Browse

You are looking at 41 - 50 of 37,871 items for

  • Refine by Access: all x
Clear All
Restricted access

Adikarige Haritha Dulanka Silva, Sanjay Bhate, Vijeya Ganesan, Dominic Thompson, and Greg James

OBJECTIVE

Obtaining operative experience for the treatment of rare conditions in children represents a challenge for pediatric neurosurgeons. Starting in November 2017, a surgeon was mentored in surgical revascularization (SR) for pediatric moyamoya with a view to service development and sustainability. The aim of this audit was to evaluate early outcomes of SR for pediatric moyamoya during and following a surgical mentorship.

METHODS

A retrospective cohort study with chart/database review of consecutive moyamoya surgeries performed by a new attending surgeon (between November 2017 and March 2020) was compared to a previously published cohort from the authors’ institution in terms of clinical and angiographic outcomes, complications, operating time, and length of stay. A standardized technique of encephaloduroarteriomyosynangiosis with the superficial temporal artery was used.

RESULTS

Twenty-two children underwent 36 indirect SRs during the study period. Patient demographics were similar between cohorts. The first group of 6 patients had 11 SRs performed jointly by the new attending surgeon mentored by an established senior surgeon (group A), followed by 10 patients with 16 SRs performed independently by the new attending surgeon (group B). The last 6 patients had 9 SRs with the new attending surgeon mentoring a senior fellow (group C) in performing SR.

Good angiographic collateralization (Matsushima grades A and B) was observed in 80% of patients, with similar proportions across all 3 groups. A total of 18/19 symptomatic patients (95%) derived symptomatic benefit. There was no perioperative death and, compared to the historical cohort, a similar proportion had a recurrent arterial ischemic event (i.e., acute ischemic stroke) necessitating a second SR (1/22 vs 3/73). Operative times were longest in group C, with no difference in length of hospital stay among the 3 groups.

CONCLUSIONS

Early outcomes demonstrate the feasibility of mentorship for safely incorporating new neurosurgeons in sustaining and developing a tertiary-level surgical service.

Restricted access

Fanguo Lin, Zhiqiang Zhou, Zhiwei Li, Bingchen Shan, Zhentao Zhou, Yongming Sun, and Xiaozhong Zhou

OBJECTIVE

The authors investigated a new standardized technique for evaluating lumbar stability in lumbar lateral flexion-extension (LFE) radiographs. For patients with lumbar spondylolisthesis, a three-part fulcrum with a support platform that included a semiarc leaning tool with armrests, a lifting platform for height adjustment, and a base for stability were used. Standard functional radiographs were used for comparison to determine whether adequate flexion-extension was acquired through use of the fulcrum method.

METHODS

A total of 67 consecutive patients diagnosed with L4–5 degenerative lumbar spondylolisthesis were enrolled in the study. The authors analyzed LFE radiographs taken with the patient supported by a fulcrum (LFEF) and without a fulcrum. Sagittal translation (ST), segmental angulation (SA), posterior opening (PO), change in lumbar lordosis (CLL), and lumbar instability (LI) were measured for comparison using functional radiographs.

RESULTS

The average value of SA was 5.76° ± 3.72° in LFE and 9.96° ± 4.00° in LFEF radiographs, with a significant difference between them (p < 0.05). ST and PO were also significantly greater in LFEF than in LFE. The detection rate of instability was 10.4% in LFE and 31.3% in LFEF, and the difference was significant. The CLL was 27.31° ± 11.96° in LFE and 37.07° ± 12.963.16° in LFEF, with a significant difference between these values (p < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS

Compared with traditional LFE radiographs, the LFEF radiographs significantly improved the detection rate of LI. In addition, this method may reduce patient discomfort during the process of obtaining radiographs.

Restricted access

Yijie Lai, Naying He, Hongjiang Wei, Lifu Deng, Haiyan Zhou, Jun Li, Marcus Kaiser, Chencheng Zhang, Dianyou Li, and Bomin Sun

OBJECTIVE

Functional connectivity shows the ability to predict the outcome of subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (DBS) in Parkinson disease (PD). However, evidence supporting its value in predicting the outcome of globus pallidus internus (GPi) DBS remains scarce. In this study the authors investigated patient-specific functional connectivity related to GPi DBS outcome in PD and established connectivity models for outcome prediction.

METHODS

The authors reviewed the outcomes of 21 patients with PD who received bilateral GPi DBS and presurgical functional MRI at the Ruijin Hospital. The connectivity profiles within cortical areas identified as relevant to DBS outcome in the literature were calculated using the intersection of the volume of tissue activated (VTA) and the local structures as the seeds. Combined with the leave-one-out cross-validation strategy, models of the optimal connectivity profile were constructed to predict outcome.

RESULTS

Connectivity between the pallidal areas and primary motor area, supplementary motor area (SMA), and premotor cortex was identified through the literature as related to GPi DBS outcome. The similarity between the connectivity profile within the primary motor area, SMA, pre-SMA, and premotor cortex seeding from the VTA-GPi intersection from an out-of-sample patient and the constructed in-sample optimal connectivity profile predicts GPi DBS outcome (R = 0.58, p = 0.006). The predictions on average deviated by 13.1% ± 11.3% from actual improvements. On the contrary, connectivity profiles seeding from the GPi (R = −0.12, p = 0.603), the VTA (R = 0.23, p = 0.308), the VTA outside the GPi (R = 0.12, p = 0.617), or other local structures were found not to be predictive.

CONCLUSIONS

The results showed that patient-specific functional connectivity seeding from the VTA-GPi intersection could help in GPi DBS outcome prediction. Reproducibility remains to be determined across centers in larger cohorts stratified by PD motor subtype.

Open access

Laura-Nanna Lohkamp, Nandan Marathe, Patrick Nicholson, Richard I. Farb, and Eric M. Massicotte

BACKGROUND

Cerebrospinal fluid–venous fistulas (CVFs) may cause cerebrospinal fluid leaks resulting in spontaneous intracranial hypotension (SIH). Surgical treatment of CVFs aims to eliminate abnormal fistulous connections between the subarachnoid space and the epidural venous plexus at the level of the nerve root sleeve. The authors propose a percutaneous minimally invasive technique for surgical ligation of CVF as an alternative to the traditional open approach using a tubular retractor system.

OBSERVATIONS

Minimally invasive surgical (MIS) ligation of spinal CVF was performed in 5 patients for 6 CVFs. The definite disconnection of the CVF was achieved in all patients by clipping and additional silk tie ligation of the fistula. None of the patients experienced surgical complications or required transition to an open procedure. One patient underwent 2 MIS procedures for 2 separate CVFs. Postoperative clinical follow-up and cranial magnetic resonance imaging confirmed resolution of symptoms and radiographic SIH stigmata.

LESSONS

MIS ligation of CVFs is safe and efficient. It represents an elegant and less invasive procedure, reducing the risk of wound infections and time to recovery. However, preparedness for open ligation is warranted within the same surgical setting in cases of complications and difficult accessibility.

Open access

Ernest E. Braxton, Kyle R. Brena, Holley Spears, Emerson Conrad, and Jared D. Heinze

BACKGROUND

Postoperative pain management is a limiting factor for early ambulation and discharge following spine fusion surgery. Awake spinal surgery, when combined with minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion, is associated with enhanced recovery in well-selected patients. Some neurosurgeons have recently aimed to further improve outcomes by utilizing erector spinae plane block catheters, allowing for a continuous infusion of local anesthetic to improve the management of acute postoperative pain following minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion.

OBSERVATIONS

A patient who underwent a minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion with perioperatively placed erector spinae plane catheters at the T12 level ambulated 30 minutes after surgery and was discharged the same day (length of stay, 4.6 hours). The total amount of narcotics administered during the hospital stay was 127.5 morphine milligram equivalents.

LESSONS

The placement of bilateral erector spine plane nerve block catheters at the T12 level with an ambulatory infusion pump may help to improve acute postoperative pain management for patients undergoing lumbar spinal fusion.

Free access

Nicole Alexandra Frank, Ladina Greuter, Patricia Elsa Dill, Raphael Guzman, and Jehuda Soleman

OBJECTIVE

Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) is a rare neurocutaneous disorder presenting mostly with a facial port-wine stain and leptomeningeal angiomatosis. More than 85% of the patients are affected by epilepsy by the age of 2 years. Seizure and symptom control is the focus of SWS treatment, since no causal therapy exists yet. For pharmacologically intractable epilepsy, surgery is a treatment option. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to provide an overview of the literature regarding lesionectomy in SWS with a focus on seizure outcome, complications, and motor and cognitive development.

METHODS

The PubMed and Embase databases were searched using a systematic search strategy to identify studies on SWS from their inception until 2021. Two independent researchers assessed the studies for inclusion and quality. Outcome measures were seizure outcome, postoperative complications, and motor and cognitive development. Thereafter, a systematic review was conducted, and a meta-analysis was performed for all included cohort studies. Risk of bias was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Forest plots have been generated for all outcomes; risk ratio was used for pooled outcomes. A p value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.

RESULTS

After removal of duplicates, the authors screened 439 articles, of which 9 articles with 150 patients were included. Our case and 5 case reports and 4 retrospective cohort studies were included for systematic review. The latter 4 studies qualified for the meta-analysis. In these 4 articles, 144 patients received surgical treatment: 81 (56%) underwent focal lesionectomy and 63 (44%) hemispherectomy. Pooled outcome analysis for postoperative favorable seizure outcome showed a nonsignificant difference between lesionectomy and hemispherectomy (69.2% vs 87.3%; RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.50–1.08; t = −2.56, p = 0.08). Lesionectomy showed a significantly lower rate for developmental delay and postoperative hemiparesis in comparison with hemispherectomy (29.8% vs 76.3%; RR 0.41, 95% CI 0.28–0.59; z = −4.77, p < 0.0001 and 18.1% vs 100%; RR 0.11, 95% CI 0.06–0.21; z = −6.58, p < 0.0001, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS

Based on the limited literature available, lesionectomy leads to a nonsignificant lower seizure control rate, while postoperative developmental or motor deficits are significantly lower compared with hemispherectomy. Therefore, focal lesionectomy remains a valid alternative to hemispherectomy in SWS with a clearly localized epileptogenic area; however, individual case-based decisions in a specialized multidisciplinary team are of paramount importance.

Free access

Caitlin E. Hoffman, Ramesh Sharanappa Doddamani, Michael J. Fisher, and Howard L. Weiner

Free access

Sean N. Neifert, Hammad A. Khan, David B. Kurland, Nora C. Kim, Kaleb Yohay, Devorah Segal, Amer Samdani, Steven Hwang, and Darryl Lau

OBJECTIVE

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) dystrophic scoliosis is an early-onset, rapidly progressive multiplanar deformity. There are few studies on the surgical management of this patient population. Specifically, perioperative morbidity, instrument-related complications, and quality-of-life outcomes associated with surgical management have not been systematically evaluated. In this study, the authors aimed to perform a systematic review on the natural history, management options, and surgical outcomes in patients who underwent NF1 dystrophic scoliosis surgery.

METHODS

A PubMed search for articles with “neurofibromatosis” and either “dystrophic” or “scoliosis” in the title or abstract was performed. Articles with 10 or more patients undergoing surgery for NF1 dystrophic scoliosis were included. Data regarding indications, treatment details, morbidity, and outcomes were summarized and analyzed with descriptive statistics.

RESULTS

A total of 310 articles were identified, 48 of which were selected for full-text review; 30 studies describing 761 patients met the inclusion criteria. The mean age ranged from 7 to 22 years, and 99.7% of patients were younger than 18 years. The mean preoperative coronal Cobb angle was 75.2°, and the average correction achieved was 40.3°. The mean clinical follow-up in each study was at least 2 years (range 2.2–19 years). All patients underwent surgery with the intent of deformity correction. The scoliosis regions addressed were thoracic curves (69.6%) and thoracolumbar (11.1%) and lumbar (14.3%) regions. The authors reported on a variety of approaches: posterior-only, combined anterior-posterior, and growth-friendly surgery. For fixation techniques, 42.5% of patients were treated with hybrid constructs, 51.5% with pedicle screw–only constructs, and 6.0% with hook-based constructs. Only 0.9% of patients underwent a vertebral column resection. The nonneurological complication rate was 14.0%, primarily dural tears and wound infections. The immediate postoperative neurological deficit rate was 2.1%, and the permanent neurological deficit rate was 1.2%. Ultimately, 21.5% required revision surgery, most commonly for implant-related complications. Loss of correction in both the sagittal and coronal planes commonly occurred at follow-up. Five papers supplied validated patient-reported outcome measures, showing improvement in the mental health, self-image, and activity domains.

CONCLUSIONS

Data on the surgical outcomes of dystrophic scoliosis correction are heterogeneous and sparse. The perioperative complication rate appears to be high, although reported rates of neurological deficits appear to be lower than clinically observed and may be underreported. The incidence of implant-related failures requiring revision surgery is high. There is a great need for multicenter prospective studies of this complex type of deformity.

Free access

Audrey Grossen, Theresa Gavula, Deepti Chrusciel, Alexander Evans, Rene McNall-Knapp, Ashley Taylor, Benay Fossey, Margaret Brakefield, Carrick Carter, Nadine Schwartz, Naina Gross, Andrew Jea, and Virendra Desai

OBJECTIVE

Neurocutaneous syndromes have variable multisystem involvement. The multiorgan involvement, potential pathologies, and various treatment options necessitate collaboration and open discussion to ensure optimal treatment in any given patient. These disorders provide quintessential examples of chronic medical conditions that require a lifelong, multidisciplinary approach. The objectives of this study were to 1) perform a systematic review, thoroughly assessing different multidisciplinary clinic layouts utilized in centers worldwide; and 2) characterize an institutional experience with the management of these conditions, focusing on the patient demographics, clinical presentation, complications, and therapeutic strategies seen in a patient population.

METHODS

A systematic review of studies involving multidisciplinary clinics and their reported structure was performed according to PRISMA guidelines using the PubMed database. Then a retrospective chart review of patients enrolled in the Oklahoma Children’s Hospital Neurocutaneous Syndromes Clinic was conducted.

RESULTS

A search of the PubMed database yielded 251 unique results. Of these, 15 papers were included in the analysis, which identified 16 clinics that treated more than 2000 patients worldwide. The majority of these clinics treated patients with neurofibromatosis (13/16). The remaining clinics treated patients with von Hippel–Lindau syndrome (n = 1), tuberous sclerosis complex (n = 1), and multiple neurocutaneous syndromes (n = 1). The most commonly represented subspecialties in these clinics were genetics (15/16) and neurology (13/16). Five clinics (31%) solely saw pediatric patients, 10 clinics saw a combination of children and adults, and the final clinic had separate pediatric and adult clinics. The retrospective chart review of the Neurocutaneous Syndromes Clinic demonstrated that 164 patients were enrolled and seen in the clinic from April 2013 to December 2021. Diagnoses were made based on clinical findings or results of genetic testing; 115 (70%) had neurofibromatosis type 1, 9 (5.5%) had neurofibromatosis type 2, 35 (21%) had tuberous sclerosis complex, 2 (1%) had von Hippel–Lindau syndrome, 2 (1%) had Gorlin syndrome, and the remaining patient (0.6%) had Aarskog-Scott syndrome. Patient demographics, clinical presentation, complications, and therapeutic strategies are also discussed.

CONCLUSIONS

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first detailed description of a comprehensive pediatric neurocutaneous clinic in the US that serves patients with multiple syndromes. There is currently heterogeneity between described multidisciplinary clinic structures and practices. More detailed accounts of clinic compositions and practices along with patient data and outcomes are needed in order to establish the most comprehensive and efficient multidisciplinary approach for neurocutaneous syndromes.

Free access

Precious C. Oyem, Erion J. de Andrade, Pranay Soni, Roger Murayi, Derrick Obiri-Yeboah, Diana Lopez, Varun R. Kshettry, and Pablo F. Recinos

OBJECTIVE

The objective of this paper was to describe the volumetric natural history of meningiomas in patients with neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2).

METHODS

The authors performed a retrospective descriptive study by reviewing NF2 patients with meningiomas at their institution between 2000 and 2019. Demographic data were collected from the electronic medical records. Tumor volume was collected using volumetric segmentation software. Imaging characteristics including peritumoral brain edema (PTBE) and tumor calcification were collected for each patient from their first to most recent MRI at the authors’ institution. An increase of 15% or more per year from original tumor size was used as the cutoff to define growth.

RESULTS

A total of 137 meningiomas from 48 patients were included in the analysis. The average number of tumors per person was 2.9. Ninety-nine (72.3%) tumors were in female patients. The median length of follow-up from first imaging to last imaging was 32 months (IQR 10.9, 68.3 months). Most tumors were located in the cerebral convexity (24.8%), followed by the falcine region (18.2%) and spine (10.2%). The median tumor growth was 0.12 cm3/yr (IQR 0.03, 0.52 cm3/yr). At the time of first imaging, 21.9% of tumors had calcifications, while 13.9% of meningiomas had PTBE. Of 137 tumors, 52 showed growth. Characteristics associated with tumor growth included PTBE (OR 9.12, 95% CI 1.48–56.4), tumor volume (per cm3) at first imaging (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.83–0.99), and 10-year increased age at first imaging (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.43–0.74). PTBE had the shortest median time to growth at 9.2 months.

CONCLUSIONS

Although the majority of NF2-associated meningiomas do not grow in the short term, a wide range of growth patterns can be seen. Younger age at first imaging and presence of PTBE are associated with growth. Patients with these characteristics likely benefit from closer follow-up.