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Open access

Aditya M. Mittal, Kamil W. Nowicki, Ricardo J. Fernández-de Thomas, Jessica Mayor, Ryan M. McEnaney, and Peter C. Gerszten

BACKGROUND

Establishing central venous access is important to provide fluid resuscitation or medications intravenously to patients.

OBSERVATIONS

Although accidental cannulation of the internal carotid artery has been reported in the literature, to our knowledge this report is the first documented intraoperative ultrasound video demonstrating accidental and simultaneous common carotid artery and internal jugular cannulation during central line placement in the internal jugular vein.

LESSONS

Ultrasound use minimizes accidental carotid cannulation during central line placement in the internal jugular vein. Carotid artery puncture can be managed by external application of pressure or surgical reexploration.

Open access

Eric K. H. Chow, Barry M. Rabin, and John Ruge

BACKGROUND

Conditions that can mimic posterior fossa tumors are rare. Their identification is crucial to avoid unnecessary surgical intervention, especially when prompt initiation of medical therapy is critical.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors presented a case of pseudotumoral hemorrhagic cerebellitis in a 3-year-old boy who presented initially with headache, persistent vomiting, and decreased level of consciousness 9 weeks after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a left cerebellar hemorrhagic mass–like lesion with edema and mild hydrocephalus. The patient responded to high-dose steroids and was discharged 2 weeks later with complete recovery.

LESSONS

When evaluating patients with possible tumor syndromes, it is important to also consider rarer inflammatory syndromes that can masquerade as neoplasms. Postinfectious hemorrhagic cerebellitis is one such syndrome.

Open access

Breno W. M. Guedes, Joilson F. de Souza Júnior, Nelson A. D’Avila Melo, João M. B. de Menezes Neto, André Beer-Furlan, and Arthur M. P. Oliveira

BACKGROUND

Meningiomas are the most frequent primary tumors in the central nervous system (CNS), but intraorbital location is uncommon and accounts for only 0.2% to 4% of all CNS meningiomas. Lesions in this compartment could be classified as primary, secondary, or ectopic. The close relationship with the optic nerve sheath is a landmark to identify the tumor as primary, whereas secondary tumors commonly come from an extension of an intracranial meningioma, and ectopic meningioma is a concept not yet completely established.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors present a rare case of a secondary intraorbital meningioma operated through an endoscopic endonasal approach. Secondary meningiomas at the medial orbit are very uncommon, given their more common superior and lateral location as an extension of sphenoid meningiomas. The endoscopic endonasal route provides direct access to the medial orbit. The authors present an illustrative case of a meningioma located at the medial orbit and resected through an endoscopic endonasal approach that provided excellent visualization and anatomical exposure. Additionally, the authors review the concept and possible similarities between secondary and ectopic intraorbital meningiomas.

LESSONS

An endoscopic endonasal approach should be considered as a feasible treatment option for intraorbital meningiomas, especially if they are in the medial orbital wall.

Open access

Nolan Winslow, Jonathan Garst, James J. Klemens, and Andrew J. Tsung

BACKGROUND

Pituitary adenoma is a neurosurgical pathology commonly resected via endoscopic endonasal approach. Septal and nasal passage anatomy can affect the surgical corridor and may require septoplasty or other techniques for expansion.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors presented a case of pituitary macroadenoma with septal deviation with use of balloon-assisted nasal access for surgery.

LESSONS

This technique enhanced surgical width of field and instrument maneuverability via septal medialization for successful tumor resection.

Restricted access

Christopher T. Martin, Kenneth J. Holton, Benjamin D. Elder, Jeremy L. Fogelson, Anthony L. Mikula, Christopher J. Kleck, David Calabrese, Evalina L. Burger, David Ou-Yang, Vikas V. Patel, Han Jo Kim, Francis Lovecchio, Serena S. Hu, Kirkham B. Wood, Robert Harper, S. Tim Yoon, Dheera Ananthakrishnan, Keith W. Michael, Adam J. Schell, Isador H. Lieberman, Stanley Kisinde, Christopher J. DeWald, Michael T. Nolte, Matthew W. Colman, Frank M. Phillips, Daniel E. Gelb, Jacob Bruckner, Lindsey B. Ross, J. Patrick Johnson, Terrence T. Kim, Neel Anand, Joseph S. Cheng, Zach Plummer, Paul Park, Mark E. Oppenlander, Jonathan N. Sembrano, Kristen E. Jones, and David W. Polly Jr.

OBJECTIVE

There are few prior reports of acute pelvic instrumentation failure in spinal deformity surgery. The objective of this study was to determine if a previously identified mechanism and rate of pelvic fixation failure were present across multiple institutions, and to determine risk factors for these types of failures.

METHODS

Thirteen academic medical centers performed a retrospective review of 18 months of consecutive adult spinal fusions extending 3 or more levels, which included new pelvic screws at the time of surgery. Acute pelvic fixation failure was defined as occurring within 6 months of the index surgery and requiring surgical revision.

RESULTS

Failure occurred in 37 (5%) of 779 cases and consisted of either slippage of the rods or displacement of the set screws from the screw tulip head (17 cases), screw shaft fracture (9 cases), screw loosening (9 cases), and/or resultant kyphotic fracture of the sacrum (6 cases). Revision strategies involved new pelvic fixation and/or multiple rod constructs. Six patients (16%) who underwent revision with fewer than 4 rods to the pelvis sustained a second acute failure, but no secondary failures occurred when at least 4 rods were used. In the univariate analysis, the magnitude of surgical correction was higher in the failure cohort (higher preoperative T1-pelvic angle [T1PA], presence of a 3-column osteotomy; p < 0.05). Uncorrected postoperative deformity increased failure risk (pelvic incidence–lumbar lordosis mismatch > 10°, higher postoperative T1PA; p < 0.05). Use of pelvic screws less than 8.5 mm in diameter also increased the likelihood of failure (p < 0.05). In the multivariate analysis, a larger preoperative global deformity as measured by T1PA was associated with failure, male patients were more likely to experience failure than female patients, and there was a strong association with implant manufacturer (p < 0.05). Anterior column support with an L5–S1 interbody fusion was protective against failure (p < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS

Acute catastrophic failures involved large-magnitude surgical corrections and likely resulted from high mechanical strain on the pelvic instrumentation. Patients with large corrections may benefit from anterior structural support placed at the most caudal motion segment and multiple rods connecting to more than 2 pelvic fixation points. If failure occurs, salvage with a minimum of 4 rods and 4 pelvic fixation points can be successful.

Restricted access

Youngbo Shim, Ji Hoon Phi, Kyu-Chang Wang, Byung-Kyu Cho, Ji Yeoun Lee, Eun Jung Koh, Kyung Hyun Kim, Eun Jung Lee, Ki Joong Kim, and Seung-Ki Kim

OBJECTIVE

One-fourth of cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) patients are children, but studies on these patients are scarce. This study aimed to identify the clinical presentation of pediatric CCM patients and to investigate clinical outcomes according to the treatment modalities applied on the basis of our institution’s treatment strategy.

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective analysis of 124 pediatric CCM patients with a follow-up of more than 1 year from 2000 to 2019. They performed resection (n = 62) on lesions causing intractable seizure, rebleeding, or mass effect and observed the clinical courses of patients with lesions in deep or eloquent areas without persistent symptoms (n = 52). Radiosurgery (n = 10) was performed when the patient refused resection or strongly desired radiosurgery. The authors investigated the clinical characteristics, performance status (modified Rankin Scale [mRS] score), and rebleeding rate at the 1-year and last follow-up examinations and compared these among 3 groups classified on the basis of treatment applied. The authors evaluated seizure outcomes at the 1-year and last follow-up examinations for the surgery (n = 32) and observation (n = 17) groups. Finally, the authors drew cumulative incidence curves for the discontinuation of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) for patients in the surgery (n = 30) and observation (n = 9) groups.

RESULTS

The 3 groups showed slight differences in initial symptoms, lesion locations, and rates of recent hemorrhage. The proportion of patients with improved mRS score at the 1-year follow-up was significantly greater in the surgery group than in the other groups (67% of the surgery group, 52% observation group, and 40% radiosurgery group; p = 0.078), as well as at the last follow-up (73% surgery group, 54% observation group, and 60% radiosurgery group; p = 0.097). The surgery group also had the lowest rebleeding rate during the follow-up period (2% surgery group, 11% observation group, and 20% radiosurgery group; p = 0.021). At the 1-year follow-up, the proportion of seizure-free patients without AEDs was significantly higher in the surgery group than the observation group (88% surgery group vs 53% observation group, p < 0.001), and similar results were obtained at the last follow-up (91% surgery group vs 56% observation group, p = 0.05). The 5-year AED-free rates for the surgery and observation groups were 94% and 50%, respectively, on the cumulative incidence curve (p = 0.049).

CONCLUSIONS

The clinical presentation of pediatric CCM patients was not significantly different from that of adult patients. Lesionectomy may be acceptable for pediatric CCM patients with indications of persistent seizures despite AED medications, rebleeding, and mass effects.

Restricted access

Paul N. Porensky, Patrick R. Maloney, Jeeho D. Kim, Justin A. Dye, and Peter C. Liacouras

OBJECTIVE

Decompressive craniectomy (DC) is the definitive neurosurgical treatment for managing refractory malignant cerebral edema and intracranial hypertension due to combat-related severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). To date, the long-term outcomes and sequelae of this procedure on host-country national (HCN) populations during Operation Iraqi Freedom (Iraq, 2003–2011), Operation Enduring Freedom (Afghanistan, 2001–2014), and Operation Freedom’s Sentinel (Afghanistan, 2015–2021) have not been described, specifically the process and results of delayed custom synthetic cranioplasty. The Joint Trauma System’s Clinical Practice Guidelines (JTS-CPG) for severe head injury counsels surgeons to discard the cranial osseous explant when treating coalition service members. Ongoing political and healthcare system instabilities often preclude opportunities for delayed cranioplasty by host-country assets. Various surgical options (such as hinge craniectomy) are inadequate in the setting of complicated cranial comminution from blast or missile injuries, severe cerebral edema, grossly contaminated wounds, complex polytrauma, and tissue devitalization. Delayed cranioplasty with a custom synthetic implant is a viable but logistically challenging alternative. In this retrospective review, the authors present the first patient series describing delayed custom synthetic cranioplasty in an HCN population performed during active military conflict.

METHODS

Patients were identified through the Joint Trauma System/Theater Medical Data Store, and subgroup analyses were performed to include mechanisms of injury, surgical complications, and clinical outcomes.

RESULTS

Twenty-five patients underwent DC between 2012 and 2020 to treat penetrating, blast, and high-energy closed head injuries per JTS-CPG criteria. The average time from injury to surgery was 1.4 days, although 6 patients received delayed care (3–6 days) due to protracted evacuation from local hospitals. Delayed care correlated with an increased rate of intracranial abscess and empyema. The average time to cranioplasty was 134 days due to a lack of robust mechanisms for patient follow-up, tracking, and access to NATO hospitals. HCN patients who recovered from DC demonstrated overall benefit from custom synthetic cranioplasty, although formal statistical analysis was impeded by a lack of long-term follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS

This review demonstrates that cranioplasty with a custom synthetic implant is a safe and feasible treatment for vulnerable HCN patients who survive their index DC surgery. This unique paradigm of care highlights the capabilities of deployed neurosurgical healthcare teams working in partnership with the prosthetics laboratory at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center.

Open access

Matthew L. Carlson, Christine M. Lohse, Michael J. Link, Nicole M. Tombers, Devin L. McCaslin, Aniket A. Saoji, Melanie Hutchins, and Kathleen J. Yost

OBJECTIVE

Facial nerve function, hearing preservation, and tumor control have been the primary benchmarks used to assess vestibular schwannoma (VS) outcomes. Acknowledging the frequent discrepancy between what physicians prioritize and what patients value, there has been increasing prioritization of patient-reported outcome measures when evaluating the impact of VS diagnosis and its treatment. Motivated by reported limitations of prior instruments used to assess quality of life (QOL) in patients with VS, the authors describe the development and validation of a new disease-specific QOL measure: the Vestibular Schwannoma Quality of Life (VSQOL) Index.

METHODS

The content development phase comprised identification of clinically important domains and prioritization of feelings or concerns individuals with VS may have. The validation phase encompassed determining how items were grouped into domains and eliminating redundant items. Both phases leveraged data from cross-sectional and longitudinal surveys, expertise from a multidisciplinary working group, and patients with a broad range of experiences with VS (n = 42 during content development and n = 263 during validation). Domain scores from the new instrument were assessed for reliability and correlation with other measures of similar constructs.

RESULTS

The VSQOL Index consists of 40 items that evaluate the impact of VS diagnosis and its management on QOL, treatment satisfaction, and employment and is estimated to take 8–10 minutes to complete. Domain scores range from 0 (worst) to 100 (best) and demonstrate excellent psychometric properties, including content, construct, and convergent validity and both internal consistency (Cronbach’s alphas 0.83 to 0.91) and test-retest reliability (reliability coefficients 0.86 to 0.96).

CONCLUSIONS

The VSQOL Index is a valid and reliable measure that overcomes several limitations of prior instruments, including omission or underrepresentation of domains that frequently impact well-being, such as pain, cognition, satisfaction or regret surrounding treatment decisions, and occupational limitations, to comprehensively evaluate the impact of VS diagnosis or its treatment on QOL.

Restricted access

Sébastien Boissonneau, Anne-Laure Lemaître, Guillaume Herbet, Sam Ng, Hugues Duffau, and Sylvie Moritz-Gasser

OBJECTIVE

Reading proficiency is an important skill for personal and socio-professional daily life. Neurocognitive models underlie a dual-route organization for word reading, in which information is processed by both a dorsal phonological "assembled phonology route" and a ventral lexical-semantic "addressed phonology route." Because proficient reading should not be reduced to the ability to read words one after another, the current study was designed to shed light on the neural bases specifically underpinning text reading and the relative contributions of each route to this skill.

METHODS

Twenty-two patients with left-sided, diffuse, low-grade glioma who underwent operations while awake were included. They were divided into 3 groups on the basis of tumor location: the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) group (n = 6), inferior temporal gyrus (Tinf) group (n = 6), and fronto-insular (control) group (n = 10). Spoken language and reading abilities were tested in all patients the day before surgery, during surgery, and 3 months after surgery, and cognitive functioning was evaluated before and 3 months after surgery. Text-reading scores obtained before and 3 months after surgery were compared within each group and between groups, correlations between reading scores and both spoken language and cognitive scores were calculated, postoperative cortical-subcortical resection location was estimated, and multiple regression analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between reading proficiency and lesion location.

RESULTS

The results indicated that only the patients in the IPL group showed a significant decrease in text-reading scores between periods, which was not associated with lower scores in naming or verbal fluency; patients in the Tinf group showed a slight nonsignificant decrease in text reading between periods, which was associated with a clear decrease in naming and semantic verbal fluency; and patients in the control group showed no differences between preoperative and postoperative reading and spoken language scores. The results of the analysis of these behavioral results and anatomical data (resection cavities and white matter damage) suggest critical roles for the left inferior parietal lobule and underlying white matter connectivity, especially the posterior segment of the arcuate fasciculus, in proficient text reading.

CONCLUSIONS

Text-reading proficiency may depend on not only the integrity of both processing routes but also their capacity for interaction, with critical roles for the left inferior parietal lobule and posterior arcuate fasciculus. These findings have fundamental as well as clinical implications.