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Open access

Kenji Shimada, Izumi Yamaguchi, Takeshi Miyamoto, Shu Sogabe, Kazuhisa Miyake, Yasuhisa Kanematsu, and Yasushi Takagi

BACKGROUND

Sufficient understanding of the angioarchitecture of an arteriovenous fistula (AVF) at the craniocervical junction (CCJ) is crucial to surgical treatment but is often difficult because of the complex vascular anatomy. Intraarterial indocyanine green (ICG) videoangiography has emerged as a more useful option for understanding the vascular anatomy than intravenous ICG videoangiography. This report describes two cases of CCJ AVFs successfully treated by surgery using intraarterial ICG videoangiography and describes the efficacy of this technique.

OBSERVATIONS

Case 1 involved a 71-year-old man presenting with tetraparesis after sudden onset of severe headache due to subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) demonstrated CCJ epidural AVF. Intraarterial ICG videoangiography revealed the drainer, which had been difficult to identify. The AVF disappeared after disconnection of the drainer. Case 2 involved a 68-year-old man presenting with severe headache due to SAH. DSA showed multiple AVFs at the CCJ and cerebellar tentorium. Intraarterial ICG videoangiography demonstrated concomitant perimedullary AVF and dural AVF at the CCJ. All AVFs disappeared postoperatively.

LESSONS

Intraarterial ICG videoangiography was useful for definitive diagnosis of CCJ AVF, facilitating identification of feeders and drainers with bright and high phase contrast and allowing repeated testing to confirm flow direction.

Open access

Abdurrahim Tas, Nazim Bozan, Ramazan Akin, and Abdurrahman Aycan

BACKGROUND

The authors presented a case of spontaneous nasopharyngeal coil migration that occurred 3 years after a patient had undergone transsphenoidal resection due to pituitary macroadenoma and was treated with coil application because of internal carotid artery injury secondary to transsphenoidal resection of the pituitary macroadenoma.

OBSERVATIONS

In the literature, eight cases of coil migration that occurred between 2 and 120 months after coil application have been reported, most of which were treated with surgical removal of the coil in a same-day surgery setting.

LESSONS

The case presented emphasized that coil protrusion and migration may lead to destruction in the skull base, thereby leading to serious consequences if left untreated, even in the absence of history of trauma. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first case in the literature that required additional invasive procedures due to recurrent bleeding that occurred several months after surgical removal of coils. Also, this report underlined the need for careful and long-term follow-up of coil materials used for the treatment of pseudoaneurysms caused by vascular injuries secondary to skull base injury during surgery.

Open access

Christine Park, Saurabh R. Sinha, and Derek G. Southwell

BACKGROUND

Musicogenic epilepsy (ME) is a rare reflex epilepsy in which seizures are triggered by musical stimuli. Prior descriptions of ME have suggested localization to the nondominant temporal lobe, primarily in neocortex. Although resection has been described as a treatment for ME, other surgical modalities, such as laser ablation, may effectively disrupt seizure networks in ME while incurring comparatively lower risks of morbidity. The authors described the use of laser ablation to treat ME arising from the dominant mesial temporal structures.

OBSERVATIONS

A 37-year-old woman with a 15-year history of drug-resistant ME was referred for surgical evaluation. Her seizures were triggered by specific musical content and involved behavioral arrest, repetitive swallowing motions, and word incomprehension. Diagnostic studies, including magnetic resonance imaging, single-photon emission computed tomography, magnetoencephalography, Wada testing, and stereoelectroencephalography, indicated seizure onset in the left (dominant) mesial temporal lobe. Laser interstitial thermal therapy was used to ablate the left mesial seizure onset zone. The patient was discharged on postoperative day two. At 18-month follow-up, she was seizure-free with no posttreatment neurological deficits.

LESSONS

Laser ablation can be an effective treatment option for well-localized forms of ME, particularly when seizures originate from the dominant mesial temporal lobe.

Open access

Yousuke Hashimoto, Sosho Kajiwara, Keiichiro Furuta, Yasuharu Takeuchi, and Motohiro Morioka

BACKGROUND

Acute epidural hematomas (AEDHs) are formed by injury of the middle meningeal artery or venous sinus with a linear fracture just above these blood vessels. The incidence of AEDH without fracture is low, and the formation of an acute epidural hematoma due to contrecoup injury is even rarer. Here, the authors report a case of pediatric AEDH due to contrecoup injury.

OBSERVATIONS

A 6-year-old boy was injured in a traffic accident and was ejected from of the car. At admission, he was clearly conscious without obvious neurological deficits. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a small fracture in the right occipital lobe and a thin epidural hematoma in the contralateral left frontal lobe. A CT scan 3 hours later showed an expanded AEDH. Furthermore, the patient presented with progressive disturbance of consciousness. An emergency craniotomy was performed, but no obvious bleeding point or fracture was observed.

LESSONS

The source of bleeding in AEDH due to contrecoup injury in the frontal region is thought to be due to microvessel injury in the dura. Anatomical fragility and the amount of energy transferred causing the injury are associated with the AEDH formation due to contrecoup injury; thus, strict management in high-energy trauma is required.

Open access

Pablo Albiña, Aracelly Solis, Jose Lorenzoni, Pablo Henny, and María Manriquez

BACKGROUND

Primary central nervous system germinomas of the medulla oblongata are extremely rare and usually have been found in young female Asian patients. The authors present an illustrative case of a patient who presented with severe medullary and posterior cord syndrome, the first South American case published to date, to the authors’ knowledge.

OBSERVATIONS

Initially, the radiological differential diagnosis did not include this entity. The lesion was located at the obex and exhibited a well-delineated contrast enhancement without hydrocephalus. An emergency decompressive partial resection following functional limits was performed. After histological confirmation, radiotherapy was indicated, with complete remission achieved at a 6-month follow-up. The patient, however, continued to have a severe proprioceptive disorder. The literature review identified 21 other such patients. The mean age for this location was 23 years, with a strong female and Asian origin predilection. All tumors exhibited contrast enhancement, and only one presented with hydrocephalus.

LESSONS

In the absence of elevated tumor markers, radiological clues such as a well-delineated, contrast-enhanced lesion arising from the obex, without hydrocephalus, associated with demographic features such as young age, female sex, and Asian heritage, should evoke a high level of suspicion for this diagnosis. Gross total resection must not be attempted, because this tumor is potentially curable with high-dose radiotherapy.

Open access

So Fujimoto, Takashi Agari, Takashi Komori, and Keisuke Takai

BACKGROUND

Spinal lipomas sometimes involve various ectopic tissues originating from the ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm in the process of morphological development.

OBSERVATIONS

A 29-year-old male patient with myolipoma of the conus medullaris at the S2 and S3 levels was described. The unusual finding, involuntary muscle contraction, was presented in an operative video and a literature review. In the present case, sacral myolipoma with involuntary contraction caused tethered cord syndrome in adulthood, and untethering surgery resolved continuous buttock and leg pain.

LESSONS

This rare finding is considered a surgical indication for adult patients with myolipoma.

Open access

Georgia Kaidonis, Melike Pekmezci, Jessica Van Ziffle, Kurtis I. Auguste, and Jonathan C. Horton

BACKGROUND

In the past decade, next-generation sequencing has spurred significant progress in the understanding of cytogenetic alterations that occur in meningiomas. Eighty percent of adult meningiomas harbor pathogenic somatic variants involving NF2, TRAF7, SMARCB1, KLF4, PI3K, or POLR2A. Somatic variants in TRAF7 associated with meningiomas usually localize to the gene’s WD40 domains but are mutually exclusive to germline mutations, which cause a distinctive autosomal dominant syndrome.

OBSERVATIONS

This case involved a 15-year-old girl with bilateral optic nerve sheath meningiomas, diffuse meningiomatosis, and syndromic features, including craniosynostosis, brain anomalies, syndactyly, brachydactyly, epicanthus, and patent ductus arteriosus. Genetic testing of the meningioma specimen 7 years after biopsy showed a pathogenic p.R641C variant within the WD40 domain of the TRAF7 gene. Additional testing of unaffected tissues identified the same variant at lower allele frequencies, consistent with postzygotic somatic mosaicism.

LESSONS

The authors report postzygotic somatic mosaicism for a p.R641C variant in the TRAF7 gene in a patient with bilateral optic nerve sheath meningiomas, diffuse meningiomatosis and a constellation of systemic findings previously recognized in patients with germline mutations of this gene. This is the first report of optic nerve sheath meningioma in a patient with mutation in the TRAF7 gene.

Open access

Ghani Haider, Katherine E. Wagner, Venita Chandra, Ivan Cheng, Martin N. Stienen, and Anand Veeravagu

BACKGROUND

The use of the lateral decubitus approach for L5–S1 anterior lumbar interbody fusion (LALIF) is a recent advancement capable of facilitating single-position surgery, revision operations, and anterior column reconstruction. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first description of the use of LALIF at L5–S1 for failed prior transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) and anterior column reconstruction. Using an illustrative case, the authors discuss their experience using LALIF at L5–S1 for the revision of pseudoarthrosis and TLIF failure.

OBSERVATIONS

The patient had prior attempted L2 to S1 fusion with TLIF but suffered from hardware failure and pseudoarthrosis at the L5–S1 level. LALIF was used to facilitate same-position revision at L5–S1 in addition to further anterior column revision and reconstruction by lateral lumbar interbody fusion at the L1–2 level. Robotic posterior T10–S2 fusion was then added to provide stability to the construct and address the patient’s scoliotic deformity. No complications were noted, and the patient was followed until 1 year after the operation with a favorable clinical and radiological result.

LESSONS

Revision of a prior failed L5–S1 TLIF with an LALIF approach has technical challenges but may be advantageous for single position anterior column reconstruction under certain conditions.

Restricted access

Hani Malone, Gregory M. Mundis Jr., Martin Collier, Reilly L. Kidwell, Fernando Rios, Michael Jelousi, Shae Galli, Bahar Shahidi, Behrooz A. Akbarnia, and Robert K. Eastlack

OBJECTIVE

Intervertebral devices are increasingly utilized for fusion in the lumbar spine, along with a variety of bone graft materials. These various grafting materials often have substantial cost burdens for the surgical procedure, although they are necessary to overcome the limitations in healing capacity for many traditional interbody devices. The use of bioactive interbody fusion devices, which have demonstrable stimulatory capacity for the surrounding osteoblasts and osteoprogenitor cells and allow for osseointegration, may reduce this heavy reliance on osteobiologics for achieving interbody fusion. The objective of this study was to evaluate the rate of successful interbody fusion with a bioactive lateral lumbar interbody titanium implant with limited volume and low-cost graft material.

METHODS

The authors conducted a retrospective study (May 2017 to October 2018) of consecutively performed lateral lumbar interbody fusions with a bioactive 3D-printed porous titanium interbody device. Each interbody device was filled with 2–3 cm3/cage of a commercially available ceramic bone extender (β-tricalcium phosphate-hydroxyapatite) and combined with posterior pedicle screw fixation. No other biological agents or grafts were utilized. Demographic, clinical, and radiographic variables were captured. Fusion success was the primary endpoint of the study, with graft subsidence, fixation failure, and patient-reported outcomes (Oswestry Disability Index [ODI] and visual analog scale [VAS]–back and –leg pain scores) collected as secondary endpoints. The authors utilized a CT-based fusion classification system that accounted for both intervertebral through-growth (bone bridging) and ingrowth (integration of bone at the endplate-implant interface).

RESULTS

In total, 136 lumbar levels were treated in 90 patients. The mean age was 69 years, and 63% of the included patients were female. Half (50.0%) had undergone previous spinal surgery, and a third (33.7%) had undergone prior lumbar fusion. A third (33.7%) were treated at multiple levels (mean levels per patient 1.51). One year after surgery, the mean improvements in patient-reported outcomes (vs preoperative scores) were −17.8 for ODI (p < 0.0001), −3.1 for VAS–back pain (p < 0.0001), and −2.9 for VAS–leg pain (p < 0.0001). Bone bridging and/or appositional integrity was achieved in 99.3% of patients, including 97.8% who had complete bone bridging. No fixation loosening or implant failure was observed at any segment. Low-grade graft subsidence (Marchi grade ≤ I) occurred in 3 levels (2.2%), and intraoperative endplate violation occurred twice (1.5%). High-grade subsidence was not found. No implant failure or revision surgery for pseudarthrosis/subsidence was necessary.

CONCLUSIONS

The use of bioactive titanium interbody devices with a large surface footprint appears to result in a very high rate of effective fusion, despite the use of a small volume of low-cost biological material. This potential change in the osteobiologics required to achieve high fusion rates may have a substantially beneficial impact on the economic burden inherent to spinal fusion.

Restricted access

Edouard Mazerand, Sandro Benichi, Maxime Taverne, Giovanna Paternoster, Alice Rolland, Pierre Antherieu, Julien Todeschi, Lawrence Kamdem Noumoye, Vianney Gilard, Maxime Bretonnier, Luc Le Fournier, Vincent Jecko, Edouard Gimbert, François Proust, Sergio Boetto, Thomas Roujeau, Syril James, Roman H. Khonsari, Laurent Riffaud, Matthieu Delion, Michel Zerah, and Didier Scavarda

OBJECTIVE

Chiari malformation type I (CM-I) is frequent in children and remains a surgical challenge. Several techniques have been described for posterior fossa decompression. No decision algorithm has been validated, and strategies are highly variable between institutions. The goal of this study was to define therapeutic guidelines that take into consideration patient specificities.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively collected data from patients who were < 18 years of age, were diagnosed with CM-I, and were treated surgically between 2008 and 2018 in 8 French pediatric neurosurgical centers. Data on clinical features, morphological parameters, and surgical techniques were collected. Clinical outcomes at 3 and 12 months after surgery were assessed by the Chicago Chiari Outcome Scale. The authors used a hierarchical clustering method to define clusters of patients by considering their anatomical similarities, and then compared outcomes between surgical strategies in each of these clusters.

RESULTS

Data from 255 patients were collected. The mean age at surgery was 9.6 ± 5.0 years, syringomyelia was reported in 60.2% of patients, the dura mater was opened in 65.0% of patients, and 17.3% of patients underwent a redo surgery for additional treatment. The mean Chicago Chiari Outcome Scale score was 14.4 ± 1.5 at 3 months (n = 211) and 14.6 ± 1.9 at 12 months (n = 157). The hierarchical clustering method identified three subgroups with potentially distinct mechanisms underlying tonsillar herniation: bony compression, basilar invagination, and foramen magnum obstruction. Each cluster matched with specific outcomes.

CONCLUSIONS

This French multicenter retrospective cohort study enabled the identification of three subgroups among pediatric patients who underwent surgery for CM-I, each of which was associated with specific outcomes. This morphological classification of patients might help in understanding the underlying mechanisms and providing personalized treatment.