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Ulrich Hubbe, Jan-Helge Klingler, Roland Roelz, Christoph Scholz, Katerina Argiti, Panagiotis Fistouris, Jürgen Beck, and Ioannis Vasilikos

OBJECTIVE

A major challenge of a minimally invasive spinal approach (MIS) is maintaining freedom of maneuverability through small operative corridors. Unfortunately, during tubular resection of intradural pathologies, the durotomy and its accompanying tenting sutures offer a smaller operating window than the maximum surface of the tube’s base. The objective of this study was to evaluate if a novel double tubular technique could expand the surgical visual field during MIS resection of intradural pathologies.

METHODS

A total of 25 MIS resections of intradural extramedullary pathologies were included. A posterior tubular interlaminar fenestration was performed in all surgeries. A durotomy covering the whole diameter of the tubular base was the standard in all cases. After placement of two tenting sutures on each side of the durotomy and application of tension, the resulting surface of the achieved dura fenestration was measured after optical analysis of the intraoperative video. In the next step, a second tube, 2 mm thinner than and the same length as the first, was inserted telescopically into the first tube, resulting an angulated fulcrum effect on the tenting sutures.

RESULTS

Optical surface analysis of the dura fenestration before and after the second tubular insertion verified a significant widening of the visual field of 43.1% (mean 18.84 mm2, 95% CI 16.8–20.8, p value < 0.001). There were no ruptured tenting sutures through the increased tension. Postoperative MRIs verified complete resection of the pathologies.

CONCLUSIONS

Inserting a second tube telescopically during posterior minimally invasive tubular spinal intradural surgery leads to an angulated fulcrum effect on the dura tenting sutures which consequently increases the surface of the dura fenestration and induces a meaningful widening of the visual field.

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Edgar A. Samaniego, Jorge A. Roa, Minako Hayakawa, Ching-Jen Chen, Jason P. Sheehan, Louis J. Kim, Isaac Josh Abecassis, Michael R. Levitt, Ridhima Guniganti, Akash P. Kansagra, Giuseppe Lanzino, Enrico Giordan, Waleed Brinjikji, Diederik Bulters, Andrew Durnford, W. Christopher Fox, Adam J. Polifka, Bradley A. Gross, Sepideh Amin-Hanjani, Ali Alaraj, Amanda Kwasnicki, Robert M. Starke, Samir Sur, J. Marc C. van Dijk, Adriaan R. E. Potgieser, Junichiro Satomi, Yoshiteru Tada, Adib Abla, Ethan Winkler, Rose Du, Pui Man Rosalind Lai, Gregory J. Zipfel, and Colin P. Derdeyn

OBJECTIVE

Current evidence suggests that intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVFs) without cortical venous drainage (CVD) have a benign clinical course. However, no large study has evaluated the safety and efficacy of current treatments and their impact over the natural history of dAVFs without CVD.

METHODS

The authors conducted an analysis of the retrospectively collected multicenter Consortium for Dural Arteriovenous Fistula Outcomes Research (CONDOR) database. Patient demographics and presenting symptoms, angiographic features of the dAVFs, and treatment outcomes of patients with Borden type I dAVFs were reviewed. Clinical and radiological follow-up information was assessed to determine rates of new intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) or nonhemorrhagic neurological deficit (NHND), worsening of venous hyperdynamic symptoms (VHSs), angiographic recurrence, and progression or spontaneous regression of dAVFs over time.

RESULTS

A total of 342 patients/Borden type I dAVFs were identified. The mean patient age was 58.1 ± 15.6 years, and 62% were women. The mean follow-up time was 37.7 ± 54.3 months. Of 230 (67.3%) treated dAVFs, 178 (77%) underwent mainly endovascular embolization, 11 (4.7%) radiosurgery alone, and 4 (1.7%) open surgery as the primary modality. After the first embolization, most dAVFs (47.2%) achieved only partial reduction in early venous filling. Multiple complementary interventions increased complete obliteration rates from 37.9% after first embolization to 46.7% after two or more embolizations, and 55.2% after combined radiosurgery and open surgery. Immediate postprocedural complications occurred in 35 dAVFs (15.2%) and 6 (2.6%) with permanent sequelae. Of 127 completely obliterated dAVFs by any therapeutic modality, 2 (1.6%) showed angiographic recurrence/recanalization at a mean of 34.2 months after treatment. Progression to Borden-Shucart type II or III was documented in 2.2% of patients and subsequent development of a new dAVF in 1.6%. Partial spontaneous regression was found in 22 (21.4%) of 103 nontreated dAVFs. Multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated that older age, NHND, or severe venous-hyperdynamic symptoms at presentation and infratentorial location were associated with worse prognosis. Kaplan-Meier curves showed no significant difference for stable/improved symptoms survival probability in treated versus nontreated dAVFs. However, estimated survival times showed better trends for treated dAVFs compared with nontreated dAVFs (288.1 months vs 151.1 months, log-rank p = 0.28). This difference was statistically significant for treated dAVFs with 100% occlusion (394 months, log-rank p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS

Current therapeutic modalities for management of dAVFs without CVD may provide better symptom control when complete angiographic occlusion is achieved.

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Amir Hadanny and Julie G. Pilitsis

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Risheng Xu, Michael E. Xie, Wuyang Yang, Philippe Gailloud, Justin M. Caplan, Christopher M. Jackson, Eric M. Jackson, Mari L. Groves, Shenandoah Robinson, Alan R. Cohen, Judy Huang, and Rafael J. Tamargo

OBJECTIVE

Pediatric intracranial aneurysms are rare. Most large series in the last 15 years reported on an average of only 39 patients. The authors sought to report their institutional experience with pediatric intracranial aneurysms from 1991 to 2021 and to compare pediatric patient and aneurysm characteristics with those of a contemporaneous adult cohort.

METHODS

Pediatric (≤ 18 years of age) and adult patients with one or more intracranial aneurysms were identified in a prospective database. Standard epidemiological features and outcomes of each pediatric patient were retrospectively recorded. These results were compared with those of adult aneurysm patients managed at a single institution over the same time period.

RESULTS

From a total of 4500 patients with 5150 intracranial aneurysms admitted over 30 years, there were 47 children with 53 aneurysms and 4453 adults with 5097 aneurysms; 53.2% of children and 36.4% of adults presented with a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Pediatric aneurysms were significantly more common in males, more likely giant (≥ 25 mm), and most frequently located in the middle cerebral artery. Overall, 85.1% of the pediatric patients had a modified Rankin Scale score ≤ 2 at the last follow-up (with a mean follow-up of 65.9 months), and the pediatric mortality rate was 10.6%; all 5 patients who died had an SAH. The recurrence rate of treated aneurysms was 6.7% (1/15) in the endovascular group but 0% (0/31) in the microsurgical group. No de novo aneurysms occurred in children (mean follow-up 5.5 years).

CONCLUSIONS

Pediatric intracranial aneurysms are significantly different from adult aneurysms in terms of sex, presentation, location, size, and outcomes. Future prospective studies will better characterize long-term aneurysm recurrence, rebleeds, and de novo aneurysm occurrences. The authors currently favor microsurgical over endovascular treatment for pediatric aneurysms.

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Noor Hamdan and Hugues Duffau

OBJECTIVE

Maximal safe resection is the first treatment in diffuse low-grade glioma (DLGG). Due to frequent tumor recurrence, a second surgery has already been reported, with favorable results. This study assesses the feasibility and functional and oncological outcomes of a third surgery in recurrent DLGG.

METHODS

Patients with DLGG who underwent a third functional-based resection using awake mapping were consecutively selected. They were classified into group 1 in cases of slow tumor regrowth or group 2 if a radiological enhancement occurred during follow-up. All data regarding clinicoradiological features, histomolecular results, oncological treatment, and survival were collected.

RESULTS

Thirty-one patients were included, with a median age of 32 years. There were 20 astrocytomas and 11 oligodendrogliomas in these patients. Twenty-one patients had medical oncological treatment before the third surgery, consisting of chemotherapy in 19 cases and radiotherapy in 8 cases. No neurological deficit persisted after the third resection except mild missing words in 1 patient, with 84.6% of the patients returning to work. The median follow-up duration was 13.1 ± 3.4 years since diagnosis, and 3.1 ± 2.9 years since the third surgery. The survival rates at 7 and 10 years were 100% and 89.7%, respectively, with an estimated median overall survival of 17.8 years since diagnosis. A comparison between the groups showed that the Karnofsky Performance Scale score dropped below 80 earlier in group 2 (14.3 vs 17.1 years, p = 0.01). Median residual tumor volume at the third surgery was smaller (2.8 vs 14.4 cm3, p = 0.003) with a greater extent of resection (89% vs 70%, p = 0.003) in group 1.

CONCLUSIONS

This is the first consecutive series showing evidence that, in select patients with progressive DLGG, a third functional-based surgery can be achieved using awake mapping with low neurological risk and a high rate of total resection, especially when reoperation is performed before malignant transformation.

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Marie-Therese Forster, Marion Behrens, Anna Cecilia Lawson McLean, Dorothea Isabella Nistor-Gallo, Miriam Weiss, and Stefanie Maurer

OBJECTIVE

Despite the rising number of women in higher education and leadership positions, the proportional rise of female neurosurgeons still lags behind these fields. This study evaluates the gender distribution in German neurosurgical departments across all career levels, and is aimed at heightening the awareness of gender disparity and the need for improving gender equality and its related opportunities.

METHODS

Data on gender distribution across all professional levels in German neurosurgical departments were obtained from departmental websites as well as by email and telephone request. Results were additionally analyzed in reference to hospital ownership type of the neurosurgical departments.

RESULTS

A total of 140 German neurosurgical departments employing 2324 neurosurgeons were evaluated. The analysis revealed a clear preponderance of men in leadership positions. Only 9 (6.3%) of 143 department heads were women, and there were only 1 (2.4%), 17 (14.5%), and 4 (12.5%) women among 42 vice-directors, 117 chief senior physicians, and 32 managing senior physicians, respectively. Senior physicians not holding a leadership position were female in 23.1%, whereas board-certified neurosurgeons not holding a senior physician position and residents were female in 33.6% and 35.0%, respectively. Of note, the highest proportion of female department heads (15.6%) was found in private hospitals.

CONCLUSIONS

The number of women in leadership positions in German neurosurgical departments is dramatically low, and with increasing leadership status gender disparity increases. Mentorship, recruitment, the perception of benefits offered by diversity and programs facilitating gender equality, job sharing, parental leave policies, and onsite childcare programs are needed to turn German neurosurgical departments into modern medical departments reflecting the gender profile of the general patient population.

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Yohei Mineharu, Yasushi Takagi, Akio Koizumi, Takaaki Morimoto, Takeshi Funaki, Tomohito Hishikawa, Yoshio Araki, Hitoshi Hasegawa, Jun C. Takahashi, Satoshi Kuroda, Kiyohiro Houkin, and Susumu Miyamoto

OBJECTIVE

Although many studies have analyzed risk factors for contralateral progression in unilateral moyamoya disease, they have not been fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to examine whether genetic factors as well as nongenetic factors are involved in the contralateral progression.

METHODS

The authors performed a multicenter cohort study in which 93 cases with unilateral moyamoya disease were retrospectively reviewed. The demographic features, RNF213 R4810K mutation, lifestyle factors such as smoking and drinking, past medical history, and angiographic findings were analyzed. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to find risk factors for contralateral progression.

RESULTS

Contralateral progression was observed in 24.7% of cases during a mean follow-up period of 72.2 months. Clinical characteristics were not significantly different between 63 patients with the R4810K mutation and those without it. Cox regression analysis showed that the R4810K mutation (hazard ratio [HR] 4.64, p = 0.044), childhood onset (HR 7.21, p < 0.001), male sex (HR 2.85, p = 0.023), and daily alcohol drinking (HR 4.25, p = 0.034) were independent risk factors for contralateral progression.

CONCLUSIONS

These results indicate that both genetic and nongenetic factors are associated with contralateral progression of unilateral moyamoya disease. The findings would serve to help us better understand the pathophysiology of moyamoya disease and to manage patients more appropriately.

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Francis Lovecchio, Jonathan Charles Elysee, Renaud Lafage, Jeff Varghese, Mathieu Bannwarth, Frank Schwab, Virginie Lafage, and Han Jo Kim

OBJECTIVE

Preoperative planning for adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery is essential to prepare the surgical team and consistently obtain postoperative alignment goals. Positional imaging may allow the surgeon to evaluate spinal flexibility and anticipate the need for more invasive techniques. The purpose of this study was to determine whether spine flexibility, defined by the change in alignment between supine and standing imaging, is associated with the need for an osteotomy in ASD surgery.

METHODS

A single-center, dual-surgeon retrospective analysis was performed of adult patients with ASD who underwent correction of a thoracolumbar deformity between 2014 and 2018 (pelvis to upper instrumented vertebra between L1 and T9). Patients were stratified into osteotomy (Ost) and no-osteotomy (NOst) cohorts according to whether an osteotomy was performed (Schwab grade 2 or higher). Demographic, surgical, and radiographic parameters were compared. The sagittal correction from intraoperative prone positioning alone (sagittal flexibility percentage [Sflex%]) was assessed by comparing the change in lumbar lordosis (LL) between preoperative supine to standing radiographs and preoperative to postoperative alignment.

RESULTS

Demographics and preoperative and postoperative sagittal alignment were similar between the Ost (n = 60, 65.9%) and NOst (n = 31, 34.1%) cohorts (p > 0.05). Of all Ost patients, 71.7% had a grade 2 osteotomy (mean 3 per patient), 21.7% had a grade 3 osteotomy, and 12.5% underwent both grade 3 and grade 2 osteotomies. Postoperatively, the NOst and Ost cohorts had similar pelvic incidence minus lumbar lordosis (PI-LL) mismatch (mean PI-LL 5.2° vs 1.2°; p = 0.205). Correction obtained through positioning (Sflex%) was significantly lower for in the osteotomy cohort (38.0% vs 76.3%, p = 0.004). A threshold of Sflex% < 70% predicted the need for osteotomy at a sensitivity of 78%, specificity of 56%, and positive predictive value of 77%.

CONCLUSIONS

The flexibility of the spine is quantitatively related to the use of an osteotomy. Prospective studies are needed to determine thresholds that may be used to standardize surgical decision-making in ASD surgery.