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Sepideh Amin-Hanjani and Michael M. Haglund

Free access

Stephen G. Bowden, Dominic A. Siler, Maryam N. Shahin, David J. Mazur-Hart, Daniel N. Munger, Miner N. Ross, Brannan E. O’Neill, Caleb S. Nerison, Michael Rothbaum, Seunggu J. Han, James M. Wright, Josiah N. Orina, Jesse L. Winer, and Nathan R. Selden

OBJECTIVE

To comply with the removal of the 88-hour week exemption and to support additional operative experience during junior residency, Oregon Health & Science University (OHSU) switched from a night-float call schedule to a modified 24-hour call schedule on July 1, 2019. This study compared the volumes of clinical, procedural, and operative cases experienced by postgraduate year 2 (PGY-2) and PGY-3 residents under these systems.

METHODS

The authors retrospectively studied billing and related clinical records, call schedules, and Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education case logs for PGY-2 and PGY-3 residents at OHSU, a tertiary academic health center, for the first 4 months of the academic years from 2017 to 2020. The authors analyzed the volumes of new patient consultations, bedside procedures, and operative procedures performed by each PGY-2 and PGY-3 resident during these years, comparing the volumes experienced under each call system.

RESULTS

Changing from a PGY-2 resident–focused night-float call system to a 24-hour call system that was more evenly distributed between PGY-2 and PGY-3 residents resulted in decreased volume of new patient consultations, increased volume of operative procedures, and no change in volume of bedside procedures for PGY-2 residents. PGY-3 residents experienced a decrease in operative procedure volume under the 24-hour call system.

CONCLUSIONS

Transition from a night-float system to a 24-hour call system altered the distribution of clinical and procedural experiences between PGY-2 and PGY-3 residents. Further research is necessary to understand the impact of these changes on educational outcomes, quality and safety of patient care, and resident satisfaction.

Open access

Hiroyuki Koizumi, Takuichiro Hide, Daisuke Yamamoto, Yuri Hyakutake, Hajime Handa, Hideto Komai, Yasushi Asari, and Toshihiro Kumabe

BACKGROUND

Hemorrhagic moyamoya disease (MMD) and the fragile periventricular collaterals are known to have a causal relationship. Digital subtraction angiography and magnetic resonance angiography have shown the presence of fragile periventricular moyamoya vessels. However, dynamic fragile periventricular moyamoya vessels have never been observed under direct vision.

OBSERVATIONS

The authors treated two patients with hemorrhagic MMD: a 42-year-old man with intraventricular hemorrhage and a 47-year-old woman with intracerebral hemorrhage. Endoscope-integrated indocyanine green video angiography (EICG angiography) could visualize the dynamic fragile periventricular collaterals. In particular, EICG angiography enabled visualization of invisible moyamoya vessels buried in the subependyma and characterization of the blood flow in the moyamoya vessels located inside the lateral ventricles and hematoma cavity.

LESSONS

EICG angiography can confirm the fragile periventricular collaterals associated with MMD by direct visualization. The high spatial resolution and real-time imaging can help to avoid accidental hemorrhage in and after evacuation of hemorrhage in patients with MMD.

Free access

Brendan Santyr, Mohamad Abbass, Alan Chalil, Amirti Vivekanandan, Daria Krivosheya, Lynn M. Denning, Thomas K. Mattingly, Faizal A. Haji, and Stephen P. Lownie

OBJECTIVE

Simulation is increasingly recognized as an important supplement to operative training. The live rat femoral artery model is a well-established model for microsurgical skills simulation. In this study, the authors present an 11-year experience incorporating a comprehensive, longitudinal microsurgical training curriculum into a Canadian neurosurgery program. The first goal was to evaluate training effectiveness, using a well-studied rating scale with strong validity. The second goal was to assess the impact of the curriculum on objective measures of subsequent operating room performance during postgraduate year (PGY)–5 and PGY-6 training.

METHODS

PGY-2 neurosurgery residents completed a 1-year curriculum spanning 17 training sessions divided into 5 modules of increasing fidelity. Both perfused duck wing and live rat vessel training models were used. Three modules comprised live microvascular anastomosis. Trainee performance was video recorded and blindly graded using the Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills Global Rating Scale. Eleven participants who completed the training curriculum and 3 subjects who had not participated had their subsequent operative performances evaluated when they were at the PGY-5 and PGY-6 levels.

RESULTS

Eighteen participants completed 106 microvascular anastomoses during the study. There was significant improvement in 6 measurable skills during the curriculum. The mean overall score was significantly higher on the fifth attempt compared with the first attempt for all 3 live anastomotic modules (p < 0.001). Each module had a different improvement profile across the skills assessed. Those who completed the microvascular skills curriculum demonstrated a greater number of independent evaluations during superficial surgical exposure, deep exposure, and primary maneuvers at the PGY-5 and PGY-6 levels.

CONCLUSIONS

High-fidelity microsurgical simulation training leads to significant improvement in microneurosurgical skills. Transfer of acquired skills to the operative environment and durability for at least 3 to 4 years show encouraging preliminary results and are subject to ongoing investigation.

Free access

Ravi Sharma, Varidh Katiyar, Priya Narwal, Shashank S. Kale, and Ashish Suri

OBJECTIVE

The longer learning curve and smaller margin of error make nontraditional, or "out of operating room" simulation training, essential in neurosurgery. In this study, the authors propose an evaluation system for residents combining both task-based and procedure-based exercises and also present the perception of residents regarding its utility.

METHODS

Residents were evaluated using a combination of task-based and virtual reality (VR)–based exercises. The results were analyzed in terms of the seniority of the residents as well as their laboratory credits. Questionnaire-based feedback was sought from the residents regarding the utility of this evaluation system incorporating the VR-based exercises.

RESULTS

A total of 35 residents were included in this study and were divided into 3 groups according to seniority. There were 11 residents in groups 1 and 3 and 13 residents in group 2. On the overall assessment of microsuturing skills including both 4-0 and 10-0 microsuturing, the suturing skills of groups 2 and 3 were observed to be better than those of group 1 (p = 0.0014). Additionally, it was found that microsuturing scores improved significantly with the increasing laboratory credits (R2 = 0.72, p < 0.001), and this was found to be the most significant for group 1 residents (R2 = 0.85, p < 0.001). Group 3 residents performed significantly better than the other two groups in both straight (p = 0.02) and diagonal (p = 0.042) ring transfer tasks, but there was no significant difference between group 1 and group 2 residents (p = 0.35). Endoscopic evaluation points were also found to be positively correlated with previous laboratory training (p = 0.002); however, for the individual seniority groups, the correlation failed to reach statistical significance. The 3 seniority groups performed similarly in the cranial and spinal VR modules. Group 3 residents showed significant disagreement with the utility of the VR platform for improving surgical dexterity (p = 0.027) and improving the understanding of surgical procedures (p = 0.034). Similarly, there was greater disagreement for VR-based evaluation to identify target areas of improvement among the senior residents (groups 2 and 3), but it did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.194).

CONCLUSIONS

The combination of task- and procedure-based assessment of trainees using physical and VR simulation models can supplement the existing neurosurgery curriculum. The currently available VR-based simulations are useful in the early years of training, but they need significant improvement to offer beneficial learning opportunities to senior trainees.

Open access

Yoshifumi Tao, Shunji Matsubara, Kenji Yagi, Keita Kinoshita, Takeshi Fukunaga, Akira Yamamoto, and Masaaki Uno

BACKGROUND

Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is one of the most severe neurosurgical diseases in which systemic management is important from the acute phase to the chronic phase. The authors reported a case of aneurysmal SAH associated with intra-abdominal hemorrhage possibly caused by segmental arterial mediolysis (SAM).

OBSERVATIONS

A 60-year-old woman collapsed suddenly at home. On arrival at our hospital, she was comatose and her head computed tomography (CT) showed SAH, probably from an anterior cerebral artery aneurysm. Simultaneous body CT to screen for pneumonia associated with COVID-19 incidentally detected an intra-abdominal hematoma and the bleeding point. Emergent ventriculostomy was conducted first. Because abdominal angiography detected a ruptured pseudoaneurysm of an ovarian artery, emergency embolization was subsequently performed for hemostasis. However, she deteriorated again, and her pupils became fully dilated. The patient died on day 3 of hospitalization.

LESSONS

Patients with aneurysmal SAH rarely have intra-abdominal hemorrhage in the acute stage and may have a fatal outcome. Intra-abdominal hemorrhage should be suspected in the setting of unstable vital signs, and prompt treatment is necessary.

Free access

Randy L. Jensen, Nir Lipsman, Sepideh Amin-Hanjani, and Michael M. Haglund

Open access

Hirokazu Shoji, Kimihiko Sawakami, Yuki Tanaka, Seiichi Ishikawa, Hiroyuki Segawa, and Takashi Wakabayashi

BACKGROUND

This study aimed to report an aortic pseudoaneurysm, a rare but lethal complication, after a spinal fracture in ankylosing spine.

OBSERVATIONS

An 83-year-old obese woman presented with dementia and was nonambulatory after a fall. She was transported to the hospital, and imaging showed a hyperextension-type L1 fracture with diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH). After posterior fusion surgery using percutaneous pedicle screws, screw loosening was detected 10 days postoperatively. Fracture dislocation was reduced by changing to transdiscal screws and rodding while in the lateral position. However, the anterior opening persisted. Enhanced computed tomography performed at 6 weeks postoperatively showed a large aortic pseudoaneurysm extending into the vertebral fracture site without screw loosening. Neither endovascular aortic repair nor open surgery was applicable. The patient was transferred to a sanatorium and died of pneumonia 5 months postoperatively without aortic aneurysm rupture.

LESSONS

An aortic pseudoaneurysm can occur in hyperextension-type spinal fractures in DISH, even after fusion surgery, when the edge of the fracture is in contact with the aortic wall. The anterior opening dislocation should be reduced as much as possible.

Open access

Naoya Yamazaki, Naoto Kimura, Ryosuke Doijiri, Kohei Takikawa, Takuji Sonoda, Kiyotaka Oi, Hiroki Uchida, Michiko Yokosawa, Takayuki Sugawara, and Takahiko Kikuchi

BACKGROUND

Basilar artery occlusion (BAO) accounts for 1% of all strokes, and its natural prognosis is extremely poor. There is no consensus on the treatment strategy for mild BAO.

OBSERVATIONS

Between August 2015 and May 2021, 429 patients received mechanical thrombectomy (MT) in the authors’ hospital. Three patients had a BAO with a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score of ≤6 and showed eye movement disorder as the main symptom. MT immediately improved ocular symptoms in all three cases, and the patients were discharged with a modified Rankin Scale ≤2.

LESSONS

Lesions responsible for the eye movement disorder are distributed from the midbrain to the pontine tegmentum. These lesions are supplied by the arteries of the interpeduncular fossa, which is impaired by BAO. Symptoms due to problems with the arteries of the interpeduncular fossa can be rapidly improved by MT, and it is useful for preventing neurological deterioration in mild cases. BAO with a low NIHSS score in the presence of eye movement disorder as the main symptom may be a good indication for MT.

Free access

Rohin Singh, Nicole M. De La Peña, Paola Suarez-Meade, Panagiotis Kerezoudis, Oluwaseun O. Akinduro, Kaisorn L. Chaichana, Alfredo Quiñones-Hinojosa, Bernard R. Bendok, Mohamad Bydon, Fredric B. Meyer, Robert J. Spinner, and David J. Daniels

Neurosurgical education is a continually developing field with an aim of training competent and compassionate surgeons who can care for the needs of their patients. The Mayo Clinic utilizes a unique mentorship model for neurosurgical training. In this paper, the authors detail the historical roots as well as the logistical and experiential characteristics of this teaching model.

This model was first established in the late 1890s by the Mayo brothers and then adopted by the Mayo Clinic Department of Neurological Surgery at its inception in 1919. It has since been implemented enterprise-wide at the Minnesota, Florida, and Arizona residency programs. The mentorship model is focused on honing resident skills through individualized attention and guidance from an attending physician. Each resident is closely mentored by a consultant during a 2- or 3-month rotation, which allows for exposure to more complex cases early in their training.

In this model, residents take ownership of their patients’ care, following them longitudinally during their hospital course with guided oversight from their mentors. During the chief year, residents have their own clinic, operating room (OR) schedule, and OR team and service nurse. In this model, chief residents conduct themselves more in the manner of an attending physician than a trainee but continue to have oversight from staff to provide a “safety net.” The longitudinal care of patients provided by the residents under the mentorship model is not only beneficial for the trainee and the hospital, but also has a positive impact on patient satisfaction and safety. The Mayo Clinic Mentorship Model is one of many educational models that has demonstrated itself to be an excellent approach for resident education.