3% ± 4.0% immediately after surgery, and 6.5% ± 4.7% at the final observation. Spearman’s rank correlation showed a moderate correlation between preoperative slippage magnitude and correction loss (r = 0.659; p = 0.038). Other parameters showed no correlation with correction loss.

LESSONS

For CSM with spondylolisthesis, single-level fixation with LMSs achieved and maintained successful correction in the 2-year observation.

Open access

A multilevel posterior tension band–sparing laminectomy for intraspinal lesions: patient series

Ignacio J Barrenechea, Luis Márquez, Sabrina Miralles, Héctor P Rojas, Julián Pastore, Pablo Vincenti, and Telmo Nicola

BACKGROUND

Minimally invasive spine surgery (MISS) represents a major development in spinal tumor surgery. However, considering that many intradural lesions compromise multiple spinal segments, MISS has certain limitations. Thus, some intraspinal lesions still require traditional approaches. Because laminectomy has been shown to predispose patients to kyphosis, laminoplasty and hemilaminectomy are the most widely used approaches to preserve the posterior tension band (PTB). However, these techniques are not devoid of complications. To overcome these issues, the authors modified a previously described technique to preserve the PTB while removing various types of intradural lesions. This procedure was originally designed to treat lumbar stenosis and was modified to avoid muscle ischemia during long procedures.

OBSERVATIONS

Between 2014 and 2021, the authors found 17 cases of spinal lesions with a minimum of 2 years of follow-up after surgical treatment using their approach. No significant postoperative changes in the paraspinal Goutallier grade or spinal angles were observed. The cross-sectional area of the measured paraspinal muscles decreased 6% postoperatively. By performing certain technical modifications in this PTB-sparing (PBS) laminectomy, the authors avoided ipsilateral muscle ischemia.

LESSONS

In this initial series, PBS laminectomy proved to be a safe, versatile, inexpensive, and reliable technique to remove intraspinal lesions.

Open access

Partially thrombosed giant basilar artery aneurysm with attenuated contrast enhancement of the intraluminal thrombus on vessel wall MRI after flow diversion treatment: illustrative case

So Matsukawa, Akira Ishii, Yasutaka Fushimi, Yu Abekura, Takashi Nagahori, Takayuki Kikuchi, Masakazu Okawa, Yukihiro Yamao, Natsuhi Sasaki, Hirofumi Tsuji, Ryo Akiyama, and Susumu Miyamoto

BACKGROUND

The effect of vessel wall magnetic resonance imaging (VW-MRI) enhancement in partially thrombosed aneurysms has previously indicated aneurysmal instability and a rupture risk. However, whether the contrast effect of the wall changes before or after flow diversion treatment is still under investigation.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors report a case of a partially thrombosed basilar artery aneurysm that increased in size over a short period, worsened brainstem compression symptoms, and was treated with a flow diverter stent with good results. In this case, VW-MRI after surgery showed a reduced contrast effect on the intraluminal thrombus within the aneurysm. The aneurysm thrombosed and markedly regressed over the next 5 months, with remarkable improvement in the brainstem compression symptoms.

LESSONS

This finding on VW-MRI may indicate an attenuation of neovascularization in the thrombus wall and be a sign of aneurysm stabilization.

Open access

Spontaneous pseudoaneurysm of the superficial temporal artery in neurofibromatosis type 1: illustrative case

Fang Shen, Shi-ze Li, Yuan-yuan Shan, Xiao Ji, and Han-song Sheng

BACKGROUND

A pseudoaneurysm of the superficial temporal artery is an uncommon clinical entity that has largely been linked with direct traumatic causes. Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1)-related vasculopathy is a rare cause of idiopathic arterial bleeding in the craniofacial region.

OBSERVATIONS

A 46-year-old male with clinical features of NF1 presented to the hospital with an enlarging and tender right temporal mass without a history of trauma. Computed tomography angiography suggested the development of a pseudoaneurysm, and surgery was performed to resect the mass. Histopathological examinations showed focal interruption of the epithelium layer and elastic lamina, well-demarcated thickening of the smooth muscle layers of the arterial wall, supporting the diagnosis of pseudoaneurysm.

LESSONS

NF1-associated vasculopathy is likely the predisposing factor for the development of a superficial temporal artery pseudoaneurysm.