Browse

You are looking at 31 - 40 of 37,401 items for

  • Refine by Access: all x
Clear All
Restricted access

Sudheesha Perera, Shawn L. Hervey-Jumper, Praveen V. Mummaneni, Ernest J. Barthélemy, Alexander F. Haddad, Dario A. Marotta, John F. Burke, Andrew K. Chan, Geoffrey T. Manley, Phiroz E. Tarapore, Michael C. Huang, Sanjay S. Dhall, Dean Chou, Katie O. Orrico, and Anthony M. DiGiorgio

OBJECTIVE

This study attempts to use neurosurgical workforce distribution to uncover the social determinants of health that are associated with disparate access to neurosurgical care.

METHODS

Data were compiled from public sources and aggregated at the county level. Socioeconomic data were provided by the Brookings Institute. Racial and ethnicity data were gathered from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Wide-ranging Online Data for Epidemiologic Research. Physician density was retrieved from the Health Resources and Services Administration Area Health Resources Files. Catchment areas were constructed based on the 628 counties with neurosurgical coverage, with counties lacking neurosurgical coverage being integrated with the nearest covered county based on distances from the National Bureau of Economic Research’s County Distance Database. Catchment areas form a mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive breakdown of the entire US population and licensed neurosurgeons.

Socioeconomic factors, race, and ethnicity were chosen as independent variables for analysis. Characteristics for each catchment area were calculated as the population-weighted average across all contained counties. Linear regression analysis modeled two outcomes of interest: neurosurgeon density per capita and average distance to neurosurgical care. Coefficient estimates (CEs) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated and scaled by 1 SD to allow for comparison between variables.

RESULTS

Catchment areas with higher poverty (CE = 0.64, 95% CI 0.34–0.93) and higher prime age employment (CE = 0.58, 95% CI 0.40–0.76) were significantly associated with greater neurosurgeon density. Among categories of race and ethnicity, catchment areas with higher proportions of Black residents (CE = 0.21, 95% CI 0.06–0.35) were associated with greater neurosurgeon density. Meanwhile, catchment areas with higher proportions of Hispanic residents displayed lower neurosurgeon density (CE = −0.17, 95% CI −0.30 to −0.03). Residents of catchment areas with higher housing vacancy rates (CE = 2.37, 95% CI 1.31–3.43), higher proportions of Native American residents (CE = 4.97, 95% CI 3.99–5.95), and higher proportions of Hispanic residents (CE = 2.31, 95% CI 1.26–3.37) must travel farther, on average, to receive neurosurgical care, whereas people living in areas with a lower income (CE = −2.28, 95% CI −4.48 to −0.09) or higher proportion of Black residents (CE = −3.81, 95% CI −4.93 to −2.68) travel a shorter distance.

CONCLUSIONS

Multiple factors demonstrate a significant correlation with neurosurgical workforce distribution in the US, most notably with Hispanic and Native American populations being associated with greater distances to care. Additionally, higher proportions of Hispanic residents correlated with fewer neurosurgeons per capita. These findings highlight the interwoven associations among socioeconomics, race, ethnicity, and access to neurosurgical care nationwide.

Restricted access

Eric J. Chalif, William T. Couldwell, and Manish K. Aghi

OBJECTIVE

Giant pituitary adenomas (PAs), defined as 4 cm or greater at their maximum diameter, are commonly treated with neurosurgical intervention as the first-line therapy. However, existing studies are from high-volume institutions whose outcomes may not be representative of many cancer centers. In the present study, the authors use a large cancer registry to evaluate demographics, national treatment trends, and outcomes by facility volume to address knowledge gaps for this uncommon tumor.

METHODS

The National Cancer Database was queried for adult patients with PAs who had undergone resection from 2004 to 2016. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression modeling was used to evaluate the prognostic impact of covariates on short-term outcomes including 30-day readmission (30R), 30-day mortality (30M), 90-day mortality (90M), and prolonged length of inpatient hospital stay (LOS). Propensity score matching was used for validation.

RESULTS

Among the 39,030 patients who met the study inclusion criteria, 3696 giant PAs were identified. These tumors had higher rates of subtotal resection (55% vs 24%, p < 0.001), adjunctive radiotherapy (15% vs 5%, p < 0.001), and hormonal therapy (8% vs 4%, p < 0.001) than nongiant PAs. The giant PAs also had worse 30M (0.6% vs 3.1%, p < 0.001), 90M (1.0% vs 5.0%, p < 0.001), 30R (4.0% vs 6.3%, p < 0.001), and LOS (22.2% vs 42.1%, p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis for giant PA, decreased tumor size, younger age, race other than African American, lower comorbidity score, and high-volume facility (HVF; defined as ≥ 2.5 giant PA cases per year) were statistically significant predictors of favorable outcomes. Specifically, 30M, 90M, 30R, and LOS were decreased by 50%, 43%, 55%, and 32%, respectively, when giant PAs were treated at HVFs (each p < 0.05). HVFs more often used the endoscopic approach (71% vs 46%, p < 0.001) and less adjuvant radiotherapy (11% vs 16%, p < 0.001). Propensity score matching validated 30M, 30R, and LOS outcome differences in a cohort of 1056 patients.

CONCLUSIONS

This study provides evidence of superior outcomes when giant PAs are treated at HVFs. These results likely reflect the relation between physician experience and outcomes for these uncommon tumors, which suggests the need for institutional collaboration as a potential goal in their surgical management.

Restricted access

Aaron Miller, Daniel W. Griepp, Chase Miller, Mousa Hamad, Rafael De la Garza Ramos, and Saikiran G. Murthy

OBJECTIVE

The authors sought to determine if a consensus could be reached regarding the effectiveness of endotracheal tube cuff pressure (ETTCP) reduction after retractor placement in reducing postoperative laryngeal dysfunction after anterior cervical fusion surgery.

METHODS

A literature search of MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, Cochrane Central, Google Scholar, and Scopus databases was performed. Quantitative analysis was performed on data from articles comparing groups of patients with either reduced or unadjusted ETTCP after retractor placement in the context of anterior cervical surgery. The incidence and severity of postoperative recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy (RLNP), dysphagia, and dysphonia were compared at several postsurgical time points, ranging from 24 hours to 3 months. Heterogeneity was assessed using the chi-square test, I statistics, and inverted funnel plots. A random-effects model was used to provide a conservative estimate of the level of effect.

RESULTS

Nine studies (7 randomized, 1 prospective, and 1 retrospective) were included in the analysis. A total of 1671 patients were included (1073 [64.2%] in the reduced ETTCP group and 598 [35.8%] in the unadjusted ETTCP group). In the reduced ETTCP group, the severity of dysphagia, measured by the Bazaz-Yoo system in 3 randomized studies at 24 hours and at 4–8 weeks, was significantly lower (24 hours [standardized mean difference: −1.83, p = 0.04] and 4–8 weeks [standardized mean difference: −0.40, p = 0.05]). At 24 hours, the odds of developing dysphonia were significantly lower (OR 0.51, p = 0.002). The odds of dysphagia (24 hours: OR 0.77, p = 0.24; 1 week: OR 0.70, p = 0.47; 12 weeks: OR 0.58, p = 0.20) were lower, although not significantly, in the reduced ETTCP group. The odds of a patient having RLNP were significantly lower at all time points (24 hours: OR 0.38, p = 0.01; 12 weeks: OR 0.26, p = 0.03) when 3 randomized and 2 observational studies were analyzed. A subgroup analysis using only randomized studies demonstrated a similar trend in odds of having RLNP, yet without statistical significance (24 hours: OR 0.79, p = 0.60). All other statistically significant findings persisted with removal of any observational data.

CONCLUSIONS

Based on the current best available evidence, reduction of ETTCP after retractor placement in anterior cervical surgery may be a protective measure to decrease the severity of dysphagia and the odds of developing RLNP or dysphonia.

Restricted access

Alexandria C. Marino, Evan D. Robinson, Jakob A. Durden, Heather L. Cox, Amy J. Mathers, and Mark E. Shaffrey

OBJECTIVE

Postprocedural infection is a consequential complication of neurosurgical intervention. Periprocedural antimicrobial prophylaxis is routinely administered to prevent infection, and in some cases, continued for extended periods while surgical drains remain in place. However, there is little evidence that extended antimicrobial administration is necessary to reduce postprocedural infection, and extended antimicrobials can be associated with harm, such as Clostridioides difficile infection. The authors sought to evaluate whether shortening the duration of postprocedural antimicrobial prophylaxis would decrease the incidence of C. difficile infection without increasing the incidence of postprocedural infection.

METHODS

In this retrospective study, two general neurosurgical cohorts were examined. In one cohort, postoperative antimicrobial prophylaxis was limited to 24 hours; in the other, some patients received extended postoperative antimicrobial prophylaxis while surgical drains or external ventricular drains (EVDs) remained in place. Rates of infection with C. difficile as well as postprocedural infection after surgery and EVD placement were compared.

RESULTS

Seven thousand two hundred four patients undergoing 8586 surgical procedures and 413 EVD placements were reviewed. The incidence of C. difficile infection decreased significantly from 0.5% per procedural encounter to 0.07% with the discontinuation of extended postprocedural antibiotics within 90 days of a procedure. Rates of postprocedural infection and EVD infection did not significantly change. Results were similar in subgroups of patients with closed suction drains as well as cranial and spine subgroups.

CONCLUSIONS

Discontinuation of extended antimicrobial prophylaxis was associated with a significant decrease in the incidence of C. difficile infection without a concomitant change in postprocedural infections or EVD-associated infection. This study provides evidence in support of specialtfy-wide discontinuation of extended postoperative antimicrobial prophylaxis, even in the presence of closed suction drains.

Restricted access

Jonathan H. Borden, Uma V. Mahajan, Lud Eyasu, William Holden, Brian Shaw, Peter Callas, and Deborah L. Benzil

OBJECTIVE

There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating the benefits of diversity across many domains. However, neurosurgery consistently lags most of medicine in many aspects of diversity. Any inability to make progress in this arena is likely due to the multifactorial and complex nature of the issue, which makes it difficult to meaningfully measure and track diversity within the workforce. The goal of this pilot study was to assess the utilization of a multidimensional statistical model to quantify and assess diversity within neurosurgery. The authors sought to 1) assess the diversity of neurosurgery residents using Simpson’s Diversity Index and Sullivan’s Composite Diversity Index (CDI) and 2) determine if a medical school’s intrinsic academic opportunities and resources, indicated by US News & World Report’s (USNWR’s) best research medical schools ranking, are related to the number of neurosurgery residents produced per medical school.

METHODS

A cross-sectional study of all neurosurgery residents (projected graduation years 2020–2026) and 1st-year medical students (matriculating years 2016–2019) was undertaken. Biographical diversity data (gender and matriculation data) were collected from institutional websites between December 2019 and June 2020. The CDI expresses the diversity of a given population by representing the effective proportion of categories present across all diversity attributes and was calculated for neurosurgery residents and medical students. Statistical results are reported as the median and interquartile range.

RESULTS

Neurosurgery residency program CDI (0.21, IQR 0.16–0.25) was significantly less (p < 0.001) than medical school CDI (0.42, 0.37–0.48). There was no significant difference in CDI between top-40 and non–top 40 Doximity ranked research output neurosurgery residency programs (p = 0.35) or between top-40 and non–top 40 USNWR ranked research medical schools (p = 0.11). Over a 7-year period, top-40 ranked research medical schools produced significantly more (p < 0.001) neurosurgery residents (11.9, IQR 7.1–18.9) than the non–top 40 ranked research medical schools (5.6, IQR 2.6–8.5).

CONCLUSIONS

The authors demonstrated the feasibility of using a multidimensional statistical model as a measure to understand the complex issues of diversity. Their preliminary data suggested that neurosurgery’s challenge in achieving the desired diversity relates to uneven attraction and/or recruitment across an increasingly diverse medical student body. In recent years, neurosurgery has made great progress in the arena of diversity and has shown a strong desire to do more. Utilization of these diversity measures will help the neurosurgery field to monitor progress along this valuable journey.

Restricted access

Mohammed Ali Alvi, Anthony L. Asher, Giorgos D. Michalopoulos, Inga S. Grills, Ronald E. Warnick, James McInerney, Veronica L. Chiang, Albert Attia, Robert Timmerman, Eric Chang, Brian D. Kavanagh, David W. Andrews, Kevin Walter, Mohamad Bydon, and Jason P. Sheehan

OBJECTIVE

Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) has been increasingly employed in recent years to treat intracranial metastatic lesions. However, there is still a need for optimization of treatment paradigms to provide better local control and prevent progressive intracranial disease. In the current study, the authors utilized a national collaborative registry to investigate the outcomes of patients with intracranial metastatic disease who underwent SRS and to determine factors associated with lesion treatment response, overall progression, and mortality.

METHODS

The NeuroPoint Alliance SRS registry was queried for all patients with intracranial metastatic lesions undergoing single- or multifraction SRS at participating institutions between 2016 and 2020. The main outcomes of interest included lesion response (lesion-level analysis), progression using Response Assessment for Neuro-Oncology criteria, and mortality (patient-level analysis). Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to report time to progression and overall survival, and multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to investigate factors associated with lesion response, progression, and mortality.

RESULTS

A total of 501 patients (1447 intracranial metastatic lesions) who underwent SRS and had available follow-up were included in the current analyses. The most common primary tumor was lung cancer (49.5%, n = 248), followed by breast (15.4%, n = 77) and melanoma (12.2%, n = 61). Most patients had a single lesion (44.9%, n = 225), 29.3% (n = 147) had 2 or 3 lesions, and 25.7% (n = 129) had > 3 lesions. The mean sum of baseline measurements of the lesions according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) was 35.54 mm (SD 25.94). At follow-up, 671 lesions (46.4%) had a complete response, 631 (43.6%) had a partial response (≥ 30% decrease in longest diameter) or were stable (< 30% decrease but < 20% increase), and 145 (10%) showed progression (> 20% increase in longest diameter). On multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis, melanoma-associated lesions (HR 0.48, 95% CI 0.34–0.67; p < 0.001) and larger lesion size (HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.93–0.96; p < 0.001) showed lower odds of lesion regression, while a higher biologically effective dose was associated with higher odds (HR 1.001, 95% CI 1.0001–1.00023; p < 0.001). A total of 237 patients (47.3%) had overall progression (local failure or intracranial progressive disease), with a median time to progression of 10.03 months after the index SRS. Factors found to be associated with increased hazards of progression included male sex (HR 1.48, 95% CI 1.108–1.99; p = 0.008), while administration of immunotherapy (before or after SRS) was found to be associated with lower hazards of overall progression (HR 0.62, 95% CI 0.460–0.85; p = 0.003). A total of 121 patients (23.95%) died during the follow-up period, with a median survival of 19.4 months from the time of initial SRS. A higher recursive partitioning analysis score (HR 21.3485, 95% CI 1.53202–3.6285; p < 0.001) was found to be associated with higher hazards of mortality, while single-fraction treatment compared with hypofractionated treatment (HR 0.082, 95% CI 0.011–0.61; p = 0.015), administration of immunotherapy (HR 0.385, 95% CI 0.233–0.64; p < 0.001), and presence of single compared with > 3 lesions (HR 0.427, 95% CI 0.187–0.98; p = 0.044) were found to be associated with lower risk of mortality.

CONCLUSIONS

The comparability of results between this study and those of previously published clinical trials affirms the value of multicenter databases with real-world data collected without predetermined research purpose.

Restricted access

Travis S. Tierney, Kambiz N. Alavian, Nolan Altman, Sanjiv Bhatia, Michael Duchowny, Ann Hyslop, Prasanna Jayakar, Trevor Resnick, Shelly Wang, Ian Miller, and John Ragheb

OBJECTIVE

Magnetic resonance–guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) is an incisionless procedure capable of thermoablation through the focus of multiple acoustic beams. Although MRgFUS is currently approved for the treatment of tremor in adults, its safety and feasibility profile for intracranial lesions in the pediatric and young adult population remains unknown.

METHODS

The long-term outcomes of a prospective single-center, single-arm trial of MRgFUS at Nicklaus Children’s Hospital in Miami, Florida, are presented. Patients 15–22 years of age with centrally located lesions were recruited, clinically consistent with WHO grade I tumors that require surgical intervention. This cohort consisted of 4 patients with hypothalamic hamartoma (HH), and 1 patient with tuberous sclerosis complex harboring a subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA).

RESULTS

In each case, high-intensity FUS was used to target the intracranial lesion. Real-time MRI was used to monitor the thermoablations. Primary outcomes of interest were tolerability, feasibility, and safety of FUS. The radiographic ablation volume on intra- and postoperative MRI was also assessed. All 5 patients tolerated the procedure without any complications. Successful thermoablation was achieved in 4 of the 5 cases; the calcified SEGA was undertreated due to intratumor calcification, which prevented attainment of the target ablation temperature. The HHs underwent target tissue thermoablations that led to MR signal changes at the treatment site. For the patients harboring HHs, FUS thermoablations occurred without procedure-related complications and led to improvement in seizure control or hypothalamic hyperphagia. All 5 patients were discharged home on postoperative day 1 or 2, without any readmissions. There were no cases of hemorrhage, electrolyte derangement, endocrinopathy, or new neurological deficit in this cohort.

CONCLUSIONS

This experience demonstrates that FUS thermoablation of centrally located brain lesions in adolescents and young adults can be performed safely and that it provides therapeutic benefit for associated symptoms.

Restricted access

Takaki Inoue, Satoshi Maki, Toshitaka Yoshii, Takeo Furuya, Satoru Egawa, Kenichiro Sakai, Kazuo Kusano, Yukihiro Nakagawa, Takashi Hirai, Kanichiro Wada, Keiichi Katsumi, Kengo Fujii, Atsushi Kimura, Narihito Nagoshi, Tsukasa Kanchiku, Yukitaka Nagamoto, Yasushi Oshima, Kei Ando, Masahiko Takahata, Kanji Mori, Hideaki Nakajima, Kazuma Murata, Shunji Matsunaga, Takashi Kaito, Kei Yamada, Sho Kobayashi, Satoshi Kato, Tetsuro Ohba, Satoshi Inami, Shunsuke Fujibayashi, Hiroyuki Katoh, Haruo Kanno, Shiro Imagama, Masao Koda, Yoshiharu Kawaguchi, Katsushi Takeshita, Morio Matsumoto, Seiji Ohtori, Masashi Yamazaki, Atsushi Okawa, and

OBJECTIVE

It is unclear whether anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ADF) or laminoplasty (LMP) results in better outcomes for patients with K-line–positive (+) cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL). The purpose of the study is to compare surgical outcomes and complications of ADF versus LMP in patients with K-line (+) OPLL.

METHODS

The study included 478 patients enrolled in the Japanese Multicenter Research Organization for Ossification of the Spinal Ligament and who underwent surgical treatment for cervical OPLL. The patients who underwent anterior-posterior combined surgery or posterior decompression with instrumented fusion were excluded. The patients with a follow-up period of fewer than 2 years were also excluded, leaving 198 patients with K-line (+) OPLL. Propensity score matching was performed on 198 patients with K-line (+) OPLL who underwent ADF (44 patients) or LMP (154 patients), resulting in 39 pairs of patients based on the following predictors for surgical outcomes: age, preoperative Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score, C2–7 angle, and the occupying ratio of OPLL. Clinical outcomes were assessed 1 and 2 years after surgery using the recovery rate of the JOA score. Complications and reoperation rates were also investigated.

RESULTS

The mean recovery rate of the JOA score 1 year after surgery was 55.3% for patients who underwent ADF and 42.3% (p = 0.06) for patients who underwent LMP. Two years after surgery, the recovery rate was 53.4% for those who underwent ADF and 38.7% for LMP (p = 0.07). Although both surgical procedures yielded good results, the mean recovery rate of JOA scores tended to be higher in the ADF group. The incidence of surgical complications, however, was higher following ADF (33%) than LMP (15%; p = 0.06). The reoperation rate was also higher in the ADF group (15%) than in the LMP group (0%; p = 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS

Clinical outcomes were good for both ADF and LMP, indicating that ADF and LMP are appropriate procedures for patients with K-line (+) OPLL. Clinical outcomes of ADF 1 and 2 years after surgery tended to be better than LMP, but the analysis did not detect any significant difference in clinical outcomes between the groups. Conversely, patients who underwent ADF had a higher incidence of surgery-related complications. When considering indications for ADF or LMP, benefits and risks of the surgical procedures should be carefully weighed.

Restricted access

Pablo E. Saucedo-Alvarado, Ana Luisa Velasco, Gustavo Aguado-Carrillo, Manola Cuellar-Herrera, David Trejo-Martínez, Rene Márquez-Franco, and Francisco Velasco-Campos

OBJECTIVE

The authors sought to determine the antiseizure effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the parahippocampal cortex (PHC) for treatment of drug-resistant mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE).

METHODS

After a 3-month baseline period, 6 adult patients with drug-resistant MTLE and hippocampal sclerosis (HS) had stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG)–DBS electrodes implanted at the PHC for identification of the seizure onset zone (SOZ). Patients entered an 8-month, randomized, double-blind protocol for DBS, followed by a 12-month open-phase study. Monthly reports of seizure frequency were collected, with separate counting of focal seizures with or without awareness impairment (focal impaired awareness seizures [FIAS] or focal aware seizures [FAS], respectively) and focal evolving to bilateral generalized tonic clonic seizures (GTCS). Stimulation parameters were 130 Hz, 450 μsec, 2.5–3 V, and cyclic stimulation 1 minute on/4 minutes off.

RESULTS

The total seizure rate decrement during follow-up was 41% (CI 25%–56%), with better seizure control for GTCS (IQR 19%–20%) and FIAS (IQR 0%–16%), with FAS being less responsive (IQR 67%–236%). No neuropsychological deterioration was observed.

CONCLUSIONS

PHC DBS induced important antiseizure effects in patients with incapacitating FIAS and GTCS, most likely through blocking the propagation of hippocampal-onset seizures. The PHC target can be easily and safely approached due to positioning away from vascular structures, and there was no evidence of DBS-induced cognitive deterioration.

Restricted access

James P. Wondra II, Michael P. Kelly, Elizabeth L. Yanik, Jacob K. Greenberg, Justin S. Smith, Shay Bess, Christopher I. Shaffrey, Lawrence G. Lenke, and Keith Bridwell

OBJECTIVE

Adult symptomatic lumbar scoliosis (ASLS) is a widespread and debilitating subset of adult spinal deformity. Although many patients benefit from operative treatment, surgery entails substantial cost and risk for adverse events. Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are patient-centered tools used to evaluate the appropriateness of surgery and to assist in the shared decision-making process. Framing realistic patient expectations should include the possible functional limitation to improvement inherent in surgical intervention, such as multilevel fusion to the sacrum. The authors’ objective was to predict postoperative ASLS PROMs by using clustering analysis, generalized longitudinal regression models, percentile analysis, and clinical improvement analysis of preoperative health-related quality-of-life scores for use in surgical counseling.

METHODS

Operative results from the combined ASLS cohorts were examined. PROM score clustering after surgery investigated limits of surgical improvement. Patients were categorized by baseline disability (mild, moderate, moderate to severe, or severe) according to preoperative Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)–22 and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores. Responder analysis for patients achieving improvement meeting the minimum clinically important difference (MCID) and substantial clinical benefit (SCB) standards was performed using both fixed-threshold and patient-specific values (MCID = 30% of remaining scale, SCB = 50%). Best (top 5%), worst (bottom 5%), and median scores were calculated across disability categories.

RESULTS

A total of 171/187 (91%) of patients with ASLS achieved 2-year follow-up. Patients rarely achieved a PROM ceiling for any measure, with 33%–43% of individuals clustering near 4.0 for SRS domains. Patients with severe baseline disability (< 2.0) SRS-pain and SRS-function scores were often left with moderate to severe disability (2.0–2.9), unlike patients with higher (≥ 3.0) initial PROM values. Patients with mild disability according to baseline SRS-function score were unlikely to improve. Crippling baseline ODI disability (> 60) commonly left patients with moderate disability (median ODI = 32). As baseline ODI disability increased, patients were more likely to achieve MCID and SCB (p < 0.001). Compared to fixed threshold values for MCID and SCB, patient-specific values were more sensitive to change for patients with minimal ODI baseline disability (p = 0.008) and less sensitive to change for patients with moderate to severe SRS subscore disability (p = 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS

These findings suggest that ASLS surgeries have a limit to possible improvement, probably due to both baseline disability and the effects of surgery. The most disabled patients often had moderate to severe disability (SRS < 3, ODI > 30) at 2 years, emphasizing the importance of patient counseling and expectation management.