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Open access

Carlos Candanedo, Kobi Goldstein, José E. Cohen, and Sergey Spektor

The authors present the case of an 18-year-old male with a deep-seated left fusiform dissecting M3 aneurysm for which endovascular treatment was not applicable. At the open surgery, they used the less commonly reported FLOW 800 fluorescent indocyanine green (ICG) videoangiography, before and after parental aneurysmal artery temporary clipping, to locate the distal outflow branch of the aneurysm and use it as the recipient artery for a superficial temporal artery–M4 bypass, excluding the aneurysm by clipping the parental artery. Repeated ICG FLOW 800 angiography confirmed bypass patency and adequate blood flow. The aneurysm’s exclusion from circulation was confirmed by digital subtraction angiography postoperatively.

The video can be found here: https://stream.cadmore.media/r10.3171/2021.10.FOCVID21183

Open access

Guilherme H. W. Ceccato, Júlia S. de Oliveira, Pedro H. dos Santos Neto, Nick D. Carvalho, Vinicius N. Coelho, Hugo A. Hasegawa, Sergio L. Sprengel, Marcio S. Rassi, and Luis A. B. Borba

Ischemia of the optic nerve (ON) is an important cause of visual field deficit provoked by tuberculum sellae (TS) meningiomas. Indocyanine green (ICG) videoangiography could provide prognostic information. Moreover, it allows new insight into the pathophysiology of visual disturbance. The authors present the case of a 48-year-old woman with visual field impairment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) depicted a lesion highly suggestive of a TS meningioma. Following microsurgical resection, ICG videoangiography demonstrated improvement of right ON pial blood supply. In this case, there was one lesion causing visual impairment through both direct compression over the left ON and ischemia to the right nerve.

The video can be found here: https://stream.cadmore.media/r10.3171/2021.10.FOCVID21155

Open access

Nicholas B. Dadario, Charles Teo, and Michael E. Sughrue

In this video, the authors present a connectome-guided surgical resection of an insular glioma in a 39-year-old woman. Preoperative study with constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD)–based tractography revealed the surrounding brain connectome architecture around the tumor relevant for safe surgical resection. Connectomic information provided detailed maps of the surrounding language and salience networks, including eloquent white matter fibers and cortical regions, which were visualized intraoperatively with image guidance and artificial intelligence (AI)–based brain mapping software. Microsurgical dissection is presented with detailed discussion of the safe boundaries and angles of resection when entering the insular operculum defined by connectomic information.

The video can be found here: https://stream.cadmore.media/r10.3171/2021.10.FOCVID21194

Open access

Laura Salgado-Lopez, Holly Oemke, Rui Feng, Stavros Matsoukas, J Mocco, Raj Shrivastava, and Joshua Bederson

In this video, the authors highlight the applications of virtual reality and heads-up display in skull base surgery by presenting the case of a 45-year-old woman with an incidental large clinoid meningioma extending into the posterior fossa. The patient underwent preoperative endovascular tumor embolization to facilitate tumor resection and reduce blood loss, followed by a right pterional craniotomy. The use of intraoperative Doppler, intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring, and endoscope-assisted microsurgery is also featured. A subtotal resection was planned given tumor encasement of the posterior communicating and anterior choroidal arteries. No new neurological deficits were noted after the surgical procedure.

The video can be found here: https://stream.cadmore.media/r10.3171/2021.10.FOCVID21177

Open access

Constantinos Hadjipanayis, Steven N. Kalkanis, John Y. K. Lee, and Nader Sanai

Free access

Nicholas Theodore, Lola B. Chambless, Roger Hartl, Corinna C. Zygourakis, Bowen Jiang, and Themistocles S. Protopsaltis

Free access

Zach Pennington, Brendan F. Judy, Hesham M. Zakaria, Nikita Lakomkin, Anthony L. Mikula, Benjamin D. Elder, and Nicholas Theodore

OBJECTIVE

Spine robots have seen increased utilization over the past half decade with the introduction of multiple new systems. Market research expects this expansion to continue over the next half decade at an annual rate of 20%. However, because of the novelty of these devices, there is limited literature on their learning curves and how they should be integrated into residency curricula. With the present review, the authors aimed to address these two points.

METHODS

A systematic review of the published English-language literature on PubMed, Ovid, Scopus, and Web of Science was conducted to identify studies describing the learning curve in spine robotics. Included articles described clinical results in patients using one of the following endpoints: operative time, screw placement time, fluoroscopy usage, and instrumentation accuracy. Systems examined included the Mazor series, the ExcelsiusGPS, and the TiRobot. Learning curves were reported in a qualitative synthesis, given as the mean improvement in the endpoint per case performed or screw placed where possible. All studies were level IV case series with a high risk of reporting bias.

RESULTS

Of 1579 unique articles, 97 underwent full-text review and 21 met the inclusion and exclusion criteria; 62 articles were excluded for not presenting primary data for one of the above-described endpoints. Of the 21 articles, 18 noted the presence of a learning curve in spine robots, which ranged from 3 to 30 cases or 15 to 62 screws. Only 12 articles performed regressions of one of the endpoints (most commonly operative time) as a function of screws placed or cases performed. Among these, increasing experience was associated with a 0.24- to 4.6-minute decrease in operative time per case performed. All but one series described the experience of attending surgeons, not residents.

CONCLUSIONS

Most studies of learning curves with spine robots have found them to be present, with the most common threshold being 20 to 30 cases performed. Unfortunately, all available evidence is level IV data, limited to case series. Given the ability of residency to allow trainees to safely perform these cases under the supervision of experienced senior surgeons, it is argued that a curriculum should be developed for senior-level residents specializing in spine comprising a minimum of 30 performed cases.

Open access

Sabino Luzzi and Alice Giotta Lucifero

Maximal safe resection is the goal of insular glioma surgery. The combination of intraoperative augmented reality (AR) diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) fiber tracking with fluorescein dye (F) helps achieve this goal throughout a microscope-based visualization of the tumor and white matter fiber tracts.

The aim of the present video article was to show the technical key aspects of DTI-F microscope-based AR-assisted surgery during the gross-total resection of an insular Berger-Sanai type I+IV high-grade glioma in a 63-year-old patient, performed through a pterional transsylvian approach.

The video can be found here: https://stream.cadmore.media/r10.3171/2021.10.FOCVID2157

Free access

Ruochu Xiong, Shiyu Zhang, Zhichao Gan, Ziyu Qi, Minghang Liu, Xinghua Xu, Qun Wang, Jiashu Zhang, Fangye Li, and Xiaolei Chen

OBJECTIVE

A clear, stable, suitably located vision field is essential for port surgery. A scope is usually held by hand or a fixing device. The former yields fatigue and requires lengthy training, while the latter increases inconvenience because of needing to adjust the scope. Thus, the authors innovated a novel robotic system that can recognize the port and automatically place the scope in an optimized position. In this study, the authors executed a preliminary experiment to test this system’s technical feasibility and accuracy in vitro.

METHODS

A collaborative robotic (CoBot) system consisting of a mechatronic arm and a 3D camera was developed. With the 3D camera and programmed machine vision, CoBot can search a marker attached to the opening of the surgical port, followed by automatic alignment of the scope’s axis with the port’s longitudinal axis so that optimal illumination and visual observation can be achieved. Three tests were conducted. In test 1, the robot positioned a laser range finder attached to the robot’s arm to align the sheath’s center axis. The laser successfully passing through two holes in the port sheath’s central axis defined successful positioning. Researchers recorded the finder’s readings, demonstrating the actual distance between the finder and the sheath. In test 2, the robot held a high-definition exoscope and relocated it to the setting position. Test 3 was similar to test 2, but a metal holder substituted the robot. Trained neurosurgeons manually adjusted the holder. The manipulation time was recorded. Additionally, a grading system was designed to score each image captured by the exoscope at the setting position, and the scores in the two tests were compared using the rank-sum test.

RESULTS

The CoBot system positioned the finder successfully in all rounds in test 1; the mean height errors ± SD were 1.14 mm ± 0.38 mm (downward) and 1.60 mm ± 0.89 mm (upward). The grading scores of images in tests 2 and 3 were significantly different. Regarding the total score and four subgroups, test 2 showed a more precise, better-positioned, and more stable vision field. The total manipulation time in test 2 was 20 minutes, and for test 3 it was 52 minutes.

CONCLUSIONS

The CoBot system successfully acted as a robust scope holding system to provide a stable and optimized surgical view during simulated port surgery, providing further evidence for the substitution of human hands, and leading to a more efficient, user-friendly, and precise operation.

Open access

Sanjay Konakondla, Nelson Sofoluke, Sean M. Barber, Sarah A. Rimini, and Jonathan R. Slotkin

Thoracic disc herniations can cause radiculopathy and myelopathy from neural compression. Surgical resection may require complex, morbid approaches. To avoid spinal cord retraction, wide exposures requiring extensive tissue, muscle, and bony disruption are needed, which may require instrumentation. Anterior approaches may require vascular surgeons, chest tube placement, and intensive care admission. Large, calcified discs or migrated fragments can pose additional challenges. Previous literature has noted the endoscopic approach to be contraindicated for calcified thoracic discs. The authors describe an ultra–minimally invasive, ambulatory endoscopic approach to resect a large calcified thoracic disc with caudal migration and avoidance of conventional approaches.

The video can be found here: https://stream.cadmore.media/r10.3171/2021.10.FOCVID2112