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H. Hunt Batjer, Jun Kim, Tarek Y. El Ahmadieh, Salah G. Aoun, Juan Mario Corona Ruiz, Phillip Purdy, and Issam A. Awad

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Jamal Bech Bouknaitir, Leah Y. Carreon, Stig Brorson, and Mikkel Østerheden Andersen

OBJECTIVE

The authors’ objective was to investigate whether sagittal balance improves in patients with spinal stenosis after decompression alone.

METHODS

This prospective longitudinal cohort study compared preoperative and 6-month postoperative 36-inch full-length radiographs in patients aged older than 60 years. Patients underwent decompression alone for central lumbar spinal stenosis with either a minimally invasive bilateral laminotomy for central decompression, unilateral laminectomy as an over-the-top procedure for bilateral decompression, or traditional wide laminectomy with removal of the spinous processes on both sides. The following radiographic parameters were measured: sagittal vertical axis (SVA), lumbar lordosis (LL), pelvic tilt (PT), pelvic incidence (PI), PI-LL mismatch, coronal Cobb angle, and sacral slope (SS). Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) were collected, including scores on the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), visual analog scale (VAS) for leg and back pain, and EQ-5D.

RESULTS

Forty-five patients (24 males) with a mean ± SD age of 71.8 ± 5.6 years were included. Sagittal balance showed statistically significant improvement, with the mean SVA decreasing from 52.3 mm preoperatively to 33.9 mm postoperatively (p = 0.0001). The authors found an increase in LL, from mean −41.5° preoperatively to −43.9° postoperatively, but this was not statistically significant (p = 0.055). A statistically significant decrease in PI-LL mismatch from mean 8.4° preoperatively to 5.8° postoperatively was found (p = 0.002). All PROM scores showed significant improvement after spinal decompression surgery. The correlations between SVA and all PROMs were statistically significant at both preoperative and postoperative time points, although most correlations were weak except for those between preoperative SVA and ODI (r = 0.55) and between SVA and VAS for leg pain (r = 0.58).

CONCLUSIONS

Sagittal balance and PROMs show improvement at short-term follow-up evaluations in patients who have undergone decompression alone for lumbar spinal stenosis.

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Wajd N. Al-Holou, Dima Suki, Tiffany R. Hodges, Richard G. Everson, Jacob Freeman, Sherise D. Ferguson, Ian E. McCutcheon, Sujit S. Prabhu, Jeffrey S. Weinberg, Raymond Sawaya, and Frederick F. Lang

OBJECTIVE

Many neurosurgeons resect nonenhancing low-grade gliomas (LGGs) by using an inside-out piecemeal resection (PMR) technique. At the authors’ institution they have increasingly used a circumferential, perilesional, sulcus-guided resection (SGR) technique. This technique has not been well described and there are limited data on its effectiveness. The authors describe the SGR technique and assess the extent to which SGR correlates with extent of resection and neurological outcome.

METHODS

The authors identified all patients with newly diagnosed LGGs who underwent resection at their institution over a 22-year period. Demographics, presenting symptoms, intraoperative data, method of resection (SGR or PMR), volumetric imaging data, and postoperative outcomes were obtained. Univariate analyses used ANOVA and Fisher’s exact test. Multivariate analyses were performed using multivariate logistic regression.

RESULTS

Newly diagnosed LGGs were resected in 519 patients, 208 (40%) using an SGR technique and 311 (60%) using a PMR technique. The median extent of resection in the SGR group was 84%, compared with 77% in the PMR group (p = 0.019). In multivariate analysis, SGR was independently associated with a higher rate of complete (100%) resection (27% vs 18%) (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1–2.6; p = 0.03). SGR was also associated with a statistical trend toward lower rates of postoperative neurological complications (11% vs 16%, p = 0.09). A subset analysis of tumors located specifically in eloquent brain demonstrated SGR to be as safe as PMR.

CONCLUSIONS

The authors describe the SGR technique used to resect LGGs and show that SGR is independently associated with statistically significantly higher rates of complete resection, without an increase in neurological complications, than with PMR. SGR technique should be considered when resecting LGGs.

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Martina Sebök, Giuseppe Esposito, Christiaan Hendrik Bas van Niftrik, Jorn Fierstra, Tilman Schubert, Susanne Wegener, Jeremia Held, Zsolt Kulcsár, Andreas R. Luft, and Luca Regli

OBJECTIVE

Endovascular recanalization trials have shown a positive impact on the preservation of ischemic penumbra in patients with acute large vessel occlusion (LVO). The concept of penumbra salvation can be extended to surgical revascularization with bypass in highly selected patients. For selecting these patients, the authors propose a flowchart based on multimodal MRI.

METHODS

All patients with acute stroke and persisting internal carotid artery (ICA) or M1 occlusion after intravenous lysis or mechanical thrombectomy undergo advanced neuroimaging in a time window of 72 hours after stroke onset including perfusion MRI, blood oxygenation level–dependent functional MRI to evaluate cerebrovascular reactivity (BOLD-CVR), and noninvasive optimal vessel analysis (NOVA) quantitative MRA to assess collateral circulation.

RESULTS

Symptomatic patients exhibiting persistent hemodynamic impairment and insufficient collateral circulation could benefit from bypass surgery. According to the flowchart, a bypass is considered for patients 1) with low or moderate neurological impairment (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score 1–15, modified Rankin Scale score ≤ 3), 2) without large or malignant stroke, 3) without intracranial hemorrhage, 4) with MR perfusion/diffusion mismatch > 120%, 5) with paradoxical BOLD-CVR in the occluded vascular territory, and 6) with insufficient collateral circulation.

CONCLUSIONS

The proposed flowchart is based on the patient’s clinical condition and multimodal MR neuroimaging and aims to select patients with acute stroke due to LVO and persistent inadequate collateral flow, who could benefit from urgent bypass.

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Pavitra Ravishankar, Edward Barksdale III, Robert D. Winkelman, Michael D. Kavanaugh, Dominic W. Pelle, Edward C. Benzel, Thomas E. Mroz, and Michael P. Steinmetz

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Yohanan Véleine, Esteban Brenet, Marc Labrousse, André Chays, Arnaud Bazin, Jean-Charles Kleiber, and Xavier Dubernard

OBJECTIVE

When Ménière’s disease (MD) becomes disabling due to the frequency of attacks or the appearance of drop attacks (i.e., Tumarkin otolithic crisis) despite "conservative" medical and surgical treatments, a radical treatment like vestibular neurotomy (VN) is possible. An ideal MD treatment would relieve symptoms immediately and persist after the therapy. The aim of this study was to identify if VN was effective after 10 years of follow-up regarding vertigo and drop attacks, and to collect the immediate complications.

METHODS

The authors report a retrospective, single-center (i.e., in a single tertiary referral center with otoneurological surgery activity) cohort study conducted from January 2003 to April 2020. All patients with unilateral disabling MD who had received a VN with at least 10 years of follow-up were included. The therapeutic efficacy was defined by complete disappearance of vertigo and drop attacks. The postoperative complications (CSF leak, total deafness, meningitis, death) were determined immediately after the surgery, and the hearing thresholds were determined during the patient follow-up with the pure tone average (PTA).

RESULTS

A total of 74 patients (of 85 who were eligible), average age 51.9 ± 11.1 years, including 38 men (51.4%), with disabling MD and/or Tumarkin drop attacks (24.3%) received VN, with at least 10 years of follow-up after surgery. After an average follow-up of 12.4 ± 1.7 years (range 10.0–16.3 years), 67 patients (90.5%) no longer presented any vertiginous attacks, and no patient experienced drop attack. The mean variation in early pre- and postoperative PTA was not statistically significant (n = 64, 2.2 ± 10.3 decibels hearing level [range −18 to 29], 95% CI [−0.4 to 4.37]; p = 0.096), and 84.4% of the patients evaluated had unchanged or improved postoperative PTA. Three significant complications were noted, including two surgical revisions for CSF leak. There was no permanent facial paralysis, meningitis, or death.

CONCLUSIONS

In case of disabling MD (disabling vertigo refractory to conservative vestibular treatments—Tumarkin drop attacks), VN via the retrosigmoid approach must be the prioritized proposal in comparison to intratympanic gentamicin injections, because of the extremely low complication rate and the immediate and long-lasting effect of this treatment on vertigo and falls.

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Qing-Jie Kong, Xiao-Fei Sun, Yuan Wang, Pei-Dong Sun, Jing-Chuan Sun, Jun Ouyang, Shi-Zhen Zhong, and Jian-Gang Shi

OBJECTIVE

The traditional anterior approach for multilevel severe cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) is demanding and risky. Recently, a novel surgical procedure—anterior controllable antedisplacement and fusion (ACAF)—was introduced by the authors to deal with these problems and achieve better clinical outcomes. However, to the authors’ knowledge, the immediate and long-term biomechanical stability obtained after this procedure has never been evaluated. Therefore, the authors compared the postoperative biomechanical stability of ACAF with those of more traditional approaches: anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) and anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion (ACCF).

METHODS

To determine and assess pre- and postsurgical range of motion (ROM) (2 Nm torque) in flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation in the cervical spine, the authors collected cervical areas (C1–T1) from 18 cadaveric spines. The cyclic fatigue loading test was set up with a 3-Nm cycled load (2 Hz, 3000 cycles). All samples used in this study were randomly divided into three groups according to surgical procedures: ACDF, ACAF, and ACCF. The spines were tested under the following conditions: 1) intact state flexibility test; 2) postoperative model (ACDF, ACAF, ACCF) flexibility test; 3) cyclic loading (n = 3000); and 4) fatigue model flexibility test.

RESULTS

After operations were performed on the cadaveric spines, the segmental and total postoperative ROM values in all directions showed significant reductions for all groups. Then, the ROMs tended to increase during the fatigue test. No significant crossover effect was detected between evaluation time and operation method. Therefore, segmental and total ROM change trends were parallel among the three groups. However, the postoperative and fatigue ROMs in the ACCF group tended to be larger in all directions. No significant differences between these ROMs were detected in the ACDF and ACAF groups.

CONCLUSIONS

This in vitro biomechanical study demonstrated that the biomechanical stability levels for ACAF and ACDF were similar and were both significantly greater than that of ACCF. The clinical superiority of ACAF combined with our current results showed that this procedure is likely to be an acceptable alternative method for multilevel cervical OPLL treatment.

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Michael A. Silva, Henry Chang, John Weng, Nicole E. Hernandez, Ashish H. Shah, Shelly Wang, Toba Niazi, and John Ragheb

OBJECTIVE

Quadrigeminal cistern arachnoid cysts (QACs) are congenital lesions that can cause pineal region compression and obstructive hydrocephalus when sufficiently large. Management of these cysts is controversial and rates of reintervention are high. Given the limited data on the management of QACs, the authors retrospectively reviewed 20 years of cases managed at their institution and performed a literature review on this topic.

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective analysis of patients treated for QAC at their institution between 2001 and 2021. They also performed a literature review of studies published between 1980 and 2021 that reported at least 5 patients treated for QACs. Patient characteristics, radiographic findings, management course, and postoperative follow-up data were collected and analyzed.

RESULTS

A total of 12 patients treated for a QAC at the authors’ institution met the inclusion criteria for analysis. Median age was 9 months, mean cyst size was 5.1 cm, and 83% of patients had hydrocephalus. Initial treatment was endoscopic fenestration in 92% of these patients, 27% of whom had an endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) performed concurrently. Reintervention was required in 42% of patients. Cases that required reintervention had a statistically significant lower median age at the initial intervention (5 months) than the cases that did not require reintervention (24.33 months; p = 0.018). There were no major complications. At a mean follow-up of 5.42 years, 83% of patients had improvement or resolution of their symptoms. A literature review revealed 7 studies that met the inclusion criteria, totaling 108 patients with a mean age of 8.8 years. Eighty-seven percent of patients had hydrocephalus at presentation. Ninety-two percent of patients were initially treated with endoscopic fenestration, 44% of whom underwent concurrent ETV. Complications occurred in 17.6% of cases, and reintervention was required in 30.6% of cases. The most frequent reason for reintervention was untreated or unresolved hydrocephalus after the initial procedure.

CONCLUSIONS

Endoscopic fenestration is the most common treatment for QACs. While generally safe and effective, there is a high rate of reintervention after initial treatment of QACs, which may be associated with a younger age at the first intervention. Additionally, identifying patients who require initial treatment of hydrocephalus is critically important, as the literature suggests that untreated hydrocephalus is a common cause of reintervention.