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Open access

Laser ablative treatment of musicogenic epilepsy arising from dominant mesial temporal lobe: illustrative case

Christine Park, Saurabh R. Sinha, and Derek G. Southwell

BACKGROUND

Musicogenic epilepsy (ME) is a rare reflex epilepsy in which seizures are triggered by musical stimuli. Prior descriptions of ME have suggested localization to the nondominant temporal lobe, primarily in neocortex. Although resection has been described as a treatment for ME, other surgical modalities, such as laser ablation, may effectively disrupt seizure networks in ME while incurring comparatively lower risks of morbidity. The authors described the use of laser ablation to treat ME arising from the dominant mesial temporal structures.

OBSERVATIONS

A 37-year-old woman with a 15-year history of drug-resistant ME was referred for surgical evaluation. Her seizures were triggered by specific musical content and involved behavioral arrest, repetitive swallowing motions, and word incomprehension. Diagnostic studies, including magnetic resonance imaging, single-photon emission computed tomography, magnetoencephalography, Wada testing, and stereoelectroencephalography, indicated seizure onset in the left (dominant) mesial temporal lobe. Laser interstitial thermal therapy was used to ablate the left mesial seizure onset zone. The patient was discharged on postoperative day two. At 18-month follow-up, she was seizure-free with no posttreatment neurological deficits.

LESSONS

Laser ablation can be an effective treatment option for well-localized forms of ME, particularly when seizures originate from the dominant mesial temporal lobe.

Open access

Magnetic resonance imaging–guided laser interstitial thermal therapy for refractory focal epilepsy in a patient with a fully implanted RNS system: illustrative case

Vivek P. Buch, Emily A. Mirro, David A. Purger, Michael Zeineh, Kaitlyn Wilmer-Fierro, Babak Razavi, and Casey H. Halpern

BACKGROUND

The resective surgery plus responsive neurostimulation (RNS) system is an effective treatment for patients with refractory focal epilepsy. Furthermore, the long-term intracranial electroencephalography data provided by the system can inform a future resection or ablation procedure. RNS patients may undergo 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) under the conditions specified in the RNS system MRI guidelines; however, it was unknown if the MRI artifact would limit intraoperative laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) in a patient with a fully implanted RNS system.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors were able to complete a successful awake LITT of epileptogenic tissue in a 1.5-T MRI scanner on the ipsilateral side to an implanted RNS system.

LESSONS

If a future LITT procedure is probable, the neurostimulator should be placed contralateral to the side of the potential ablation. Using twist drill holes versus burr holes for depth lead placement may assist in future laser bone anchor seating. Before a LITT procedure in a patient with the neurostimulator ipsilateral to the ablation, 1.5-T MRI thermography scanning should be scheduled preoperatively to assess artifact in the proposed ablation zone. Per the RNS system MRI guidelines, the patient must be positioned supine and awake, with no more than 30 minutes of active scan time before a 30-minute pause.

Open access

Stereo-electroencephalography evidence of an eccentrically located seizure-onset zone around a polymorphous low-grade neuroepithelial tumor of the young: illustrative case

Koichi Hagiwara, Takashi Kamada, Satoshi O. Suzuki, Ayako Miyoshi, Hideaki Tanaka, Hiroshi Shigeto, Shinji Ohara, and Naoki Akamatsu

BACKGROUND

Polymorphous low-grade neuroepithelial tumor of the young (PLNTY) is a newly identified low-grade brain tumor with frequent epileptic presentation. Despite the facilitated use of invasive electroencephalography owing to the growing availability of stereo-electroencephalography (SEEG), intracranial features of tumor-related seizures are still scarcely described. This report provides the first description of SEEG-recorded seizures in PLNTY to provide an insight into its surgical strategy.

OBSERVATIONS

Spontaneous clinical seizures were recorded with SEEG in a young adult patient with drug-resistant epilepsy associated with a PLNTY in the left lateral temporal cortex. The seizure onset was characterized by low-voltage fast activity (LVFA) and showed eccentric localization with respect to the tumor: LVFA was localized in the anterior portion of the tumor and spread toward the adjacent polar cortex. The language risks associated with the resection of the posterior temporal cortex could thus be minimized.

LESSONS

PLNTY can show a focal and eccentric seizure-onset zone around the tumor. The present findings serve to improve the functional and seizure outcomes using the staged invasive approach in PLNTY.

Open access

Postponed depth electrode placement due to seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp: illustrative case

Heather M. Minchew, Jessica E. Ferguson, Andrew R. Guillotte, and Jennifer J. Cheng

BACKGROUND

Seborrheic dermatitis is a common fungal infection of the scalp that may potentially affect depth electrode placement for intracranial seizure monitoring. No cases documenting the safety of proceeding with depth electrode placement in the setting of seborrheic dermatitis have been reported.

OBSERVATIONS

A 19-year-old man with a history of drug-resistant epilepsy was taken to the operating room for placement of depth electrodes for long-term seizure monitoring. Annular patches of erythema with trailing scales were discovered after shaving the patient’s head. Dermatology service was consulted, and surgery was cancelled because of the uncertainty of his diagnosis and possible intracranial spreading. He was diagnosed with severe seborrheic dermatitis and treated with topical ketoconazole. Surgery was rescheduled, and the patient received successful placement and removal of depth electrodes without any complications.

LESSONS

Seborrheic dermatitis is a common skin infection that, in the authors’ experience, is unlikely to lead to any intracranial spread after treatment. However, surgeons should use clinical judgment and engage dermatology colleagues regarding any uncertain skin lesions.

Open access

Bilateral thalamic responsive neurostimulation for multifocal, bilateral frontotemporal epilepsy: illustrative case

Ronald K. Phillips III, Ghazal Aghagoli, Andrew S. Blum, and Wael F. Asaad

BACKGROUND

Patients with refractory, bilateral, multifocal epilepsy have few treatment options that typically include a combination of antiseizure medications (ASMs) and vagus nerve stimulation (VNS). A man in his 40s presented with epilepsy refractory to a combination of five ASMs plus VNS; he was still experiencing 7–10 seizures per week. His seizure network involved multiple foci in both frontal and temporal lobes. Bilateral depth electrodes were implanted into the centromedian/parafascicular (CM/PF) complex of the thalamus and connected to the responsive neurostimulation (RNS) system for closed-loop stimulation and neurophysiological monitoring.

OBSERVATIONS

The patient reported clear improvement in his seizures since the procedure, with a markedly reduced number of seizures and decreased seizure intensity. He also reported stretches of seizure freedom not typical of his preoperative baseline, and his remaining seizures were milder, more often with preserved awareness. Generalized seizures with loss of consciousness have decreased to about one per month. RNS data confirmed a right-sided predominance of the bilateral seizure onsets.

LESSONS

In this patient with multifocal, bilateral frontotemporal epilepsy, RNS of the CM/PF thalamic complex combined with VNS was found to be beneficial. The RNS device was able to detect seizures propagating through the thalamus, and stimulation produced a decrease in seizure burden and intensity.

Open access

Xenotransplantation of porcine progenitor cells in an epileptic California sea lion (Zalophus californianus): illustrative case

Claire A. Simeone, John P. Andrews, Shawn P. Johnson, Mariana Casalia, Ryan Kochanski, Edward F. Chang, Dianne Cameron, Sophie Dennison, Ben Inglis, Gregory Scott, Kris Kruse-Elliott, F. Fabian Okonski, Eric Calvo, Kelly Goulet, Dawn Robles, Ashley Griffin-Stence, Erin Kuiper, Laura Krasovec, Cara L. Field, Vanessa F. Hoard, and Scott C. Baraban

BACKGROUND

Domoic acid (DA) is a naturally occurring neurotoxin harmful to marine animals and humans. California sea lions exposed to DA in prey during algal blooms along the Pacific coast exhibit significant neurological symptoms, including epilepsy with hippocampal atrophy.

OBSERVATIONS

Here the authors describe a xenotransplantation procedure to deliver interneuron progenitor cells into the damaged hippocampus of an epileptic sea lion with suspected DA toxicosis. The sea lion has had no evidence of seizures after the procedure, and clinical measures of well-being, including weight and feeding habits, have stabilized.

LESSONS

These preliminary results suggest xenotransplantation has improved the quality of life for this animal and holds tremendous therapeutic promise.

Open access

Epileptic seizure–related changes in electrocorticogram, cortical temperature, and cerebral hemodynamics obtained via an implantable multimodal multichannel probe during preoperative monitoring: illustrative case

Manami Wakuya, Takao Inoue, Hirochika Imoto, Yuich Maruta, Sadahiro Nomura, Michiyasu Suzuki, and Toshitaka Yamakawa

BACKGROUND

Electrocorticography (EcoG) plays an essential role in the preoperative evaluation of epilepsy, despite its high invasiveness. Brain temperature and cerebral hemodynamics also reflect brain activity. This study examined whether a multimodal multichannel probe that simultaneously records EcoG, cortical temperature, and cerebral hemodynamics can contribute to improving the assessment of epileptic seizures. After preoperative monitoring was performed in a patient with epilepsy, three generalized seizures and two focal seizures were observed.

OBSERVATIONS

A short-term power increase in the alternating current spectrogram, high-amplitude slow waves in direct current potential, an increase in cortical temperature, an increase in oxyhemoglobin (HbO2) concentration and total hemoglobin (HbT) concentration, and a decrease in deoxyhemoglobin (HHb) concentration, followed by a decrease in HbO2 and HbT concentrations and an increase in HHb concentration, were observed in generalized seizures. However, no changes in these pathophysiological signals were observed in focal seizures.

LESSONS

Seizure-related changes regarding generalized seizures were consistent with the results of previous studies. The results of generalized and focal seizures indicate that epileptic brain activity propagated from the epileptic focus in the right frontal lobe to the measurement area near the motor cortex in generalized seizures but not in focal seizures.

Open access

Extended resection for seizure control of pure motor strip focal cortical dysplasia during awake craniotomy: illustrative case

Bayron A. Sandoval-Bonilla, André Palmini, Eliseu Paglioli, Alejandro Monroy-Sosa, Maria F. De la Cerda-Vargas, Job J. Rodríguez-Hernández, Victor R. Chávez-Herrera, Sara P. Perez-Reyes, Fernando C. Castro-Prado, Samuel Perez-Cardenas, Josafat J. Sánchez-Dueñas, and Lucero N. Lagunes-Padilla

BACKGROUND

Focal cortical dysplasias (FCD) represent highly intrinsically epileptogenic lesions that require complete resection for seizure control. Resection of pure motor strip FCD can be challenging. Effective control of postoperative seizures is crucial and extending the boundaries of resection in an eloquent zone remains controversial.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors report a 52-year-old right-handed male with refractory epilepsy. The seizure phenotype was a focal crisis with preserved awareness and a clonic motor onset of right-hemibody. Epilepsy surgery protocol demonstrated a left pure motor strip FCD and a full-awake resective procedure with motor brain mapping was performed. Further resection of surgical boundaries monitoring function along intraoperative motor tasks with no direct electrical stimulation corroborated by intraoperative-neuromonitorization was completed as the final part of the surgery. In the follow-up period of 3-years, the patient has an Engel-IB seizure-control with mild distal lower limb palsy and no gate compromise.

LESSONS

This report represents one of the few cases with pure motor strip FCD resection. In a scenario similar to this case, the authors consider that this variation can be useful to improve seizure control and the quality of life of these patients by extending the resection of a more extensive epileptogenic zone minimizing functional damage.

Open access

Postoperative striatal degeneration: a hitherto unrecognized impact of frontal disconnection surgery for drug-resistant epilepsy. Illustrative cases

Koichi Hagiwara, Hideaki Tanaka, Ayako Miyoshi, Takashi Kamada, Hiroshi Shigeto, Shinji Ohara, and Naoki Akamatsu

BACKGROUND

Frontal disconnection surgery is a useful surgical option for patients with frontal epilepsy whose seizure onset zones are exceedingly large and thus are not amenable to conventional resective surgery. While it has the advantage of avoiding sequelae stemming from a large resection cavity, the impact of radical anatomofunctional disconnection of such a vast frontal region is not fully understood.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors have identified secondary degeneration in the striatum ipsilateral to the frontal disconnection surgery in two adult patients who had otherwise favorable postoperative outcomes following the surgery. On serial postoperative magnetic resonance imaging, the striatum showed transient restricted diffusion in the caudate head and rostral putamen around several weeks postoperatively and subsequent atrophy in the caudate head. The affected striatal regions (i.e., the anterior portion of the striatum) were congruent with the known fronto-striatal connectivity corresponding to the disconnected frontal regions anterior to the primary and supplementary motor areas. Both patients achieved 1-year seizure freedom without apparent disability related to the surgery.

LESSONS

The benign postoperative course despite the marked degenerative changes in the ipsilateral striatum supports the feasibility of the frontal disconnection surgery in otherwise inoperable patients with broad frontal epileptogenicity.

Open access

Stealth Autoguide for robotic-assisted laser ablation for lesional epilepsy: illustrative case

David J. Mazur-Hart, Nasser K. Yaghi, Maryam N. Shahin, and Ahmed M. Raslan

BACKGROUND

Laser interstitial thermal therapy has been used in tumor and epilepsy surgery to maximize clinical treatment impact while minimizing morbidity. This intervention places a premium on accuracy. With the advent of robotics, neurosurgery is entering a new age of improved accuracy. Here, the authors described the use of robotic-assisted laser placement for the treatment of epileptiform lesions.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors presented a case of a 21-year-old woman with medically intractable epilepsy, localized to left mesial temporal sclerosis and left temporal encephalocele by way of stereotactic electroencephalography, who presented for consideration of surgical intervention. When presented with resection versus laser ablation, the patient opted for laser ablation. The patient received robotic-assisted stereotactic laser ablation (RASLA) using a Stealth Autoguide. The patient was seizure free (10 weeks) after surgical ablation.

LESSONS

RASLA is an effective way to treat epilepsy. Here, the authors reported the first RASLA procedure with a Stealth Autoguide to treat epilepsy. The procedure can be performed effectively and efficiently for multiple epileptic foci without the need for bulkier robotic options or head frames that may interfere with the use of magnetic resonance imaging for heat mapping.