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Damon DePaoli, Laurent Goetz, Dave Gagnon, Gabriel Maranon, Michel Prud’homme, Léo Cantin, Martin Parent and Daniel C. Côté

OBJECTIVE

The clinical outcome of deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery relies heavily on the implantation accuracy of a chronic stimulating electrode into a small target brain region. Most techniques that have been proposed to precisely target these deep brain regions were designed to map intracerebral electrode trajectory prior to chronic electrode placement, sometimes leading to positioning error of the final electrode. This study was designed to create a new intraoperative guidance tool for DBS neurosurgery that can improve target detection during the final implantation of the chronic electrode.

METHODS

Taking advantage of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, the authors developed a new surgical tool that senses proximal brain tissue through the tip of the chronic electrode by means of a novel stylet, which provides rigidity to DBS leads and houses fiber optics.

RESULTS

As a proof of concept, the authors demonstrated the ability of their noninvasive optical guidance technique to precisely locate the border of the subthalamic nucleus during the implantation of commercially available DBS electrodes in anesthetized parkinsonian monkeys. Innovative optical recordings combined to standard microelectrode mapping and detailed postmortem brain examination allowed the authors to confirm the precision of optical target detection. They also show the optical technique’s ability to detect, in real time, upcoming blood vessels, reducing the risk of hemorrhage during the chronic lead implantation.

CONCLUSIONS

The authors present a new optical guidance technique that can detect target brain regions during DBS surgery from within the implanted electrode using a proof of concept in nonhuman primates. The technique discriminates tissue in real time, contributes no additional invasiveness to the procedure by being housed within the electrode, and can provide complementary information to microelectrode mapping during the implantation of the chronic electrode. The technique may also be a powerful tool for providing direct anatomical information in the case of direct implantations wherein microelectrode mapping is not performed.

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Nahid Jivad, Mana Ahmadian, Niloofar Safaei, Najme Bagheri and Mohammad Soleimani

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Ravindra Arya, Francesco T. Mangano, Paul S. Horn, Sabrina K. Kaul, Serena K. Kaul, Celie Roth, James L. Leach, Michele Turner, Katherine D. Holland and Hansel M. Greiner

OBJECTIVE

There is emerging data that adults with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) without a discrete lesion on brain MRI have surgical outcomes comparable to those with hippocampal sclerosis (HS). However, pediatric TLE is different from its adult counterpart. In this study, the authors investigated if the presence of a potentially epileptogenic lesion on presurgical brain MRI influences the long-term seizure outcomes after pediatric temporal lobectomy.

METHODS

Children who underwent temporal lobectomy between 2007 and 2015 and had at least 1 year of seizure outcomes data were identified. These were classified into lesional and MRI-negative groups based on whether an epilepsy-protocol brain MRI showed a lesion sufficiently specific to guide surgical decisions. These patients were also categorized into pure TLE and temporal plus epilepsies based on the neurophysiological localization of the seizure-onset zone. Seizure outcomes at each follow-up visit were incorporated into a repeated-measures generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) with MRI status as a grouping variable. Clinical variables were incorporated into GLMM as covariates.

RESULTS

One hundred nine patients (44 females) were included, aged 5 to 21 years, and were classified as lesional (73%), MRI negative (27%), pure TLE (56%), and temporal plus (44%). After a mean follow-up of 3.2 years (range 1.2–8.8 years), 66% of the patients were seizure free for ≥ 1 year at last follow-up. GLMM analysis revealed that lesional patients were more likely to be seizure free over the long term compared to MRI-negative patients for the overall cohort (OR 2.58, p < 0.0001) and for temporal plus epilepsies (OR 1.85, p = 0.0052). The effect of MRI lesion was not significant for pure TLE (OR 2.64, p = 0.0635). Concordance of ictal electroencephalography (OR 3.46, p < 0.0001), magnetoencephalography (OR 4.26, p < 0.0001), and later age of seizure onset (OR 1.05, p = 0.0091) were associated with a higher likelihood of seizure freedom. The most common histological findings included cortical dysplasia types 1B and 2A, HS (40% with dual pathology), and tuberous sclerosis.

CONCLUSIONS

A lesion on presurgical brain MRI is an important determinant of long-term seizure freedom after pediatric temporal lobectomy. Pediatric TLE is heterogeneous regarding etiologies and organization of seizure-onset zones with many patients qualifying for temporal plus nosology. The presence of an MRI lesion determined seizure outcomes in patients with temporal plus epilepsies. However, pure TLE had comparable surgical seizure outcomes for lesional and MRI-negative groups.

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Ellen L. Larson, Katherine B. Santosa, Susan E. Mackinnon and Alison K. Snyder-Warwick

This case report describes an isolated radial nerve avulsion in a pediatric patient, treated by combination sensory and motor median to radial nerve transfers. After traumatic avulsion of the proximal radial nerve, a 12-year-old male patient underwent end-to-end transfer of median nerve branches to flexor carpi radialis and flexor digitorum superficialis to the posterior interosseous nerve and extensor carpi radialis nerve, respectively. He underwent end-to-side sensory transfer of the superficial radial sensory to the median sensory nerve. Pronator teres to extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon transfer was simultaneously performed to power short-term wrist extension. Within months after surgery, the patient had regained 9–10/10 sensation in the hand and forearm. In the following months and years, he regained dexterity, independent fine-finger and thumb motions, and 4–5/5 strength in all extensors except the abductor pollicis longus muscle. He grew 25 cm without extremity deformity or need for secondary orthopedic procedures. In appropriate adult and pediatric patients with proximal radial nerve injuries, nerve transfers have advantages over tendon transfers, including restored independent fine finger motions, regained sensation, and reinnervation of multiple muscle groups with minimal donor sacrifice.

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Paraspinal muscle size as an independent risk factor for proximal junctional kyphosis in patients undergoing thoracolumbar fusion

Presented at the 2019 AANS/CNS Joint Section on Disorders of the Spine and Peripheral Nerves

Zach Pennington, Ethan Cottrill, A. Karim Ahmed, Peter Passias, Themistocles Protopsaltis, Brian Neuman, Khaled M. Kebaish, Jeff Ehresman, Erick M. Westbroek, Matthew L. Goodwin and Daniel M. Sciubba

OBJECTIVE

Proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) is a structural complication of spinal fusion in 5%–61% of patients treated for adult spinal deformity. In nearly one-third of these cases, PJK is progressive and requires costly surgical revision. Previous studies have suggested that patient body habitus may predict risk for PJK. Here, the authors sought to investigate abdominal girth and paraspinal muscle size as risk factors for PJK.

METHODS

All patients undergoing thoracolumbosacral fusion greater than 2 levels at a single institution over a 5-year period with ≥ 6 months of radiographic follow-up were considered for inclusion. PJK was defined as kyphosis ≥ 20° between the upper instrumented vertebra (UIV) and two supra-adjacent vertebrae. Operative and radiographic parameters were recorded, including pre- and postoperative sagittal vertical axis (SVA), sacral slope (SS), lumbar lordosis (LL), pelvic tilt, pelvic incidence (PI), and absolute value of the pelvic incidence–lumbar lordosis mismatch (|PI-LL|), as well as changes in LL, |PI-LL|, and SVA. The authors also considered relative abdominal girth and the size of the paraspinal muscles at the UIV.

RESULTS

One hundred sixty-nine patients met inclusion criteria. On univariate analysis, PJK was associated with a larger preoperative SVA (p < 0.001) and |PI-LL| (p = 0.01), and smaller SS (p = 0.004) and LL (p = 0.001). PJK was also associated with more positive postoperative SVA (p = 0.01), ΔSVA (p = 0.01), Δ|PI-LL| (p < 0.001), and ΔLL (p < 0.001); longer construct length (p = 0.005); larger abdominal girth–to-muscle ratio (p = 0.007); and smaller paraspinal muscles at the UIV (p < 0.001). Higher postoperative SVA (OR 1.1 per cm), smaller paraspinal muscles at the UIV (OR 2.11), and more aggressive reduction in |PI-LL| (OR 1.03) were independent predictors of radiographic PJK on multivariate logistic regression.

CONCLUSIONS

A more positive postoperative global sagittal alignment and smaller paraspinal musculature at the UIV most strongly predicted PJK following thoracolumbosacral fusion.

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Soroush Niketeghad, Abirami Muralidharan, Uday Patel, Jessy D. Dorn, Laura Bonelli, Robert J. Greenberg and Nader Pouratian

Stimulation of primary visual cortices has the potential to restore some degree of vision to blind individuals. Developing safe and reliable visual cortical prostheses requires assessment of the long-term stability, feasibility, and safety of generating stimulation-evoked perceptions.

A NeuroPace responsive neurostimulation system was implanted in a blind individual with an 8-year history of bare light perception, and stimulation-evoked phosphenes were evaluated over 19 months (41 test sessions). Electrical stimulation was delivered via two four-contact subdural electrode strips implanted over the right medial occipital cortex. Current and charge thresholds for eliciting visual perception (phosphenes) were measured, as were the shape, size, location, and intensity of the phosphenes. Adverse events were also assessed.

Stimulation of all contacts resulted in phosphene perception. Phosphenes appeared completely or partially in the left hemifield. Stimulation of the electrodes below the calcarine sulcus elicited phosphenes in the superior hemifield and vice versa. Changing the stimulation parameters of frequency, pulse width, and burst duration affected current thresholds for eliciting phosphenes, and increasing the amplitude or frequency of stimulation resulted in brighter perceptions. While stimulation thresholds decreased between an average of 5% and 12% after 19 months, spatial mapping of phosphenes remained consistent over time. Although no serious adverse events were observed, the subject experienced mild headaches and dizziness in three instances, symptoms that did not persist for more than a few hours and for which no clinical intervention was required.

Using an off-the-shelf neurostimulator, the authors were able to reliably generate phosphenes in different areas of the visual field over 19 months with no serious adverse events, providing preliminary proof of feasibility and safety to proceed with visual epicortical prosthetic clinical trials. Moreover, they systematically explored the relationship between stimulation parameters and phosphene thresholds and discovered the direct relation of perception thresholds based on primary visual cortex (V1) neuronal population excitation thresholds.

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Jay Riva-Cambrin, John R. W. Kestle, Curtis J. Rozzelle, Robert P. Naftel, Jessica S. Alvey, Ron W. Reeder, Richard Holubkov, Samuel R. Browd, D. Douglas Cochrane, David D. Limbrick Jr., Chevis N. Shannon, Tamara D. Simon, Mandeep S. Tamber, John C. Wellons III, William E. Whitehead, Abhaya V. Kulkarni and for the Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network

OBJECTIVE

Endoscopic third ventriculostomy combined with choroid plexus cauterization (ETV+CPC) has been adopted by many pediatric neurosurgeons as an alternative to placing shunts in infants with hydrocephalus. However, reported success rates have been highly variable, which may be secondary to patient selection, operative technique, and/or surgeon training. The objective of this prospective multicenter cohort study was to identify independent patient selection, operative technique, or surgical training predictors of ETV+CPC success in infants.

METHODS

This was a prospective cohort study nested within the Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network’s (HCRN) Core Data Project (registry). All infants under the age of 2 years who underwent a first ETV+CPC between June 2006 and March 2015 from 8 HCRN centers were included. Each patient had a minimum of 6 months of follow-up unless censored by an ETV+CPC failure. Patient and operative risk factors of failure were examined, as well as formal ETV+CPC training, which was defined as traveling to and working with the experienced surgeons at CURE Children’s Hospital of Uganda. ETV+CPC failure was defined as the need for repeat ETV, shunting, or death.

RESULTS

The study contained 191 patients with a primary ETV+CPC conducted by 17 pediatric neurosurgeons within the HCRN. Infants under 6 months corrected age at the time of ETV+CPC represented 79% of the cohort. Myelomeningocele (26%), intraventricular hemorrhage associated with prematurity (24%), and aqueductal stenosis (17%) were the most common etiologies. A total of 115 (60%) of the ETV+CPCs were conducted by surgeons after formal training. Overall, ETV+CPC was successful in 48%, 46%, and 45% of infants at 6 months, 1 year, and 18 months, respectively. Young age (< 1 month) (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] 1.9, 95% CI 1.0–3.6) and an etiology of post–intraventricular hemorrhage secondary to prematurity (aHR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1–3.6) were the only two independent predictors of ETV+CPC failure. Specific subgroups of ages within etiology categories were identified as having higher ETV+CPC success rates. Although training led to more frequent use of the flexible scope (p < 0.001) and higher rates of complete (> 90%) CPC (p < 0.001), training itself was not independently associated (aHR 1.1, 95% CI 0.7–1.8; p = 0.63) with ETV+CPC success.

CONCLUSIONS

This is the largest prospective multicenter North American study to date examining ETV+CPC. Formal ETV+CPC training was not found to be associated with improved procedure outcomes. Specific subgroups of ages within specific hydrocephalus etiologies were identified that may preferentially benefit from ETV+CPC.

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Eric Reseland, Nitin Agarwal, Michael M. McDowell, Jeremy G. Stone, Daniel A. Tonetti, Issam A. Awad, Charles J. Hodge, Karen S. Koenig, Allan H. Friedman and Robert M. Friedlander

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Antoine Jaeger, David Giber, Claire Bastard, Benjamin Thiebaut, François Roubineau, Charles Henri Flouzat Lachaniette and Arnaud Dubory

OBJECTIVE

L5–S1 stand-alone anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) is a reliable technique to treat symptomatic degenerative disc disease but remains controversial for treatment of isthmic spondylolisthesis. In the present study the authors aimed to identify risk factors of instrumentation failure and pseudarthrosis after stand-alone L5–S1 ALIF and to evaluate whether instrumentation failure influenced the rate of fusion.

METHODS

The study included 64 patients (22 [34.4%] male and 42 [65.6%] female, mean age 46.4 years [range 21–65 years]) undergoing stand-alone L5–S1 ALIF using radiolucent anterior cages with Vertebridge plating fixation in each vertebral endplate. Clinical and radiographic data were reviewed, including age, sex, pelvic parameters, segmental sagittal angle (SSA), C7/sacro-femoral distance (SFD) ratio, C7 sagittal tilt, lumbar lordosis (LL), segmental LL, percentage of L5 slippage, L5–S1 disc angle, and posterior disc height ratio. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify risk factors of instrumentation failure and pseudarthrosis.

RESULTS

At a mean follow-up of 15.9 months (range 6.6–27.4 months), fusion had occurred in 57 patients (89.1%). Instrumentation failure was found in 12 patients (18.8%) and pseudarthrosis in 7 patients (10.9%). The following parameters influenced the occurrence of instrumentation failure: presence of isthmic spondylolisthesis (p < 0.001), spondylolisthesis grade (p < 0.001), use of an iliac crest bone autograft (p = 0.04), cage height (p = 0.03), pelvic incidence (PI) (p < 0.001), sacral slope (SS) (p < 0.001), SSA (p = 0.003), and LL (p < 0.001). Instrumentation failure was statistically linked to the occurrence of L5–S1 pseudarthrosis (p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, no risk factors were found.

CONCLUSIONS

L5–S1 isthmic spondylolisthesis and high PI seem to be risk factors for instrumentation failure in case of stand-alone L5–S1 ALIF, findings that support the necessity of adding percutaneous posterior pedicle screw instrumentation in these cases.

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Haruto Uchino, Daina Kashiwazaki, Naoki Akioka, Masaki Koh, Naoya Kuwayama, Kiyohiro Houkin and Satoshi Kuroda

OBJECTIVE

In this study the authors aimed to describe clinical features, surgical techniques, and long-term outcomes of repeat bypass surgery required for a certain subset of patients with moyamoya disease.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively reviewed a total of 22 repeat bypass surgeries for 20 patients (age range 1–69 years) performed during the last 20 years at their institutions. The patients were classified into 2 groups. Group A included 10 patients who underwent repeat bypass surgery for anterior circulation due to insufficient revascularization on the ipsilateral side. Group B included 10 patients who underwent repeat bypass surgery for posterior circulation due to the involvement of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) after successful initial surgery for anterior circulation.

RESULTS

Preoperative symptoms included headache in 3 patients, transient ischemic attack in 10, cerebral infarction in 3, and intracranial hemorrhage in 4 patients. Intervals between the initial bypass surgery and repeat bypass surgery were 0.3–30 years (median 3 years). In group A, superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery (MCA) anastomosis and indirect bypass were performed on 7 hemispheres. Only indirect bypass was performed on 3 hemispheres because of the lack of suitable donor or recipient arteries. In group B, occipital artery (OA) to PCA anastomosis and indirect bypass were conducted on 4 hemispheres, and OA-MCA anastomosis and indirect bypass on 1 hemisphere. Only indirect bypass was conducted on 7 hemispheres because of the lack of suitable recipient arteries. All 22 repeat bypass surgeries were successfully conducted. During follow-up periods (median 4 years), none of the patients suffered repeat stroke except 1 patient who died of recurrent intracerebral hemorrhage 3 years after repeat bypass surgery for anterior circulation.

CONCLUSIONS

Repeat bypass surgery was feasible and effective to reduce further incidence of headache attack, transient ischemic attack, and ischemic/hemorrhagic stroke in moyamoya disease patients. Through precise radiological analysis, surgical procedures should be planned to yield maximal therapeutic effects.