Browse

You are looking at 51 - 60 of 4,810 items for :

  • Neurosurgical Focus x
  • Refine by Access: all x
Clear All
Free access

Stereotactic radiosurgery with versus without embolization for intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Seyed Farzad Maroufi, Mohammad Sadegh Fallahi, Moein Ghasemi, and Jason P. Sheehan

OBJECTIVE

Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has been established as a safe and alternative treatment for dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs). While embolization alone is the most commonly used modality for the treatment of dAVFs, the adjunctive use of embolization with SRS, with the growing use of SRS, has gained increasing interest in the past few years. However, the relative efficacy and safety of SRS combined with embolization versus SRS alone for dAVFs remains uncertain. Hence, this systematic review aimed to evaluate the efficacy of SRS with adjunctive embolization for intracranial dAVFs.

METHODS

A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted by searching electronic databases, including PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library, up to August 2023. All studies evaluating the utilization of adjunctive embolization and SRS for dAVFs were included. Risk of bias was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. A meta-analysis was conducted on the suitable outcomes.

RESULTS

Eighteen studies involving 715 patients were included. The mean age of the participants in the study was 64.30 years in the adjunctive embolization group and 60.51 years in the SRS-alone group. In the adjunctive embolization group 41.3% of patients were female, compared with 47.1% in the SRS-only group. The dAVF obliteration rates were 64.7% and 65.7% in the adjunctive embolization and SRS-alone groups, respectively. These obliteration rates were comparable between the two groups (p = 0.96), as were the symptom improvement rates (p = 0.35). Adverse events were rare, and were more commonly associated with the adjunctive embolization procedure, although further causal analysis was not possible.

CONCLUSIONS

This study provides evidence that adjunctive embolization plus SRS provides similar obliteration and symptom improvement rates compared with SRS alone, with both having very limited SRS-related adverse events. Considering the added burden and adverse events of additional endovascular treatment, the authors recommend embolization be reserved for more complex dAVFs or when embolization can potentially be curative alone or provide more rapid symptomatic relief or protection during the radiosurgical latency period.

Free access

Treatment outcomes and the role of the DES scheme in the appropriate treatment selection for high-grade dural arteriovenous fistulas

Benjamin Beyersdorf, Stefanos Voglis, Guoming Zhao, Johannes Sarnthein, Luca Regli, and Menno R. Germans

OBJECTIVE

Endovascular and microsurgical treatment are viable options for the majority of Borden type III dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs). The aim of this study was to examine treatment outcomes in a comparative analysis of endovascular and surgical treatment modalities for Borden type III fistulas and explore clinical implications of the DES scheme in selecting ideal candidates for surgical therapy.

METHODS

Patients diagnosed with dAVFs with leptomeningeal venous drainage admitted to the Departments of Neurosurgery or Neuroradiology of the University Hospital Zurich between January 2014 and October 2021 were included in this study. Comprehensive patient data including demographics, clinical presentation, and dAVF characteristics, including established classifications, were collected. Treatment outcomes were assessed based on postinterventional angiography findings. In addition, treatment-related complications were assessed based on the Clavien-Dindo classification.

RESULTS

Among all Borden type III dAVFs, 15 were initially treated endovascularly (60% complete occlusion rate) and 10 with microsurgical disconnection (90% complete occlusion rate) (p = 0.18). Subgroup analysis of dAVFs meeting the criteria for directness and exclusivity based on the DES scheme showed a 100% complete occlusion rate after microsurgical disconnection, whereas embolization achieved a complete occlusion rate of 60% (p = 0.06). There was no significant difference in the rate or severity of treatment-related complications between treatment modalities.

CONCLUSIONS

This study suggests that microsurgical disconnection is a viable primary treatment modality for Borden type III dAVFs, particularly for dAVFs that meet the criteria of directness and exclusivity according to the DES scheme. The DES scheme demonstrates its relevance in selecting the most appropriate treatment strategy for affected patients.

Free access

Awake brain mapping paradigms for nondominant hemisphere gliomas

Justyna O. Ekert, David S. Sabsevitz, Isabel Martin del Campo, Anshit Goyal, Conor S. Gillespie, Erik H. Middlebrooks, Kaisorn L. Chaichana, Keng Siang Lee, Jesus E. Sanchez-Garavito, and Alfredo Quiñones-Hinojosa

OBJECTIVE

Traditionally, resection of nondominant hemisphere brain tumors was performed under general anesthesia. An improved understanding of right-lateralized neural networks has led to a paradigm shift in recent decades, where the right or nondominant hemisphere is no longer perceived as "functionally silent." There is an increasing interest in awake brain mapping for nondominant hemisphere resections. The objective of this study was to perform a comprehensive review of the existing brain mapping paradigms for patients with nondominant hemisphere gliomas undergoing awake craniotomies.

METHODS

In accordance with PRISMA guidelines, systematic searches of the Medline, Embase, and American Psychological Association PsycInfo databases were undertaken from database inception to July 1, 2023. Studies providing a description of the intraoperative mapping paradigm used to assess cognition during an awake craniotomy for resection of a nondominant hemisphere glioma were included.

RESULTS

The search yielded 1084 potentially eligible articles. Thirty-nine unique studies reporting on 788 patients were included in the systematic review. The most frequently tested cognitive domains in patients with nondominant hemisphere tumors were spatial attention/neglect (17/39 studies, 43.6%), speech-motor/language (17/39 studies, 43.6%), and social cognition (9/39 studies, 23.1%). Within the frontal lobe, the highest number of positive mapping sites was identified for speech-motor/language, spatial attention/neglect, dual tasking assessing motor and language function, working memory, and social cognition. Within the parietal lobe, eloquence was most frequently found upon testing spatial attention/neglect, speech-motor/language, and calculation. Within the temporal lobe, the assessment of spatial attention/neglect yielded the highest number of positive mapping sites.

CONCLUSIONS

Cognitive testing in the nondominant hemisphere is predominantly focused on evaluating two domains: spatial attention/neglect and the motor aspects of speech/language. Multidisciplinary teams involved in awake brain mapping should consider testing an extended range of functions to minimize the risk of postoperative deficits and provide valuable information about anatomo-functional organization of cognitive networks.

Free access

Awake intraoperative mapping for the prevention of amusia

Linda Wang, Dominique Higgins, Mychael Delgardo, Cory Chang, Marla J. Hamberger, and Guy M. McKhann

The authors describe the awake surgical mapping of music skills for patients who require resection in brain areas that may support musical abilities. A 65-year-old man was diagnosed with an anterolateral right temporal nonenhancing lesion, likely a diffusely infiltrating glioma, after presenting with several episodes of altered taste and smell and one episode of loss of consciousness. The patient specializes in music and music technology and has composed scores for films. An awake surgery was planned in a semiseated position. Prerecorded melodies were designed preoperatively as a surrogate for a composition skill task. These consisted of 10- to 15-second musical clips played during bipolar electrical stimulation of the overlying cortex and were divided into three segments: listen, play, and accuracy check. During the "listen" phase, the patient listened to a musical prompt. During the "play" phase, he played a musical response on a keyboard. Stimulation at multiple temporal neocortical sites was negative for any alteration in task performance. The patient did well postoperatively with excellent clinical and radiographic results and returned to composing music without functional compromise. Musical composition tasks can be performed safely intraoperatively for patients with musical expertise. Whether stimulating more posterior nondominant temporal neocortex or other cortical or white matter locations can disrupt this task remains undetermined.

Free access

From molecular signatures to radiomics: tailoring neurooncological strategies through forecasting of glioma growth

Philip Rauch, Martin Aichholzer, Carlo Serra, Olivier Zanier, Victor E. Staartjes, Petra Böhm, Gregor Seyer, Helga Wagner, Ilja Manakov, Michael Sonnberger, Nico Stroh, Stefan Aspalter, Kathrin Aufschnaiter-Hiessböck, Tobias Rossmann, Annette Leibetseder, Stefan Katletz, Andreas Gruber, Matthias Gmeiner, and Harald Stefanits

OBJECTIVE

Contemporary oncological paradigms for adjuvant treatment of low- and intermediate-grade gliomas are often guided by a limited array of parameters, overlooking the dynamic nature of the disease. The authors’ aim was to develop a comprehensive multivariate glioma growth model based on multicentric data, to facilitate more individualized therapeutic strategies.

METHODS

Random slope models with subject-specific random intercepts were fitted to a retrospective cohort of grade II and III gliomas from the database at Kepler University Hospital (n = 191) to predict future mean tumor diameters. Deep learning–based radiomics was used together with a comprehensive clinical dataset and evaluated on an external prospectively collected validation cohort from University Hospital Zurich (n = 9). Prediction quality was assessed via mean squared prediction error.

RESULTS

A mean squared prediction error of 0.58 cm for the external validation cohort was achieved, indicating very good prognostic value. The mean ± SD time to adjuvant therapy was 28.7 ± 43.3 months and 16.1 ± 14.6 months for the training and validation cohort, respectively, with a mean of 6.2 ± 5 and 3.6 ± 0.7, respectively, for number of observations. The observed mean tumor diameter per year was 0.38 cm (95% CI 0.25–0.51) for the training cohort, and 1.02 cm (95% CI 0.78–2.82) for the validation cohort. Glioma of the superior frontal gyrus showed a higher rate of tumor growth than insular glioma. Oligodendroglioma showed less pronounced growth, anaplastic astrocytoma—unlike anaplastic oligodendroglioma—was associated with faster tumor growth. Unlike the impact of extent of resection, isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) had negligible influence on tumor growth. Inclusion of radiomics variables significantly enhanced the prediction performance of the random slope model used.

CONCLUSIONS

The authors developed an advanced statistical model to predict tumor volumes both pre- and postoperatively, using comprehensive data prior to the initiation of adjuvant therapy. Using radiomics enhanced the precision of the prediction models. Whereas tumor extent of resection and topology emerged as influential factors in tumor growth, the IDH status did not. This study emphasizes the imperative of advanced computational methods in refining personalized low-grade glioma treatment, advocating a move beyond traditional paradigms.

Free access

Introduction: Contemporary management of low-grade gliomas: from tumor biology to the patient’s quality of life

Hugues Duffau, Mitchel Berger, Priscilla K. Brastianos, Nader Sanai, Emmanuel Mandonnet, and Guy M. McKhann II

Free access

Is intraoperative mapping of music performance mandatory to preserve skills in professional musicians? Awake surgery for lower-grade glioma conducted from a meta-networking perspective

Jesús Martín-Fernández, Sylvie Moritz-Gasser, Guillaume Herbet, and Hugues Duffau

OBJECTIVE

In surgery for lower-grade glioma (LGG) in professional musicians, for whom preserving music ability is essential, a critical question has emerged, namely, is it mandatory to include music performance during awake mapping, as proposed in several reports? In fact, music ability is subserved by a mosaic of interactive cognitive and emotional processes that rest on several networks. Therefore, from a meta-network perspective, the authors investigated whether an integrated multimodal monitoring of these cognitive and emotional functions during stimulation mapping could be efficient in maintaining musical skill. Indeed, it could be difficult for a patient to play a musical instrument in the surgical setting in addition to performing other tasks, such as movement and language.

METHODS

An awake mapping–guided resection for LGG without intraoperative music performance was performed in 3 professional musicians. Intraoperative tests were tailored to each patient depending on the critical corticosubcortical circuits surrounding the tumor, including not only sensorimotor or language skills but also higher-order functions with a constant multitasking during the resection.

RESULTS

Although music skills were not mapped during surgery, all patients resumed their professional activities, preserving the ability to play music and to perform concerts, to teach and to compose music, or to start learning a new instrument.

CONCLUSIONS

A connectome-based resection without intraoperative music performance seems effective in achieving maximal glioma removal while preserving crucial networks subserving musical skills, creativity, and music learning. Neurosurgery should evolve toward a meta-networking approach to better understand higher-order functions mediating complex behavior, such as being a professional musician.

Free access

Radiographic growth rate as a predictor of aggressiveness of diffuse gliomas without 1p19q codeletion

Arthur Leclerc, Alexandre Roux, Angela Elia, Sophie Peeters, Oumaima Aboubakr, Aziz Bedioui, Martin Planet, Joseph Benzakoun, Giorgia Antonia Simboli, Arnault Tauziede-Espariat, Alessandro Moiraghi, Pascale Varlet, Fabrice Chrétien, Catherine Oppenheim, Marc Zanello, and Johan Pallud

OBJECTIVE

The 2021 WHO classification of CNS tumors has refined the definition of adult-type diffuse gliomas without 1p19q codeletion. Nevertheless, the aggressiveness of gliomas is based exclusively on histomolecular criteria performed on a limited sample of the tumor. The authors aimed to assess whether the spontaneous radiographic tumor growth rate is associated with tumor aggressiveness and allows preoperative identification of malignancy grade of adult-type diffuse gliomas without 1p19q codeletion.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively reviewed the records of adult patients harboring a newly diagnosed supratentorial diffuse glioma without 1p19q codeletion, with available preoperative MRI follow-up between January 2008 and April 2022. The spontaneous radiographic tumor growth rate was quantified by tumor volume segmentation and regression of the evolution of the mean tumor diameter over time and was compared with clinical, imaging, histomolecular, and survival data.

RESULTS

Ninety-six patients were included. The spontaneous radiographic tumor growth rates (mean 17.8 ± 38.8 mm/year, range 0–243.5 mm/year) significantly varied according to IDH1/2 mutation (p < 0.001), grade of malignancy (p < 0.001), and presence of microvascular proliferation (p < 0.001). The spontaneous radiographic tumor growth rate allowed preoperative identification of high-grade cases: 100% of grade 3 and 4 IDH-mutant diffuse astrocytomas had a spontaneous radiographic tumor growth rate ≥ 8.0 mm/year, and 100% of IDH–wild-type glioblastomas had a spontaneous radiographic tumor growth rate ≥ 42.0 mm/year. A spontaneous radiographic growth rate ≥ 8.0 mm/year was an independent predictor of shorter progression-free (p = 0.014) and overall (p = 0.007) survival. A mitotic count threshold ≥ 4 mitoses was the optimal threshold for identifying aggressive IDH-mutant astrocytomas based on spontaneous radiographic tumor growth.

CONCLUSIONS

The spontaneous radiographic tumor growth rates could be used as an additional tool to preoperatively screen tumor aggressiveness of adult-type diffuse gliomas without 1p19q codeletion.

Free access

The role of preoperative [11C]methionine PET in defining tumor-related epilepsy and predicting short-term postoperative seizure control in temporal lobe low-grade gliomas

Beatrice C. Bono, Gaia Ninatti, Marco Riva, Luca Raspagliesi, Edoardo M. Barbieri, Pierina Navarria, Elena Clerici, Letterio S. Politi, Matteo Simonelli, Marcello Rodari, Martina Sollini, Arturo Chiti, and Federico Pessina

OBJECTIVE

Surgery is the mainstay of treatment for low-grade glioma (LGG)–related epilepsy. However, the goal of achieving both oncological radical resection and seizure freedom can be challenging. PET with [ 11 C]methionine (MET) has been recently introduced in clinical practice for the management of patients with LGGs, not only to monitor the response to treatments, but also as a preoperative tool to define the metabolic tumor extent and to predict tumor grading, type, and prognosis. Still, its role in defining tumor-related epilepsy and postoperative seizure outcomes is limited. The aim of this preliminary study was to investigate the role of MET PET in defining preoperative seizure characteristics and short-term postoperative seizure control in a cohort of patients with newly diagnosed temporal lobe low-grade gliomas (tLGGs).

METHODS

Patients with newly diagnosed and histologically proven temporal lobe grade 2/3 gliomas (2021 WHO CNS tumor classification) who underwent resection at the authors’ institution between July 2011 and March 2021 were included in this retrospective study. MET PET images were acquired, fused with MRI scans, and qualitatively and semiquantitatively analyzed. Any eventual PET/MRI involvement of the temporomesial area, seizure characteristics, and 1-year seizure outcomes were reported.

RESULTS

A total of 52 patients with tLGGs met the inclusion criteria. MET PET was positive in 41 (79%) patients, with a median metabolic tumor volume of 14.56 cm3 (interquartile range [IQR] 6.5–28.2 cm3). The median maximum and mean tumor-to-background ratio (TBRmax, TBRmean) were 2.24 (IQR 1.58–2.86) and 1.53 (IQR 1.37–1.70), respectively. The metabolic tumor volume was found to be related to the presence of seizures at disease onset, but only in noncodeleted tumors (p = 0.014). Regarding patients with uncontrolled seizures at surgery, only the temporomesial area PET involvement showed a statistical correlation both in the univariate (p = 0.058) and in the multivariate analysis (p = 0.030). At 1-year follow-up, seizure control was correlated with MET PET–derived semiquantitative data. Particularly, higher TBRmax (p = 0.0192) and TBRmean (p = 0.0128) values were statistically related to uncontrolled seizures 1 year after surgery.

CONCLUSIONS

This preliminary study suggests that MET PET may be used as a preoperative tool to define seizure characteristics and outcomes in patients with tLGGs. These findings need to be further validated in larger series with longer epileptological follow-ups.

Free access

Suppression of antitumor immune signatures and upregulation of VEGFA as IDH-mutant gliomas progress to higher grade

Eric P. Grewal, Leland G. K. Richardson, Jing Sun, Rishab Ramapriyan, Maria Martinez-Lage, Julie J. Miller, Daniel P. Cahill, Bryan D. Choi, and William T. Curry

OBJECTIVE

Several studies have compared the immune microenvironment of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH)–wildtype glioma versus IDH-mutant glioma. The authors sought to determine whether histological tumor progression in a subset of IDH-mutant glioma was associated with concomitant alterations in the intratumoral immune microenvironment.

METHODS

The authors performed bulk RNA sequencing on paired and unpaired samples from patients with IDH-mutant glioma who underwent surgery for tumor progression across multiple timepoints. They compared patterns of differential gene expression, overall inflammatory signatures, and transcriptomic measures of relative immune cell proportions.

RESULTS

A total of 55 unique IDH-mutant glioma samples were included in the analysis. The authors identified multiple genes associated with progression and higher grade across IDH-mutant oligodendrogliomas and astrocytomas. Compared with lower-grade paired samples, grade 4 IDH-mutant astrocytomas uniquely demonstrated upregulation of VEGFA in addition to counterproductive alterations in inflammatory score reflective of a more hostile immune microenvironment.

CONCLUSIONS

Here, the authors have provided a transcriptomic analysis of a progression cohort for IDH-mutant glioma. Compared with lower-grade tumors, grade 4 astrocytomas displayed alterations that may inform the timing of antiangiogenic and immune-based therapy as these tumors progress.